Free Essay

Clausewitz in the 21st Century

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By sabermiku
Words 7711
Pages 31
Strategy Research Project

CLAUSEWITZ AND 21ST CENTURY WARFARE
BY
COLONEL CHRISTOPHER J. PAPAJ United States Marine Corps

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A:
Approved for Public Release. Distribution is Unlimited.

USAWC CLASS OF 2008

This SRP is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Master of Strategic Studies Degree. The views expressed in this student academic research paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government.

U.S. Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, PA 17013-5050

Report Documentation Page

Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188

Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number.

1. REPORT DATE

2. REPORT TYPE

3. DATES COVERED

15 MAR 2008
4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE

Strategy Research Project

00-00-2007 to 00-00-2008
5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

Clausewitz and 21st Century Warfare

6. AUTHOR(S)

5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER

Christopher Papaj

7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)

U.S. Army War College ,122 Forbes Ave.,Carlisle,PA,17013-5220
9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)

8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S)

12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT

Approved for public release; distribution unlimited
13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT

See attached
15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF:
a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE

17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

18. NUMBER OF PAGES

19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON

unclassified

unclassified

unclassified

Same as Report (SAR)

28

Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98)
Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18

The U.S. Army War College is accredited by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle State Association of Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an institutional accrediting agency recognized by the U.S. Secretary of Education and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation.

USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT

CLAUSEWITZ AND 21ST CENTURY WARFARE

by

Colonel Christopher J. Papaj United States Marine Corps

Colonel Keith Ferrell Project Adviser

This SRP is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Master of Strategic Studies Degree. The U.S. Army War College is accredited by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an institutional accrediting agency recognized by the U.S. Secretary of Education and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation. The views expressed in this student academic research paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. U.S. Army War College CARLISLE BARRACKS, PENNSYLVANIA 17013

ABSTRACT AUTHOR: TITLE: FORMAT: DATE: KEY TERMS: Colonel Christopher J. Papaj Clausewitz and 21st Century Warfare Strategy Research Project 24 March 2008 WORD COUNT: 6,018 PAGES: 27

Irregular Warfare, Trinity, Center of Gravity

CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified

The theories of Carl von Clausewitz remain relevant in the war against terrorism because globalization has blurred the Westphalian definition of a nation-state. If the United States were to examine its trinity from an adversary’s point of view, it would see vulnerabilities within each leg of the trinity. In addition, the United States would see that its center of gravity rests within the will of the people. The United States needs to take action to strengthen its trinity and protect its center of gravity. Actions taken in one area will affect all areas of the trinity. Therefore, the United States needs to change its strategic message from one of advancing democracies to one that supports governments which provide for freedom, justice, human dignity, and open capitalistic markets. The United States needs to properly organize, train, and equip its military for the current environment while educating the American public and the world on its new message through a well-organized information operations campaign.

CLAUSEWITZ AND 21ST CENTURY WARFARE

Once considered the unquestionable bastion of contemporary strategic thought, the theories of Carl von Clausewitz have recently come under attack because of the changes in warfare in the 21st century. While no one will debate that his theories are not thought provoking, many will argue that his writings no longer apply as a universal theory in today’s climate of insurgent warfare. Many theorists and strategists, such as John Keegan, have discounted Clausewitz and his theories of war as archaic and of little value to the study of modern warfare, specifically when trying to apply them to insurgencies such as Al Qaeda. 1 They argue that, having focused on the Westphalia model, Clausewitz’s writings do not apply to insurgencies nor do they apply to warfare waged by identities other than nation-states. While Clausewitz may not have specifically addressed insurgency warfare involving non-state actors, a close examination of the war on terror demonstrates that Carl von Clausewitz’s theories remain relevant because of globalization. Additionally, as is often the case with the American way of thinking, Americans only look at a problem from their own point of view. For example, if Americans were to broaden their perspective to encompass the adversary’s point of view, they could see how Clausewitz’s theories of the trinity and the center of gravity remain relevant and useful in today’s environment of fourth generation warfare. Moreover, when this approach is taken, it identifies potential American vulnerabilities in the current conflict with Al Qaeda. Warfare in the 21st Century Warfare has evolved over the past 176 years since Carl von Clausewitz wrote his manuscripts, which became known as the book, On War. The world has seen a shift

from massive conventional forces focused on major force-on-force conflict between established states to smaller forces of non-state actors challenging traditional states with irregular and asymmetrical warfare techniques. William Lind describes this change in warfare as an evolution of warfare by generations. The first generation of warfare, which encompassed the life of Clausewitz, ran from 1648 up until the 1860’s and was characterized by state-run wars. The battlefield was orderly, and militaries fought in formations of lines and columns against each other. As technology in weapon production and effectiveness improved, order on the battlefield began to break down. The idea of fighting in formations of lines and columns became obsolete. During World War I, warfare morphed into its second generation, that of attrition warfare through the massing of firepower. Order was again restored to the battlefield and the world witnessed the result, trench warfare. This generation of warfare lasted until the outbreak of World War II when it again morphed, becoming the third generation of warfare, maneuver warfare. Germany introduced this new generation of warfare with the advent of Blitzkrieg. Instead of a linear battlefield advancing into a defended position, the battlefield became non-linear where a force could maneuver around an adversary and collapse it from the rear. The most recent change in conflict has been the transition to the fourth generation of warfare. This generation of warfare is characterized by a shift from the states having a monopoly on warfighting to the rise of the non-state actor, like Al Qaeda, participating in irregular and asymmetrical warfare with traditional states. 2 Clausewitz and Globalization Clausewitz’s theories remain relevant today because globalization has blurred the definition of a nation-state. Clausewitz theorized in On War that war was only existent

2

among nation-states because nation-states were the only identities capable of conducting policy, and war was a continuation of policy by other means. 3 John Keegan and others argue that since the international community does not recognize Al Qaeda as a state, Clausewitzian theory cannot apply to Al Qaeda, and thus his theories must be irrelevant in the current war on terrorism. However, Clausewitz’s theories are relevant today because globalization has blurred the definition of a nation-state, and non-state actors like Al Qaeda have risen in power and display all the characteristics traditionally associated with the Westphalian definition. Clausewitz developed his theories based on the definition of a nation-state as described by the treaties of Westphalia. Scholars attribute the origin of our modern nation-state system to the 1648 Peace of Westphalia. 4 The combined treaties, referred to as the Peace of Westphalia, established the sovereignty of a nation-state in the absolute sense. 5 These treaties not only established borders for each nation-state, but also gave international recognition of the right of the nation-state to exist. After the Peace of Westphalia treaties, theorists categorized conflicts as either internal civil wars or wars between states. William Lind would assert this was the first generation of warfare. Globalization, however, has enabled the rise of the non-state actor to levels of organization that rival that of the traditional state. Author T. L. Friedman provides an excellent definition of globalization in his book, The Lexus and the Olive Tree, where he describes globalization as, “…the inexorable integration of markets, nation-states, and technologies to a degree never witnessed before - in a way that is enabling individuals, corporations and nation-states to reach around the world farther, faster, deeper and

3

cheaper than ever before.” 6 Farther, faster, deeper, and cheaper than ever before…people from all over the world are able to communicate via voice or text, trade commodities, recruit, share ideas and beliefs, and influence communities and nations instantly with very little overhead and without regard for internationally recognized borders. Globalization has enabled people of like minds to join in the pursuit of common goals. Whereas in the past, a movement or incident was isolated to a particular geographic region because of communication limitations, the media can now report and discuss it today in near-real time anywhere around the world. Additionally, prior to globalization, it required the organizational capability and capacity of a nation-state to acquire, assemble, and implement the necessary items to conduct and wage war. The informational advances of the past 30 years have, however, changed all that. The revolution in technology and globalization has enabled non-state actors, like Al Qaeda, to acquire the knowledge, equipment, and instruments necessary to wage war against a nation-state. For example, this easy access to resources and information has enabled Al Qaeda to promulgate its message, recruit, equip, train, and gain valuable information that previously was unavailable; it has helped them grow in power and influence. With the benefits of the information age and globalization, the nonstate actor is capable of accomplishing these tasks and competing with the traditional states in international domains. Given the power and influence non-state actors display today, Clausewitz would certainly recognize them as capable of waging war. The Trinity and Center of Gravity Clausewitz theorized that war is a paradoxical trinity composed of a relationship between the government, the army, and the people. He theorized that a state must

4

maintain a balance between these three identities to be successful in war. 7 What may be missed by the casual observer is the intertwining of all three identities. Clausewitz suggests that these three variables are dependant on one another, and any action taken to affect one will affect the others. 8 There is much debate on the precise translation of this section of On War and what Clausewitz actually meant when he described his vision of the trinity. For the purposes of this paper, Christopher Bassford and Edward J. Villacres provide an adequate description of the relationship in their article published in Parameters in autumn 1995. In this article, they suggest that Clausewitz is describing three categories of forces: irrational forces (violent emotion), non-rational forces (forces not the product of human thought or intent), and rationality (war's subordination to reason). They further explain the relationship: The people are paired mainly with irrational forces--the emotions of primordial violence, hatred, and enmity (or, by implication, the lack thereof--clearly, it is quite possible to fight and even win wars about which one's people don't give a damn, especially if that is the case on both sides.) The army (which refers, of course, to military forces in general) and its commander are paired mainly with the non-rational forces of friction, chance, and probability. Fighting organizations deal with those factors under the creative guidance of the commander (and creativity depends on something more than mere rationality, including, hopefully, the divine spark of talent or genius). The government is paired mainly with the rational force of calculation-policy is, ideally, driven by reason. 9 Using this definition of the trinity, the United States can, when examining itself from the point of view of an adversary, begin to see vulnerabilities in each element of the trinity and can identify how Al Qaeda or any other adversary could target the United States and disrupt the balance. More importantly, once the United States has identified what its vulnerabilities are in the trinity, it can take actions to mitigate or eliminate them. 5

Government Vulnerabilities Since all three legs of the trinity are interrelated and any action affecting one will affect the others, exploited vulnerabilities within the government will erode the confidence of the American people and the military. When viewed from an Al Qaeda perspective, this element of the United States’ trinity appears vulnerable in three areas. First, to remain in power, government must demonstrate that it can protect it citizens from terrorist attacks. Second, the current administration’s policy of promoting democracy throughout the world portrays the United States as being hegemonic. Finally, the United States needs international support and coalition partners to successfully prosecute the war on terror. These three areas present seams or areas that Al Qaeda can target and exploit. In the first instance, the United States government must demonstrate that it is capable of defending its citizens both abroad and at home. If the American people ever perceive that their government is incapable of protecting them from terrorist attacks they will begin to lose faith in the government and the American trinity will begin to collapse. Al Qaeda has made numerous attempts to promote the perception that the United States government cannot protect its service members or its people. For example, Al Qaeda used the attacks on the U.S. Embassies in Tanzania and Kenya Africa on 7 August 1998 to demonstrate that United States diplomats and citizens overseas were vulnerable to attack. 10 More dramatically, Al Qaeda attempted to exploit the United States government’s vulnerability within the trinity by attacking the homeland on September 11, 2001. While these attacks did embarrass the government and promoted the perception that the government could not protect its people, they failed to produce the desired result, which was to erode the public’s support of the government. The 6

American people galvanized in support of the government and the trinity strengthened. However, this element of the trinity still remains vulnerable to attack and erosion. America’s support for the government’s actions in the war on terror has declined over the past five years. For example, in March 2003 just after the United States invaded Iraq, the New York Times, in conjunction with CBS News, conducted a poll and asked Americans the following question, “Do you think removing Saddam Hussein from power is worth the potential loss of American life and the other costs of attacking Iraq, or not?” Forty-six percent of Americans surveyed answered they thought it was worth the cost. 11 Five years later the New York Times and CBS News conducted another poll asking Americans, “Do you think the result of the war with Iraq was worth the loss of American life and other costs of attacking Iraq, or not?" Only 29% of Americans believed it was worth the cost. 12 Just by keeping the United States engaged in conflict, Al Qaeda is able to affect the will of the people and erode the people’s support of the government. The second area of vulnerability for the United States, when its trinity is viewed from the perspective of Al Qaeda, is the current United States government policy that promotes democracy throughout the world. For example, page three of the United States National Security Strategy states, “…promoting democracy is the most effective long-term measure of strengthening international stability….” 13 This policy is a vulnerability to the United States because it provides Al Qaeda with some degree of evidence that the United States desires to impose its form of government on the rest of the world. Al Qaeda uses that policy to incite fear in the Muslim communities, spreading the propaganda that the United States wants to impose its culture, values, and beliefs on them and convert their homelands into mini-Americas. While this is not the intent of

7

current United States policy, the perception that the United States intends to spread “American democracy” fuels Al Qaeda’s bravado and provides it with an avenue to attack the governmental policies of the United States. The third area the United States government is vulnerable to is its need for international support and coalition partners in the current war on terrorism. While the United States is capable of acting alone, it is in its best interest to gain the support of the international community. For instance, in the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts, the United States relies on supportive countries like Kuwait and Turkey for the staging and basing of forces and for over flight rights from the Mediterranean. Without the support of these countries, the United States would have an extremely difficult time executing operations in the region. Additionally, the United States relies on its coalition to help with the burden of load of force requirements in the war on terror. The trinity is vulnerable if an adversary can weaken the support of coalition forces and the international community. Al Qaeda has targeted the United States’ coalition partners and has exploited this vulnerability. For example, Al Qaeda conducted attacks on four commuter trains in Madrid on 11 March 2004, and both Spain and Honduras withdrew forces in support of the United States’ coalition. 14 Additionally, effects of pressure from Al Qaeda can be seen in Afghanistan as the United States is experiencing difficulty in securing sufficient combat arms from NATO countries in support of Operation ENDURING FREEDOM. 15 Military Vulnerabilities The military, too, is vulnerable when viewed through the perspective of an adversary with regard to the American trinity. Vulnerabilities identified relate to the way

8

the American military is trained, organized, and equipped. The United States’ military is trained, organized, and equipped for large conventional battle. For fifty years, the United States military had prepared to fight a large conventional war against the Soviet Union. Once the Soviet Union fell as a threat, the United States took a “peace dividend” and reduced the size of its force. Although the United States altered its force size, it did nothing to change how the force was organized, trained, or equipped. The United States did not adjust or adapt for the increased frequency of fourth generation warfare and the continued rise in power of non-state actors. Secretary of Defense, Donald H. Rumsfeld, began reorganizing the military to become a smaller, more efficient, more lethal force: one that could cope with and defeat an irregular and asymmetrical threat consistent with fourth generation warfare. 16 The concept was that the United States would project its military might from within its shores to where it saw fit throughout the world. 17 However, this reduction of forces has created additional vulnerability for the United States. The reduction of the United States Army has reduced its size to the point that it is incompatible with sustaining a protracted struggle against a fourth generation irregular and asymmetrical adversary. This is evident in both Iraq and Afghanistan as the Army is stretched so thin it must maintain 15-month deployments and rotations on a less than desirable dwell ratio, time between deployments. 18 These deployment lengths and shortened dwell ratio indicate that the United States military is currently stretched very thin or close to being over-committed and thus vulnerable to exploitation by an adversary. If Al Qaeda can force the United States to commit forces to another region in conflict and at the same time force the United States to maintain its current force structure in Iraq and Afghanistan, it can exploit this vulnerability and strain the American

9

military to the point of failure. Failure is defined as a lack of ability to maintain an adequate number of both recruits and veteran soldiers, as well as the eroding of public support for the war on terror. This trend of downward public support for the war on terror is evident in the most recent polls. A CBS/New York Times poll conducted between 15 and 17 March 2008 indicates that the American public is growing weary of the war on terror, and support for operations in Iraq and Afghanistan is at an all-time low. 19 People’s Vulnerabilities When assessing vulnerabilities in the trinity from an adversary’s point of view, the American people appear to be the most vulnerable. This element of the trinity is the most susceptible to outside influence and the easiest to manipulate. Furthermore, Americans can be influenced and manipulated by what they read in the press and see on television, both in a positive and negative manner. A well-coordinated information operation campaign can spread disinformation and confuse the American public as to what is true and what is fictitious. For example, Al Qaeda has executed an extremely effective information operation in which it promotes the perception that the United States cannot win the war on terror and that its military is losing in Iraq and Afghanistan. Al Qaeda publicizes at every opportunity the smallest tactical success it achieves anywhere in the world by using the internet, print, and television media. Since Americans have a tendency to believe what they read in the papers and see on television, it creates doubt that the United States is winning in the minds of many Americans and becomes the source of tremendous controversy and open debate. If an Al Qaeda can create doubt in the American public, then it can weaken the trinity and further advance its goal. This is a vulnerability of worth. The American public needs to

10

believe in what the government and military are undertaking and that the benefits will outweigh the cost. If in the public’s opinion, the cost outweighs the benefits, it will apply pressure on the government to change course. Clausewitz addressed this tendency in On War when he theorized that the political value of the object must not outweigh the cost of obtaining it. 20 This relationship between cost and benefit uncovers vulnerability within the people’s leg of the trinity that Al Qaeda can exploit. Furthermore, Al Qaeda has targeted American interest in an effort to persuade the United States that the benefit of fighting Al Qaeda is not worth the cost in national treasure, manpower, equipment, and dollars. For example, Al Qaeda has targeted American citizens throughout the world to weaken their support for the war on terror. In February 1998, Osama Bin Laden issued a joint declaration with the Islamic Group, Al Jihad, the Jihad Movement in Bangladesh, and the "Jamaat ul Ulema e Pakistan" under the banner of the "World Islamic Front” in which he stated that Muslims should kill Americans, including civilians anywhere in the world. 21 Al Qaeda began executing Osama Bin Laden’s directives and in its most notorious attack, Al Qaeda flew two planes into the World Trade Center and another into the Pentagon on the morning of September 11, 2001. Continuing its campaign, Al Qaeda affiliates detonated bombs in the tourist districts of Southern Bali in October 2002 killing over 220 civilians and injuring hundreds more; of those killed, six were American citizens. 22 Additionally, in June 2004, Al Qaeda operatives beheaded a United States contractor in Saudi Arabia. President George W. Bush responded by saying, "They're trying to shake our will; they're trying to get us to retreat from the world. America will not retreat. America will not be intimidated by these kinds of extremist thugs…." 23 While these actions did not achieve their goal of

11

persuading the United States that the cost of fighting terrorism outweighed the benefits, they have begun to erode support as indicated in the results of the CBS/New York Times poll. 24 Unfortunately, it appears the longer the United States has forces in Iraq and Afghanistan, the less likely it is for the people of the United States to support the effort. Al Qaeda, it appears, is cognizant of this vulnerability and is attempting to exploit it in its war against the United States. Being the most fragile and susceptible element of the trinity to outside influence, the people’s will becomes a very important element to protect; it is as Clausewitz would refer to as the “center of gravity” for the United States. Center of Gravity Clausewitz theorized that every nation or state has one characteristic that is the hub of all power and movement, on which everything depends. He stated that this source of power is the nation or state’s center of gravity. 25 He theorized that a belligerent should attempt to trace an enemy’s strength back to the fewest possible sources, but ideally, to a single source of power. 26 Once identified, the belligerent should focus all elements of power against that source. While it might be difficult for the United States to determine Al Qaeda’s center of gravity, Al Qaeda has certainly determined the United States’ center of gravity. Al Qaeda has correctly assessed the United States’ center of gravity as the will of the people to continue in a protracted and unpopular war. This is not a new phenomenon for the United States. Examining past conflicts provides three examples of how targeting the will of the people has brought about a failure of the United States to reach national objectives. First, the Vietnam conflict provides an excellent example of how the will of the American people changed the course of a conflict and led to the failure of the United

12

States to achieve its policy goals. During the height of the Cold War with the Soviet Union, the United States was determined to halt the spread of communism. The Republic of South Vietnam became a country of vital interest in the goal to halt the spread of communism in Southeast Asia. Ultimately, the United States entered a conflict in Vietnam in an effort to achieve its policy goals of halting communism. However, over time, the war became very unpopular with the American public. Through public demonstrations, protests and anti-war movements, the American people forced the United States government to withdrawal forces from Vietnam. The bombing of the Marine barracks in Beirut, Lebanon provides a second example. The United States deployed Marine forces into Lebanon as part of a multinational peacekeeping force in order to provide security and allow Lebanese Armed Forces time to equip, train, and rebuild into a viable military force. 27 On 23 October 1983, the Islamic Struggle Organization drove a truck loaded with explosives into the barracks the Marines occupied. The result of that bombing was 220 Marines, 18 Navy personnel, and three soldiers killed and scores of others wounded. The United States government could not convince the public, the American people, that there was a clear policy objective as to why it had interjected American forces into this region. The government could not convince the cost of American lives was worth the benefit of a strong Lebanese Armed Forces. Due to pressure from the American people, President Ronald Reagan ordered the removal of American troops from Lebanon and an abandonment of the peacekeeping mission. 28 A third example of how the American public influenced the government is America’s experience in Somalia in October 1993. What started as a noble

13

humanitarian mission to relieve the suffering of the Somali people escalated into a turf battle between the forces of United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM-II) and the warlords of Mogadishu. 29 The United States deployed Task Force Ranger, a task force comprised of over 400 elite soldiers to include Delta Force, to capture the most notorious warlord, Mohamed Farrah Aidid, in an attempt to restore both order and a functioning government to the war-torn country. 30 Task Force set out on a mission to capture Aidid on the afternoon of 3 October 1993. The mission went badly and the United States soon began receiving casualties. Task Force Ranger suffered 18 soldiers killed and another eighty-four wounded. The American public saw images and footage of American soldiers being dragged through the streets of Mogadishu. Shortly thereafter, the American public demanded that the United States government withdraw its American forces and abandon its mission of humanitarian relief and nation building. On 7 October 1993, President Clinton responded by withdrawing American forces, and the United States’ participation in UNOSOM-II ended. 31 These examples demonstrate the power of the people to influence the United States government and bring about change on an international level. They illustrate the relevance of Clausewitz’s theory concerning a center of gravity and the importance of maintaining a strong and balanced trinity. Furthermore, they illustrate how the targeting of the hub of all power - the will of the American people - an enemy can effect a change in the United States’ pursuit of national interest and goals. Some might argue that the United States has faced prolonged conflicts and not succumbed; that Americans do have the will to sustain a bloody and costly conflict. For example, World War II was an extremely harsh and protracted war to which the United

14

States remained committed, as did the American people to the national goals of the government. World War II demonstrated the effectiveness of the government to portray the conflict as a fight for national survival. The government spent an enormous amount of effort in the areas of public affairs and information operations. For example, Department of War films played in the movie theaters before every film, posters and billboards promoted the war effort, and Hollywood produced films portraying Axis countries as evil. 32 World War II illustrated the power of a strong trinity and the benefits of protecting the United States’ center of gravity. The Axis powers were unsuccessful in eroding the support of the American people. Having identified American vulnerabilities by scrutinizing the United States’ trinity from an adversary’s point of view, this paper will now recommend actions and measures to mitigate or, if possible, eliminate those vulnerabilities. Recommendations The United States must take actions to strengthen the American trinity and reduce the vulnerability of its center of gravity, the will of the people. More specifically, the United States must mitigate or, when possible, eliminate identified vulnerabilities within the government, the military, and the people so as to strengthen the confidence and commitment of the American people. Government Three areas of vulnerability have been identified when examining the United States government leg of the trinity from an adversary’s point of view: 1) the perception that the government cannot protect its people; 2) the policy of spreading democracy throughout the world; and 3) the need of the United States to have international support.

15

The United States needs to develop and implement a public affairs campaign to inform and portray the war on terror as a fight for national survival. Taking lessons learned from World War II, the United States can unite the people and the government in committed action against Al Qaeda. This campaign would focus on raising the situational awareness of the average American and eliminate the bipartisan political bickering that has weakened American resolve. In addition to engaging in a public affairs campaign, the United States must change its strategic message. The United States’ national security strategy is based on two pillars as outlined by President Bush. “The first pillar is promoting freedom, justice, and human dignity. The second pillar is confronting the challenges of our time by leading a growing community of democracies.” 33 The first pillar the President describes is noble and a good message: all people want freedom, justice, and human dignity. However, the second pillar of the United States’ national security strategy is flawed. It promotes the wrong strategic message to the world. The message of spreading democracy threatens many of the countries we are trying to help. The United States makes the mistake of viewing the world from the American point of view and not that of its potential enemies or competitors. America believes that everyone in the world wants to be like the United States. America believes it needs to spread democracy to all corners of the world in order to ensure its continued success. Germaine to this strategy is the belief that the United States can only survive in a democratic world that mirrors it in political views and form of government. The problem with this message is the condescending tone it presents to the rest of the world. Implied, and more importantly perceived, is the idea that the United States wants to set up mini-Americas throughout the world for its own

16

benefit - a very hegemonic, threatening, and undesirable perception. This perception, which is reality to those who believe it, promotes fear in the people of the world who America is trying to help. Radical Islamic groups use this fear to motivate and recruit individuals. They use this perception to justify their call for a jihad to defend Islam from an assault from the United States. Al Qaeda purports that if America is successful in establishing democracy in the Islamic world, the people will become corrupt sinners, not worthy of Allah. This fear empowers the people of Islamic culture to resist change toward democracy and join insurgencies like Al Qaeda to defend their culture. The United States needs to delete the rhetoric of establishing and promoting democracy throughout the world. It needs to replace it with statements that emphasize the United States’ support of any form of government that represents the people, provides for freedom, justice, and human dignity, and one that is friendly to open market capitalism, but not territorially aggressive. By incorporating this small adjustment to the stated national strategy, the United States will have a much more effective message, one that is less threatening to nations and non-state actors. The United States needs to admit that, while its intent is noble, the wording of its strategy is in error. The current message is not in keeping with the true desires of the global community nor is it in the best interest of the United States. The new campaign plan needs to include an address from the President. It needs to include coverage on the major television news networks, print media, and internet blog sites. All elements of government need to embrace this change of strategy and treat it as a great epiphany. In addition, the United States needs to continue the current administration attempts to keep the war on terrorism from becoming a war about religion. This is a very important tenet and one that the United

17

States must strive to maintain and promote if it is to have any success in winning this long war. The United States needs to make the Muslim world believe it wants to make the world a better place for all people, regardless of religious beliefs or form of government. Muslims need to believe the last thing the United States wants to do is make the Middle East and the rest of the world mini-Americas. Changing the United States’ strategic message will remove Al Qaeda’s claim that the United State is out to conquer the Islamic people and will help to de-legitimize Al Qaeda’s call for jihad against the United States. Achieving this goal would help mitigate or eliminate one of the radical Islamic recruiting tools - the only way to defend the Muslim way of life is to fight the Christians and sacrifice oneself on behalf of Allah. In addition to implementing a public affairs campaign and changing the strategic message, the United States must ensure it maintains both strong international relations and coalition partners. A change of stated strategy would resonate well with the United States’ European allies while helping to bolster continued support of coalition efforts in the reconstruction of Iraq and Afghanistan as well as the prosecution of the global war on terror. Furthermore, this revised strategy would send a benign message to Iran, Korea, Russia, and China, a message that the United States denounces any intentions or attempts to convert the world to mini-Americas. Provided the United States accomplishes these tasks, the government portion of the American trinity will remain strong. Military As identified previously, the vulnerabilities of the military concern the way it is organized, equipped, and trained. The military, especially the Army, needs to grow in overall end strength to cope with the irregular, asymmetrical warfare it is currently facing

18

in today’s environment while improving its ability to respond to multiple contingencies throughout the world. In conjunction with growing the force, the United States needs to procure additional strategic lift assets to deliver a larger force. Growing the force will eliminate the vulnerability of over-extending the military and provide needed relief from multiple long deployments with little dwell time. Moreover, the United States needs to continue transforming the military to increase its irregular and asymmetrical operational capabilities. As the world moves into the fourth generation of warfare, the United States’ requirement to maintain a large conventional force, while not eliminated, is arguably reduced as non-state actors rise in power on the international scene. While the United States must still maintain a conventional capability, it should do so with modernized equipment that improves and maximizes its combat effectiveness. Incorporating the recommendations for the military will strengthen the American trinity and increase the confidence the American people have in the United States. People As discussed throughout this paper, the American people are the most critical element of the American trinity and the center of gravity for the United States. The single most vital factor in strengthening this segment of the trinity is educating the American people. The people of the United States need to understand the essential role they play in balancing the trinity. That without the support and confidence of the American people in the government and the military, America will fail in any conflict. Furthermore, the United States needs to educate the American people on Clausewitz’s theory on center of gravity and the importance of defending a center of gravity. The American people need to understand, collectively, they are the center of gravity for the

19

United States. Americans need to comprehend that if Al Qaeda can, like enemies have in the past, sway the American people into not supporting the government’s efforts to combat terrorism, the trinity will collapse, and the United States will fail and lose the war on terror. The United States needs to portray to the American people that the war on terror is a war for national survival. The current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan are just the first phase in a series of conflicts in this long war. In addition to the Middle East, Al Qaeda continues to pose a serious threat in other regions around the world. 34 The United States must tap into the resolve demonstrated during World War II and convince the American people that they cannot fail. To that end, the United States needs to develop commercials, publish articles in the press, and post comments on internet blog sites in an attempt to unite and educate the American people of their crucial role in the war on terror. Conclusion Close examination of the war on terror demonstrates that the theories of Carl von Clausewitz remain relevant in today’s climate of irregular and asymmetrical warfare. His theories of the trinity and center of gravity provide an exceptional vehicle to examine American vulnerabilities. When the United States scrutinizes its trinity from the point of view of its adversaries, it can identify the weaknesses in the government, military, and the American people. Additionally, when approached from this point of view, it becomes clear that the American people are the center of gravity for the United States. Having identified the vulnerabilities, it is now up to the United States to take the actions required to strengthen its trinity and win the long war on terror.

20

Endnotes
1

John Keegan, History of Warfare (New York: Vintage Books 1994), 3.

William S. Lind, “Understanding Fourth Generation War;” available from http://www.antiwar.com/lind/index.php?articleid=1702; Internet; accessed 14 March 2008. Carl von Clausewitz, On War, eds. and trans, Michael Howard and Peter Paret. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976), 81. “Peace of Westphalia,” available from http://www.schillerinstitute.org/strategic/ hzl_t_of_w_0599.html; Internet; accessed 22 September 2007.
5 4 3

2

Ibid.

T.L. Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree, 1999 (New York: Anchor, 1999), 7-8; available from http://www.sociology.emory.edu/globalization/glossary.html; Internet; accessed 12 January 2008.
7

6

Clausewitz 89. Ibid.

8

Christopher Bassford and Edward J. Villacres, “Reclaiming the Trinity,” Parameters (Autumn 1995); available from http://www.clausewitz.com/CWZHOME/Trinity/TRININTR.htm; Internet accessed 22 September 2007. “U.S. Embassy Bombings;” available from http://usinfo.state.gov/ is/international_security/ terrorism/embassy_bombings.html; Internet, accessed 8 March 2008. New York Times/ CBS News, “Do you think removing Saddam Hussein from power is worth the potential loss of American life and the other costs of attacking Iraq, or not?;” available from http://www.nytimes.com/packages/html/politics/20030322_poll/20030322poll-results.html; Internet; accessed 19 March 2008. CBS Poll, “Do you think the result of the war with Iraq was worth the loss of American life and other costs of attacking Iraq, or not?;" available from http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/ 03/18/iraq /main3946663.shtml; Internet; accessed 19 March 2008. George, W. Bush The National Security Strategy of the United States of America (Washington, D.C.: The White House, March 2006), 3. Dana Bash, “Honduras Rushes to Pull Troops Out,” CNN (20 April 2004); available from http://www.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/europe/04/19/spain.withdrawal/index.html; Internet; accessed 22 September 2007. Ann Scott Tyson and Josh White, “Gates Hits NATO Allies' Role in Afghanistan;” available from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/02/06/ AR2008020604690.html; Internet; accessed 19 March 2008.
15 14 13 12 11 10

9

21

U.S. Department of Defense, The National Defense Strategy Of The United States of America (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Defense, March 2005).
17

16

Ibid.

Minimum Periods Between Deployments For Units and Members of the Armed Forces Deployed For Operation IRAQI FREEDOM and Operation ENDURING FREEDOM U.S. Congress. Senate. Amendment Number III. H. R. 1585. Sec 1031, Paragraphs 5-6. 110th Cong.; 1st sess., September 2007; available from http://webb.senate.gov/pdf /WebbAmdtSep07.pdf; Internet; accessed 16 March 2008. CBS/New York Times Poll, “Do you think the result of the war with Iraq was worth the loss of American life and other costs of attacking Iraq, or not?"
20 19

18

Clausewitz 92.

Australian Broadcasting Corporation, “Terrorism Chronology;” available from http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/stories/s368066.htm; Internet; accessed 8 March 2008. Bin Laden’s joint declaration is in partnership with the Islamic Group, Al Jihad, the Jihad Movement in Bangladesh and the "Jamaat ul Ulema e Pakistan" under the banner of the "World Islamic Front. Global Security,“Bali nightclub bombing;” available from www.globalsecurity.org/security/ ops/bali.htm; Internet; accessed 8 March 2008. “Al Qaeda chief killed after US contractor beheaded:” ABC News available from http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2004/06/19/1135644.htm; Internet; accessed 8 March 2008. CBS/New York Times Poll, “Do you think the result of the war with Iraq was worth the loss of American life and other costs of attacking Iraq, or not?"
25 24 23 22

21

Clausewitz 595-596. Ibid, 617.

26

Peter J. Ferraro. “Beirut Lebanon: 24th MAU, May-Dec 1983,” available from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1997/Ferraro.htm; Internet; accessed 8 March 2008. “Target America;” Frontline available from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/ shows/target/etc/cron.html; Internet; accessed 4 March 2008. Collaborated with multiple sources to include Wikipedia.com. Wall Street Journal. 22 September 1999, p.A8; available from http://timelines.ws/ 20thcent/ 1992B.HTML; Internet; accessed 2 March 2008. R. Snyder, “Operation Restore Hope/Battle of Mogadishu,” available from http://novaonline.nvcc.edu/eli/evans/his135/Events/Somalia93/Somalia93.html; Internet; accessed 8 March 2008.
30 29 28

27

22

31

Snyder, “Operation Restore Hope/Battle of Mogadishu.”

“Propaganda in the U.S. during WWII,” available from http: //www3.eou.edu /hist06/ WWIIPropaganda.html; Internet; accessed 16 March 2008. Bush, The National Security Strategy of the United States of America. The Presidents’ White House letter dated March 16, 2006. James Phillips. “The Evolving Al-Qaeda Threat,” 17 March 2006, available from http: //www.heritage.org/Research/HomelandSecurity/hl928.cfm; Internet; accessed 16 March 2008.
34 33

32

23

24

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Psyop Quotes

...PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS QUOTES If your opponent is of choleric temper, try to irritate him. If he is arrogant try to encourage his egotism. (If the enemy troops are well prepared after reorganization, try to wear them down. If they are united, try to sow dissension among them. General Tao Hanzhang, translated by Yuan Shibing, Sun Tzu's The Art Of War To capture the enemy's entire army is better than to destroy it; to take intact a regiment, a company, or a squad is better than to destroy them. For to win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the supreme of excellence. To subdue the enemy without fighting is the supreme excellence. Sun Tzu "The first casualty of war is truth. Rudyard Kipling One need not destroy one's enemy. One need only destroy his willingness to engage. Sun Tzu There are but two powers in the world, the sword and the mind. In the long run the sword is always beaten by the mind. Napoleon Bonaparte In War, the moral is to the material as three is to one. Napoleon Bonaparte We were as hypnotized by the enemy's propaganda as a rabbit is by a snake. General Eric Von Ludendorf, German General Staff, 1918 The British bombarded our front not only with drum-fire of shells, but also with a drum-fire of printed paper. Besides bombs which kill the body, they drop from the air leaflets which are intended to kill the soul. Fieldmarshall Hindenberg, 1918 All propaganda has to be popular and has to adapt its spiritual......

Words: 2186 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Academic

...STRATEGIC THEORY FOR THE 21st CENTURY: THE LITTLE BOOK ON BIG STRATEGY Harry R. Yarger February 2006 This publication is a work of the United States Government as defined in Title 17, United States Code, section 101. As such, it is in the public domain, and under the provisions of Title 17, United States Code, Section 105, it may not be copyrighted. Visit our website for other free publication downloads http://www.StrategicStudiesInstitute.army.mil/ To rate this publication click here. ***** The views expressed in this report are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army, the Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. This report is cleared for public release; distribution is unlimited. ***** Comments pertaining to this report are invited and should be forwarded to: Director, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 122 Forbes Ave, Carlisle, PA 17013-5244. ***** All Strategic Studies Institute (SSI) monographs are available on the SSI homepage for electronic dissemination. Hard copies of this report also may be ordered from our homepage. SSI’s homepage address is: www.StrategicStudies Institute.army.mil. ***** The Strategic Studies Institute publishes a monthly e-mail newsletter to update the national security community on the research of our analysts, recent and forthcoming publications, and upcoming conferences sponsored by the Institute. Each newsletter also provides a strategic......

Words: 27758 - Pages: 112

Premium Essay

War Crimes

...War is a state of armed conflict between societies. It is generally characterized by extreme collective aggression, destruction, and usually high mortality. The set of techniques and actions used to conduct war is known as warfare. An absence of war is usually called "peace". Total war is warfare that is not restricted to purely legitimate military targets, and can result in massive civilian or other non-combatant casualties. While some scholars see war as a universal and ancestral aspect of human nature, others argue that it is only a result of specific socio-cultural or ecological circumstances. In 2013 war resulted in 31,000 deaths down from 72,000 deaths in 1990. The deadliest war in history, in terms of the cumulative number of deaths since its start, is the Second World War, with 60–85 million deaths, followed by the Mongol conquests which was greater than 41 million. Proportionally speaking, the most destructive war in modern history is the War of the Triple Alliance, which took the lives of over 60% of Paraguay's population, according to Steven Pinker. In 2003, Richard Smalley identified war as the sixth biggest problem facing humanity for the next fifty years. War usually results in significant deterioration of infrastructure and the ecosystem, a decrease in social spending, famine, large-scale emigration from the war zone, and often the mistreatment of prisoners of war or civilians. Another byproduct of some wars is the prevalence of propaganda by some or all......

Words: 7890 - Pages: 32

Premium Essay

Phillipines

...arbitrary rule.” — President William McKinley 21 December 1898 T he United States topples an unsavory regime in relatively brief military action, suffering a few hundred fatalities. America then finds itself having to administer a country unaccustomed to democratic self-rule. Caught unawares by an unexpectedly robust insurgency, the United States struggles to develop and implement an effective counterinsurgency strategy. The ongoing US presidential campaign serves as a catalyst to polarize public opinion, as the insurrectionists step up their offensive in an unsuccessful attempt to unseat the incumbent Republican President. These events—from a century ago—share a number of striking parallels with the events of 2003 and 2004. The Philippine Insurrection of 18991902 was America’s first major combat operation of the 20th century. The American policy of rewarding support and punishing opposition in the Philippines, called “attraction and chastisement,” was an effective operational strategy. By eliminating insurgent resistance, the campaign successfully set the conditions necessary for achieving the desired end-state. After a brief review of the conflict, this article will examine the strategic and operational lessons of America’s successful campaign. It will consider the belligerents’ policy goals, strategies, and their centers of gravity. (While 53 Spring 2005 neither side planned their campaign using these strategic concepts, these terms will be used in...

Words: 6720 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Wfew

...The Strategic Use Of Information Technology in Business – Best Guidebook Posted by Admin April 13, 2009 [pic] X Welcome Googler! If you find this page useful, you might want to subscribe to the RSS feed for updates on this topic. You were searching forPosts relating to "strategic uses of information technology". See posts relating to your search »« Hide related posts • Information Security Technology We live in a world full of dangers. On one hand the world economy is going bonkers while on the... • fruITion Delivers a Novel Approach to IT Strategy Image via Wikipedia Around the world, an extraordinary new book about IT's ... • ShowClix Secures Series A Funding From Pittsburgh Equity Partners ShowClix, a Pittsburgh-based event ticketing company, today announced that it has secured an undisclosed sum of Series A funding from... • There is money in Internet Crime The BBC is reporting that Internet Crime is becoming quite the commercial activity. Apparently there is quite some money in... • So, there’s a nude font? This is a fun little thing I had to bring to your attention. It's a nudist font! Note... [pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic]TEACHER: Hello, Student. What do you know about Information Technology (IT)? STUDENT: Well, I know that most software is full of “bugs”! By the way, why are these errors in programs called “bugs”? TEACHER: Computer “bugs” have been around since......

Words: 3973 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

The Art of War and Oic

...The Art of War In everything that we do in our life, first thing that we should do is to make plans on how we’re going to do a thing, when will do it, where we will do it, why we’re doing it and what’s the purpose of doing it. Sun Tzu emphasized the importance of positioning in military strategy. The decision to position an army must be based on both objective conditions in the physical environment and the subjective beliefs of other, competitive actors in that environment. He thought that strategy was not planning in the sense of working through an established list, but rather that it requires quick and appropriate responses to changing conditions. Planning works in a controlled environment; but in a changing environment, competing plans collide, creating unexpected situations. In the first chapter of the Art of War talks about laying plans or the calculations. Planning explores the five fundamental factors (the way, seasons, terrain, leadership and management) and seven elements that determine the outcomes of military engagement. By thinking, assessing and comparing these points, a commander can calculate his chances of victory. Habitual deviation from these calculations will ensure failure via improper action. The text stresses that war is a very grave matter for the state and must not be commenced without due consideration. In waging war or the challenge explains how to understand the economy of warfare and how success requires winning decisive engagements quickly.......

Words: 4471 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

A Gailure in Generalship

...America’s generals have failed to prepare our armed forces for war and advise civilian authorities on the application of force to achieve the aims of policy. The argument that follows consists of three elements. First, generals have a responsibility to society to provide policymakers with a correct estimate of strategic probabilities. Second, America’s generals in Vietnam and Iraq failed to perform this responsibility. Third, remedying the crisis in American generalship requires the intervention of Congress. THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF GENERALSHIP Armies do not fight wars; nations fight wars. War is not a military activity conducted by soldiers, but rather a social activity that involves entire nations. Prussian military theorist Carl von Clausewitz noted that passion, probability and policy each play their role in war. Any understanding of war that ignores one of these elements is fundamentally flawed. The passion of the people is necessary to endure the sacrifices inherent in war. Regardless of the system of government, the people supply the blood and treasure required to prosecute war. The statesman must stir these passions to a level commensurate with the popular sacrifices required. When the ends of policy are small, the statesman can prosecute a conflict...

Words: 4674 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

Center of Gravity Analysis – an Actual or Perceived Problem?

...Swedish National Defence College THESIS 1(55) Major Jonas Andersson 2009-04-06 Thesis – Military Theory, 15 hp Author Course Major Jonas Andersson ChP 07/09 Tutors Kersti Larsdotter Truls Gustavsen Center of Gravity Analysis – an Actual or Perceived Problem? Abstract Centers of Gravity (CoGs) analyses deliver vital input to the operational design. However, there are a great number of theories regarding the phenomenon which can create a certain degree of confusion. The diversity in theories may lead to misdirected mental energy where the focus is to discuss theories instead of using the theories at hand efficiently. The question is if the diversity in theory is an actual problem or if it just perceived as such? This research identifies the similarities and differences in the theories of Milan Vego and Joseph Strange & Richard Iron regarding CoGs, their sub elements and methods for analysis. The impact of the differences on the practical result is then surveyed by implementing the theories on adelimitated phase of the Falklands War, in order to conclude if the differences have a decisive impact on the product of the CoG analysis. The result of this thesis indicates that the diversity in theory is a perceived problem. The identified divergence does not reflect crucially on the CoG analysis and the variation of the input provided to the operational design is minor. The CoGs and the critical vulnerabilities identified are the same or at least similar, no matter which...

Words: 25531 - Pages: 103

Free Essay

Nuclear Armed Iran

...Iran and Israel have long been enigmatic players on the international stage, belonging to the Middle East but not quite identifying with the majority of its inhabitants. For the sole majority-ethnic Persian state in the Middle East and one of the few Shiite Muslim ones, friction and tension have been constant features of its relations with the predominantly Arab and Sunni Middle Eastern states. If Iran is somewhat of an outcast in the region, this is even more the case for Israel as the only ethnically and religiously Jewish state, not only in the region but in the world at large. Aside from Turkey, which is really the only other significant non-Arab state actor in the region, Iran and Israel represent deviations from the norm of mostly Sunni Muslim and ethnically Arab states in the Middle East. Still, what stands out as truly unique in the modern Middle East is the Iranian-Israeli connection, a facet of international politics unparalleled elsewhere in terms of Persian-Jewish contact and cooperation spanning thousands of years, overall international interdependence, and the abrupt switch from amity to enmity as of 1979. While the international media has cast an ever-stronger spotlight on the Iranian-Israeli relationship in the past five or ten years, it has long deserved closer scrutiny. For two countries to be as intertwined at the political, military, economic and societal levels – like Iran and Israel from the 1950s through to the 1970s – and then to become and remain......

Words: 8408 - Pages: 34

Free Essay

Role of the Militia

...The Role of the Militia in Today’s Canadian Forces Jack English | September 2011 Strategic Studies Working Group Papers The Role of the Militia in Today’s Canadian Forces ABOUT THE AUTHOR Lt. Col.-Dr. John A. English retired from the Canadian army in 1993 with 37 years service in the King’s Own Calgary Regiment, the Queen’s Own Rifles, and Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry. Educated at Royal Roads and the Royal Military College, he went on leave without pay to attain an MA in history from Duke University in 1964. He graduated from Canadian Forces Staff College in 1972, attained an MA in war studies from RMC in 1980, and a Ph.D. from Queen’s University in 1989. During his career he served as a NATO war plans officer, Chief of Tactics of the Combat Training Centre, instructor at the Canadian Land Forces Command and Staff College, and curriculum director of the National Defence College. He is the author of A Perspective on Infantry republished in paperback as On Infantry (Praeger, 1984), The Canadian Army and the Normandy Campaign: A Study of Failure in High Command (Praeger, 1991), Marching through Chaos: The Descent of Armies in Theory and Practice (Praeger, 1996), Lament for an Army: The Decline of Canadian Military Professionalism (Irwin, 1998), Patton’s Peers: The Forgotten Allied Field Army Commanders of the Western Front 1944-45 (Stackpole, 2009), and Surrender Invites Death: Fighting the Waffen SS in Normandy (Stackpole, 2011). He is also co-author of...

Words: 30570 - Pages: 123

Premium Essay

Maritime Power of Chaina

...The Maritime Strategy of China in the Asia-Pacific Region Origins, Development and Impact HUANG, AN-HAO Submitted in total fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy August 2009 School of Social and Political Sciences Faculty of Arts The University of Melbourne Produced on archival quality paper ABSTRACT This thesis aims to examine how and why a continental-oriented China has shifted its maritime strategic orientation and naval force structure from its coast toward the far seas in an era of interdependent international system. Generally, China is an ancient continental land power with an incomplete oceanic awareness. With the transformation after the Cold War of China’s grand strategy from landward security to seaward security, maritime security interests have gradually become the most essential part of China’s strategic rationale. Undoubtedly, the quest for sea power and sea rights has become Beijing’s main maritime strategic issue. Given China’s escalating maritime politico-economic-military leverage in the Asia-Pacific region, its desire to become a leading sea power embodying global strategic thinking means that it must expand its maritime strategy by developing its navy and preparing for armed confrontation in terms of international relations realism. Conversely, Beijing’s maritime policy leads at the same time towards globalization, which involves multilateralism and strategic coexistence of a more pragmatic kind. This......

Words: 115996 - Pages: 464

Free Essay

Imd122

...TRADE JURNAL Leisure Arts in Bookstore Push Milliot, Jim. Publishers Weekly255.41 (Oct 13, 2008): n/a. 1. ------------------------------------------------- Full text 2. ------------------------------------------------- Abstract/Details Turn on hit highlighting for speaking browsers by selecting the Enter button Hide highlighting Abstract TranslateAbstract Craft book publisher Leisure Arts has signed on with Midpoint Trade Books as part of its effort to expand its presence among booksellers. Throughout its history, Leisure Arts has focused its sales operation on crafts stores. Details Subject Book industry; Bookstores; Distributors; Agreements; Distribution channels Company / organization Name: Leisure Arts NAICS: 511120; Name: Midpoint Trade Books Inc NAICS: 422920, 511130 Title Leisure Arts in Bookstore Push Author Milliot, Jim Publication title Publishers Weekly Volume 255 Issue 41 Pages n/a Number of pages 1 Publication year 2008 Publication date Oct 13, 2008 Year 2008 Section Foreword; New Channel Publisher PWxyz, LLC Place of publication New York Country of publication United States Publication subject Publishing And Book Trade, Library And Information Sciences ISSN 00000019 CODEN PWEEAD Source type Trade Journals Language of publication English Document type News ProQuest document ID 197101688 Document......

Words: 28118 - Pages: 113

Free Essay

Army Aviation in Low Intensity Conflict

...ARMY AVIATION OPERATIONS IN LOW INTENSITY CONFLICT Introduction “Foot slogging” by infantrymen has been most important and fundamental to address an insurgency; however, there are limitations to their mobility. To increase their versatility, the Portuguese introduced two contrasting means, the helicopter and the horse. While there were other, more conventional solutions to the mobility problem, such as trucks, jeeps, and light armored cars, these vehicles required at least crude roads, had other terrain limitations, and were vulnerable to land mines. The advent of the helicopter and its application in counter-insurgency began with the British in Malaya on 1 April 1950, with the formation of the Far East Casualty Air Evacuation Flight at Seletar with strength of three Westland S-51 Dragonfly helicopters. During the Malayan Emergency the British used their helicopters primarily for casualty evacuation and later for airlifting troops. Question that looms ahead for the future, no matter what the outcome in Jammu and Kashmir, and North Eastern States, is how the army aviation succeeds against fierce insurgency in strategy and capabilities. The Taliban’s resurgence, tenacious resistance against NATO forces in Afghanistan, Al Qaeda’s ability to elude United States forces, and the trouble Israel has had in trying to subdue violence in tiny Southern Lebanon (Hezbollah) and tinier Gaza (Hamas) deepen concern that even world’s finest militaries have problems against any......

Words: 9536 - Pages: 39

Premium Essay

Global Political Economy

...GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND DIPLOMACY STUDENT GUIDELINE NOTES GLOBAL POLITICAL ECONOMY MODULE Paste the notes here… Political economy originally was the term for studying production, buying and selling, and their relations with law, custom, and government. Political economy originated in moral philosophy (e.g. Adam Smith was Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Glasgow), it developed in the 18th century as the study of the economies of states — polities, hence political economy. In late nineteenth century, the term "political economy" was generally replaced by the term economics, used by those seeking to place the study of economy upon mathematical and axiomatic bases, rather than the structural relationships of production and consumption (cf. marginalism, Alfred Marshall). History of the term Originally, political economy meant the study of the conditions under which production was organized in the nation-states. The phrase économie politique (translated in English as political economy) first appeared in France in 1615 with the well known book by Antoyne de Montchrétien: Traicté de l’oeconomie politique. French physiocrats, Adam Smith, David Ricardo and Karl Marx were some of the exponents of political economy. In 1805, Thomas Malthus became England's first professor of political economy, at the East India Company College, Haileybury, Hertfordshire. The world's first professorship in political economy was......

Words: 39122 - Pages: 157

Free Essay

Aviation Security

...AVIATION TERRORISM Thwarting High-Impact Low-Probability Attacks TERRORISME AÉRIEN Contrecarrer des attaques improbables à impacts élevés A Thesis Submitted to the Division of Graduate Studies of the Royal Military College of Canada by Jacques Duchesneau, C.M., C.Q., C.D. In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy April 2015 ©Jacques Duchesneau © This thesis may be used within the Department of National Defence but copyright for open publication remains the property of the author. ROYAL MILITARY COLLEGE OF CANADA COLLÈGE MILITAIRE ROYAL DU CANADA DIVISION OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH DIVISION DES ÉTUDES SUPÉRIEURES ET DE LA RECHERCHE This is to certify that the thesis prepared by / Ceci certifie que la thèse rédigée par JACQUES DUCHESNEAU, C.M., C.Q., C.D. AVIATION TERRORISM Thwarting High-Impact Low-Probability Attacks complies with the Royal Military College of Canada regulations and that it meets the accepted standards of the Graduate School with respect to quality, and, in the case of a doctoral thesis, originality, / satisfait aux règlements du Collège militaire royal du Canada et qu'elle respecte les normes acceptées par la Faculté des études supérieures quant à la qualité et, dans le cas d'une thèse de doctorat, l'originalité, for the degree of / pour le diplôme de PHILOSOPHIÆ DOCTOR IN WAR STUDIES Signed by the final examining committee: / Signé par les membres du comité......

Words: 155225 - Pages: 621