Premium Essay

Classical Principles of Argumentation

In: Other Topics

Submitted By dalami81
Words 796
Pages 4
Classical Principles of Argumentation
In the essay “Reminders of Poverty, Soon Forgotten” the author Alexander Keyssar uses classical principles of argumentation. He uses ethos, which is the character of the speaker; he uses logos, which is an appeal based on logic or reason; and he uses pathos, which is an appeal based on emotions. His piece is over poverty and what came from Hurricane Katrina and the aftermath for the people. He also discusses what other events in history have contributed to poverty, and how nothing is being done about it by the government.
He begins in part 1 using pathos, “ There they were on our television screens, the storm’s most desperate victims- disproportionately poor and black, wading through muddy water, carrying children and plastic bags containing a few meager possessions.” This was his view of the people that were left in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. In part 6 of his work, “But there is no crescendo of national public opinion about the presence of millions of poor people in our midst, and President Bush has not announced the creation of a national task force to combat poverty.” This part to me shows that he is not happy with what President Bush has not done for the people that are battling poverty. Part 9, “Poverty, however, is not a technical issue, but a deep, structural problem that implicates our values, our economic institutions, and our conception of the proper role of the state.” This shows his views on what poverty is.
This author uses logos starting in part 3 “While taxes were cut, public infrastructure-like the levees- was eroding, and an already frayed safety net was disintegrating.” The author is using the taxes being cut as his appeal to get his point across about the way things were being done, before Hurricane Katrina. These are things that could have been fixed and possibly prevented. In part 4,…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Organizational Structure

...Classical Principles of Argument Orenthsis Singleton 215-Eng September 30, 2014 Ms. Cassandra Baker Classical Principles of Argument Classical principle of argument is writing a persuasive, argumentative, or when making a claim. A synthesis, which is bringing two or more arguments together, allowing for comparison/con- trast, rebuttal, or accumulation of mutually supporting points (Siphane 1). Environmentalism as religion is an essay that describe how close net environmentalism is to religion. They both are about the faith and belief a person has in either one. The contrast between the two is that religious is the faith and belief in God through our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. Environmentalism has its belief and faith but in a theory, that views environment rather than heredity as the important factor in the development of an individual or group. For example, the “The Big Bang Theory” which is a theory that the universe originated sometimes between 10 billion and 20 billion years ago from the cataclysmic explosion of a small volume matter at extremely high density and temperature (Merriam-Webster, 2014). This belief surely gives credit to the belief of an atheist. How Author used Classical Principles of Argumentation Ethos is use in the essay to give credit to the author Michael Crichton for a best selling author. This author has wrote novels that has turn into movies. The novels that has been movies has been movies box hits. One of......

Words: 698 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Term Paper

...ARGUMENTATION ESSAY: ANALYSIS I. CONTENT 1. A) What proposition is being argued? B) Is it clearly stated? 2. A) What is the author’s position? B) Is it clearly stated or implied? 3. A) Are the supporting points clearly stated? B) Are they supported? (Do each point separately) II. METHOD (Do each point separately) 1. What types of evidence are used as support? 2. Is the evidence appropriate? 3. Does the author present enough evidence on each point to be convincing? III. DICTION & PERSONA 1. A) Does the author present a Persona that seems authoritative? That is, do you believe s/he knows what s/he is talking about? B) If yes, what techniques does the author use that help create the sense of authority? If no, what techniques does the author use that prevent the creation of a sense of authority? 2. A) Describe the Persona adopted by the author (or what the author seems to be trying to create). B) What methods does s/he use to create it? C) Give examples of each method you identify. D) Which methods (if any) are effective? Why? 3. A) State other rhetorical strategies the author uses to persuade – especially look for appeals & empathy techniques. B) Give examples of each technique. C) For each device, state whether it is used effectively & explain why. IV.......

Words: 407 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

“How Can Logic Best Be Applied to Arguments?”

... | March 10 2015 | | | Abstract This talk surveys a number of methods currently being developed that assist in applying logic to the evaluation of arguments used in particular cases. A case is seen as speci_ed by a given text and context of discourse. The methods used are pragmatic, and are based on the Gricean Cooperative Principle (CP), as implemented in several types of goal-directed conversational exchanges. Abstract This talk surveys a number of methods currently being developed that assist in applying logic to the evaluation of arguments used in particular cases. A case is seen as speci_ed by a given text and context of discourse. The methods used are pragmatic, and are based on the Gricean Cooperative Principle (CP), as implemented in several types of goal-directed conversational exchanges. “HOW CAN LOGIC BEST BE APPLIED TO ARGUMENTS?” INTRODUCTION How can logic best be applied to arguments? The goal of this address is to extend the boundaries of the subject known as logic towards the task of evaluating arguments as found in given cases of natural language argumentation. Of course, recently in philosophy, many influential voices are saying precisely that it is not possible to carry out this task (in an objective way that would be suitable for use in logic). I will argue that it can be done, or at least that there are resources available that can be brought to bear to show this task is quite possible and doable......

Words: 5702 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

Reminders of Poverty, Soon Forgotten

...Keyssar’s Reminders of Poverty, Soon Forgotten Amanda Collier ENG/215 September 3, 2012 Bruce Massis In this writing the classical principles of argumentation – Ethos, Pathos, and Logos will be observed as it is used in “Reminders of Poverty, Soon Forgotten by Alexander Keyssar.” These arguments are used to persuade the reader to think that the writer’s ideas are the best ideas. Before going into whether or not Keyssar used these principles in his writing, it is important to understand what each of the three principles mean. In the principle of Ethos, or ethical appeal, it is used to persuade the audience or reader of the authors creditability. The Merriam-Webster dictionary describes Ethos as “the distinguishing character, sentiment, moral nature, or guiding beliefs of a person, group, or institution”. Ethos is using language that appeals to the topic and to the readers by using the correct vocabulary. This makes the author more crediable and evenhanded so that the readers believe the writers point of view. Pathos principle, emotion, is used to win over a reader by using their emotional convictions. Merriam-Webster describes this one as using pity or compassion. The author tries to persuade the reader emotionally to feel the same way they do and to identify with the author’s opinion. The principle of Logos is logical; this appeals the reader’s logic and reasoning. The author uses ways to make the reader think of the explanation......

Words: 794 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Kant's Categorical Imperative

...more justifiable and therefore more usefuli. I The Synthesis of Rationalism and Empiricism The philosophy of Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) is in the main inspired by two different schools of thought. Classical rationalism and classical empiricism. The basic difference between classical rationalism and empiricism is that they have opposing views on questions concerning the prime sources of knowledge and the constitutive role of reason. Rationalism traditionally maintains that it is possible to obtain knowledge by reason alone, that everything is in principle explicable by reason, that knowledge forms a single system, and that reason is deductive in character, starting with general concepts and claims. Empiricism on the other hand traditionally maintains that scientific knowledge is obtained by experience and is skeptical about all-embracing metaphysical systems. To empiricists reason is inductive in character, starting with sensations and observation. Empirical knowledge is therefore delineated by the possibility of sensations, observations and experiments. Immanuel Kant’s three famous critiques: Critique of Pure Reason (1781), Critique of Practical Reason (1788), and Critique of Judgement (1790) can be seen as suggesting a synthesis between the positions of classical rationalism and empiricism. The cognitive core of this synthesis is to be found in his concept of synthetic a priori knowledge, it’s normative core is to be found in the categorical imperative.......

Words: 10855 - Pages: 44

Free Essay

Enviromentalism

...How to Take Environmentalism Back from a Religion Crichton wrote about a concern for the environment with Environmentalism becoming a religion as opposed to a scientific field. He uses all of the classical principles of argumentation to support his argument about the religion of environmentalism. By using ethos, pathos, and logos, he makes a strong argument. Through his descriptions, he uses some fact and some emotion to give reason why this religion should be disbanded. He shows emotion, or pathos, through his comparison of the Judeo-Christian religion to the Environmentalism Religion, stating: The reason that I have no wish to debate these convictions is that I know that I cannot. These are not facts that can be argued; these are issues of faith. So it is, sadly, with environmentalism. Increasingly, it seems, facts are not necessary because the tenets of environmentalism are all about belief" (P. 595 para 5-6). Crichton has an emotional connection to his argument. He feels deeply about the amount of environmentalism becoming fantasy instead of being strictly composed of fact. As a student of anthropology, he learned about what makes up religion, leading to his belief of environmentalism becoming more a religion than a science. (p. 594, para 3) He finds many connections between Christianity and Environmentalism. Crichton relates The Garden of Eden to an Environmentalists idea of a Paradise. When discussing the idea behind the resources for our planet, the writer......

Words: 725 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Rhetoric vs Sophistry

...to the Sophist Protagoras (Patrick, 2006). Others Sophists of note include Gorgias, Prodicus, Hippias and Thrasymachus – quoted in Plato’s Republic as saying “… ‘Just’ or ‘right’ means nothing but what is to the interest of the stronger party” (Plato & Lane, 2007)). West and Turner’s account of the Rhetoric show that the first teachers of Rhetoric were the "Sophists”, who were nomadic teachers of public speaking that were respected for their intellect and subsequently paid highly for their teachings. A modern understanding of Sophistic philosophy can be described by author and activist Rahul Easwar’s quote “The real fight is not between right and wrong; the real fight is between my right and your right”. Mailloux explains Plato and his (classical and contemporary) sympathizers’ contempt for Sophism and dismissal of the same as a perversion of truth because it emphasized application of relative and practical knowledge rather than virtue. Indeed, Plato is regarded as being largely responsible for the modern view of Sophist as greedy and power-seeking instructors, and today’s view of Sophism (or Sophistry) as deceptive and full of fallacious reasoning. The author quotes the modern philosopher Dinesh D’Souza who is of the view that neopragmatism, or the mastery of “sophistic relativism and nihilism” in the present day would: By no means lead to increased knowledge of how things are, but only to the ability to play games with people, tripping them up and flooring them with......

Words: 2288 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Asdfghjkl

...distinctions in Alipato 109 arguments and as solutions to these issues also require logical and critical thinking (p.88). These skills also help students keep an open mind in the face of conflicting ideas or opposing views and “seek solutions that meet standards of coherence and reasonableness” (ibid.). Doronila (1998) highlights the fact that students need to develop a “range of skills and competencies which would enable them to live and work as human persons, develop their potential, make critical and informed decisions, and function effectively in society”. Her study on the Philippine educational system emphasizes the country’s need to teach its students functional literacy skills, which include the skills to make good decisions on issues. Classical literature written about the teachings of Socrates, and even writings of Plato, Aristotle, and other medieval and modern thinkers on student learning and their acquisition of knowledge, have noted the importance of reasoning skills in the analysis of academic and life issues (Kleinig, 1982; Ozmon & Craver, 1995; Moore & Bruder, 1996). To date, various authors have emphasized students’ need for skills that would help them make valid decisions on their tasks (Honer & Hunt, 1996; Ibe, 1999; Paul & Elder, 2006). Local studies (Muega, 2003; Acuna, 2000; Orteza, 1999) have also stressed the need for students to acquire reasoning skills that would enable them to think critically and to make the right decisions claims on issues.......

Words: 4815 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

Paper

...is achieved by the speaker's personal character when the speech is so spoken as to make us think him credible. Secondly, persuasion may come through the hearers, when the speech stirs their emotions. Thirdly, persuasion is effected through the speech itself when we have proved a truth or an apparent truth by means of the persuasive arguments suitable to the case in question. MYTHOS: a set of beliefs or assumptions about something. LOGOS: Logos (Logical) means persuading by the use of reasoning. This will be the most important technique we will study, and Aristotle's favorite. We'll look at deductive and inductive reasoning, and discuss what makes an effective, persuasive reason to back up your claims. Giving reasons is the heart of argumentation, and cannot be emphasized enough. We'll study the types of support you can use to substantiate your thesis, and look at some of the common logical fallacies, in order to avoid them in your writing. Who was THALES? Was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Miletus in Asia Minor and one of the Seven Sages of Greece. What separated Thales from others? Empedocles Compare Logos versus mythos: The Greek words from which our English words “logical” and “mythical” have been derived, logos and mythos. Both Greek words can be translated as something like “story” or “account”. Mythical thinking and logical thinking both provide an account of the world, but they do so in very different ways. Those using logical thinking approach the......

Words: 2781 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Esek Hhd

...distinctions in Alipato 109 arguments and as solutions to these issues also require logical and critical thinking (p.88). These skills also help students keep an open mind in the face of conflicting ideas or opposing views and “seek solutions that meet standards of coherence and reasonableness” (ibid.). Doronila (1998) highlights the fact that students need to develop a “range of skills and competencies which would enable them to live and work as human persons, develop their potential, make critical and informed decisions, and function effectively in society”. Her study on the Philippine educational system emphasizes the country’s need to teach its students functional literacy skills, which include the skills to make good decisions on issues. Classical literature written about the teachings of Socrates, and even writings of Plato, Aristotle, and other medieval and modern thinkers on student learning and their acquisition of knowledge, have noted the importance of reasoning skills in the analysis of academic and life issues (Kleinig, 1982; Ozmon & Craver, 1995; Moore & Bruder, 1996). To date, various authors have emphasized students’ need for skills that would help them make valid decisions on their tasks (Honer & Hunt, 1996; Ibe, 1999; Paul & Elder, 2006). Local studies (Muega, 2003; Acuna, 2000; Orteza, 1999) have also stressed the need for students to acquire reasoning skills that would enable them to think critically and to make the right decisions claims on issues.......

Words: 4815 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Diversity

...access during your writing activities.ENG106_The Writing Process Powerpoint.pptx 4. Turnitin ResourceRefer to this resource for information on Turnitin.ENG106_TurnItIn Resource.docx 5. Transitions ResourcePlease review this resource for suggestions of transitions to utilize within your writing. ENG106_TransitionsResource.docx 6. First-Third Person MediaView the First-Third Media presentation to review the differences between using First and Third person in your writing.http://lc.gcumedia.com/zwebassets/courseMaterialPages/eng105_firstThirdPerson.php | Topics [Collapse All] Duration: 7 days Topic 1: Introduction to Argumentation Objectives: 1. Explain strategies of argumentation as forms of inquiry. 2. Construct claims to focus argumentation on a purpose. 3. Analyze how writers influence an audience through expressed and implied argumentation. 4. Use the stasis theory as a vehicle of invention/inquiry. Topic Material: Textbook1. Finding Purpose Through Argumentative Writing Read chapters 1 and 3 in the textbook. http://gcumedia.com/digital-resources/grand-canyon-university/2015/finding-purpose-through-argumentative-writing_ebook_1e.php Electronic Resource1. Topic 1 Essential Readings Use the document, Topic 1 Essential Readings, to identify the topic's reading list. ENG106_Topic 1 Essential Readings.docx 2. Flashcard Deck Utilize the flashcard deck to review key terms and......

Words: 5399 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Logic & Fallacies

...to follow necessarily from the premises. Inductive argument: the conclusion is probably true. Unfortunately, in most arguments the distinction is not explicit. We then need to evaluate the argument according to: 1. special indicator words 2. actual strength of inferential link 3. form of argumentation Some forms of deduction · Mathematics (e.g. 2 + 3 = 5) · Definition (e.g. a paragraph is prolix, therefore it is excessively wordy) · categorical syllogism (e.g. all are; some are; therefore some are) · hypothetical syllogism (e.g. if; if; therefore) · disjunctive syllogism (e.g. one premise is an "either" "or" statement) Some forms of induction · predictions · analogy · generalisation · authority · signs · causal inference Validity, truth, soundness, strength, cogency Note: these primarily relate to inferential claim, not factual claim 1. Deduction Valid if, assuming premises are true, conclusion cannot be false. Sound, if valid and premises are all true 2. Induction Strong, if probable, assuming true premises Cogent, if strong and all premises are true Validity and invalidity -- some principles Principle of charity: interpret the argument helpfully so that it seems to make sense Enthymeme = where the premises needed for validity are stated only tacitly There are some basic forms of validity All valid arguments are deductive; all deductive arguments are valid If invalid, may still be strong......

Words: 2057 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

International Political Economy

...from the truth. It will be demonstrated that the property theory implicit in socialism does not normally pass even the first decisive test (the necessary if not sufficient condition) required of rules of human conduct which claim to be morally justified or justifiable. This test, as formulated in the so-called golden rule or, similarly, in the Kantian categorical imperative, requires that in order to be just, a rule must be a general one applicable to every single person in the same way. The rule cannot specify different rights or obligations for different categories of people (one for the red-headed, and one for others, or one for women and a different one for men), as such a “particularistic” rule, naturally, could never, not even in principle, be accepted as a fair rule by everyone. Particularistic rules, however, of the type “I can hit you, but you are not allowed to hit me,” are, as will become clear in the course of this treatise, at the very base of all practiced forms of socialism. Not only economically but in the field of morals, too, socialism turns out to be an ill-conceived system of social organization. Again, in spite of its bad public reputation, it is capitalism, a social system based squarely on the recognition of private property and of contractual relations between owners of private property, that wins outright. It will be demonstrated that the property theory implicit in capitalism not only passes the first test of “universalization” but it turns out to be......

Words: 92669 - Pages: 371

Premium Essay

Consumer Behaviour

... • REINFORCEMENT: “A positive or negative outcome that influences the likelihood that a specific behavior will be repeated in the future in response to a particular cue or stimulus”. It increases the likelihood that a specific response will occur in the future as the result of particular cues or stimuli. Through positive reinforcement, learning has taken place. BEHAVIORAL LEARNING THEORIES: ⇨ Behavioral learning theories are sometimes referred to as stimulus-response theories because they are based on the premise that observable responses to specific external stimuli signal that learning has taken place. ❖ CLASSICAL CONDITIONING: ⇨ “A behavioral learning theory according to which a stimulus is paired with another stimulus that elicits a known response that serves to produce the same response when used alone”. ⇨ Early classical conditioning theorists regarded all organisms as relatively entities that could be taught certain behaviors through repetition or conditioning. The word conditioning mean a kind of “knee-jerk” or automatic response to a situation built up through repeated exposure. E.g., If you get a headache every time you think of visiting a doctor. Pavlov’s demonstration of conditioned learning in his studies with dogs is also a good example of it. ⇨ An unconditioned stimulus might consists of a well-known brand symbol (such as Neutrogena name) that implies demonstration of dermatologists’ endorsement and pure. This previously acquired......

Words: 5402 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Design Abstracts

...tendency to grasp design as a whole with respect to particular style or trend without fully apprehending the core and the deviation. Perceiving the entire design project as a mere symbolic expression also hinders our true understanding of design and culture. In this article, I attempt to answer fundamental questions regarding the complex, innate relationship between design and culture and suggest restructuring a conceptual framework applicable to related research and education that effectively reveals the multi faceted characteristics of design and culture in the present age. From the perspective of morphology, current individual design practice can be redefined as one entity comprising two coexisting components: One is a set of particular principles that construe a certain design pattern or type of design practice, and the other is another set of morphed elements embedded in design that reflects the context. The conceptual framework on which this article is based derives from George Kubler’s morphological approach to the history of things and the biological approach to understanding archetypes. Kubler views the history of things as a “system of interlocking, reciprocally supporting routines of course drifts and sways, and swells and shrink, in response to many conditions.” The biological approach to understanding types helps us interpret Kubler’s idea of core signals and mutants. In this article, I will discuss (a) the main signal of a design type that transmits the......

Words: 9501 - Pages: 39