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Classification Tests for Hydroxyl- and Carbonyl- Containing Organic Compounds

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CLASSIFICATION TESTS FOR HYDROXYL- AND CARBONYL-
CONTAINING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Group 3 2H Medical Technology Organic Chemistry Laboratory
ABSTRACT
Classification of Hydroxyl and Carbonyl containing compounds was done through different tests. The samples were n-butyl alcohol, sec-butyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol, acetaldehyde, n-butyraldehyde, benzaldehyde, acetone, acetophenone, and isopropyl alcohol. Each of the samples were tested through solubility test of alcohols in water, Lucas test, Chromic acid test or the Jones oxidation test, 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazone (2,4-DNP) test, Fehling’s test, Tollens’ silver mirror test, and Iodoform test. Solubility test of alcohols in water was used to determine the amount of water needed for it to produce a homogenous dispersion and determine whether what kind of alcohol is soluble and insoluble in water. Lucas test was used to differentiate primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols. Chromic acid test was used to determine if the sample is oxidized and can also be used to differentiate ketones from aldehydes. 2, 4-Dinitrophenylhydrazone test was used to differentiate aldehydes and ketones. Fehling’s test and Tollens’ silver mirror test was used to determine whether the sample is an aldehyde. Lastly, Iodoform test was used for classification of methyl ketones.

INTRODUCTION Hydroxyl compounds are those containing the hydroxyl group –OH. They can be classified into primary(1o), secondary(2o), tertiary(3o) alcohols, and phenol. Primary alcohols are those in which the hydroxyl group is attached to the carbon with only one carbon attached. Secondary alcohols are compounds in which the -OH is attached to a carbon which has two other carbons attached to it. Tertiary alcohols are compounds in which a hydroxyl group is attached to a carbon with three attached carbons to it [1]. Carbonyl compounds refer to a divalent…...

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