Free Essay

Clean Up Marine Environmental Pollution

In: Other Topics

Submitted By nguyetminh38
Words 662
Pages 3
Conventions to mitigate marine pollution
Oil pollution:
Oil tankers transport some 2,400 million tonnes of crude oil and oil products around the world by sea. Most of the time, oil is transported quietly and safely. Measures introduced by IMO have helped ensure that the majority of oil tankers are safely built and operated and are constructed to reduce the amount of oil spilled in the event of an accident. Operational pollution, such as from routine tank cleaning operations, has also been cut. The most important regulations for preventing pollution by oil from ships are contained in Annex I of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL), The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974 also includes special requirements for tankers.
Chemical pollution: * Chemicals carried in bulk
Carriage of chemicals in bulk is covered by regulations in SOLAS Chapter VII - Carriage of dangerous goods and MARPOL Annex II - Regulations for the Control of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk.
Both Conventions set out the international standards for the safe carriage, in bulk by sea, of dangerous chemicals and noxious liquid substances. The Code prescribes the design and a construction standard of ships involved in the transport of bulk liquid chemicals and identifies the equipment to be carried to minimize the risks to the ship, its crew and to the environment, with regard to the nature of the products carried. * Chemicals carried in packaged form are regulated by Part A of SOLAS Chapter VII - Carriage of dangerous goods, which includes provisions for the classification, packing, marking, labelling and placarding, documentation and stowage of dangerous goods.
Garbage
Regulations for the Prevention of pollution by garbage from ships are contained in Annex V of MARPOL.
Persuading people not to use the oceans as a rubbish tip is a matter of education - the old idea that the sea can cope with anything still prevails to some extent but it also involves much more vigorous enforcement of regulations such as Annex V.

The MARPOL Convention seeks to eliminate and reduce the amount of garbage being discharged into the sea from ships. Unless expressly provided otherwise, Annex V applies to all ships, which means all vessels of any type whatsoever operating in the marine environment, from merchant ships to fixed or floating platforms to non-commercial ships like pleasure crafts and yachts.
Sewage:
Annex IV of MARPOL contains a set of regulations regarding the discharge of sewage into the sea from ships, including regulations regarding the ships' equipment and systems for the control of sewage discharge, the provision of facilities at ports and terminals for the reception of sewage, and requirements for survey and certification. It also includes a model International Sewage Pollution Prevention Certificate to be issued by national shipping administrations to ships under their jurisdiction.
Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter
The "Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter 1972" (the "London Convention") was one of the first global conventions to protect the marine environment from human activities and has been in force since 1975. Its objective is to promote the effective control of all sources of marine pollution and to take all practicable steps to prevent pollution of the sea by dumping of wastes

Some other major international shipping conventions, adopted by the International Maritime Organization (and the International Labour Organization) concerning safety and pollution prevention are:

COLREG (Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972) lays down the basic "rules of the road", such as rights of way and actions to avoid collisions.
LOADLINE (International Convention on Loadlines, 1966) sets the minimum permissible free board, according to the season of the year and the ship's trading pattern.
ISPS (The International Ship and Port Facility Security Code, 2002) includes mandatory requirements to ensure ships and port facilities are secure at all stages during a voyage.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Trash Islands Research Paper

...mass accumulations of marine debris or litter. These accumulations occur as a result of oceanic pathways called convergence zones. As debris enters the ocean, the different temperatures of the waters create currents, acting like a “highway”. Eventually, the debris becomes bounded and is trapped by ocean gyres, circular ocean currents. The most famous “trash island” is The Great Pacific Garbage Patch, located in the Pacific Ocean. The size and mass of the island is indeterminable, for the size of North Pacific Subtropical Gyre is too large to be accurately measured. It is estimated that around 80% of the debris that makes up the Great Pacific Garbage Patch comes from land-based pollution, most...

Words: 734 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Essay On Environmental Sustainability

...together to address the challenges of environmental sustainability? Development in economic booms rapidly compared to past decade was a result due to a generation that pushed and adapted to the growth of economic as a means to improving technology, facilities, and humanity’s condition. Factories, automobiles, buildings and so on had created by generation in order to raise up the development of economic. This had brought many negative effects such as pollution of air, water, soil, and destroy the forest as well as natural sources and creation of toxic wastes. Therefore, environmental sustainability is required to protect and save our earth.Local authorities, government agencies, and engineers play the main roles to work together to address the challenges of...

Words: 1265 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Find Your Beach

...English 101 28 September 2014 Find Your Beach For most who live along the coast, all around the world, the beach is the one-day vacation to cool down, relax and enjoy three fourths of earths make up. Crashing waves are therapeutic, the breeze is invigorating, and the sun makes for entertainment. How could something so beautiful take a turn for the worst? Neglect, irresponsibility and misconduct all lead to the problems facing coastal beaches around and world today. One monumental environmental issue facing a major shutdown is polluted beaches. From marine dumping, to the costs of trying to keep beaches clean of waste, and toxic sea food chain, all are indefinitely hurting coastal environments and living organisms, which needs a new attitude and approach to the handling of waste before there is an environmental back lash from ocean waters. “Humans are dumping far more litter in the ocean than was once thought. The litter was seen in 1.49% of the surveyed area, was mainly metal and plastic, ranged in type and depth from a PVC pipe at 25 meters to a plastic bag at 3,971 meters, and was especially prevalent around the submarine Monterey Canyon. Most of the metal and plastic debris was seen below depths of 2,000 meters, suggesting that earlier studies may have underestimated the impact of detritus on deep regions, which are generally poorly observed. (Macmillan 1)” This information was studied......

Words: 1103 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Lake Erie

...Water pollution is becoming a problem in the United States. Water is one of our most valuable resources. We use water for so many things daily, it is so important for us. Dirty water is one of the world’s biggest risks. Lake Erie is facing such a problem and has been since the 1960s. If this pollution is not controlled, it could be harmful to humans that live around the lake and also the animals who live there. The State of Ohio needs to enact a policy to clean up the pollution in Lake Erie and find a way to prevent pollution from happening. This hits home for me because I live in Willoughby right by Lake Erie. When I go to the beach I see how dirty the water is there. I hesitate to swim in it. Lake Erie is a beautiful lake when it is not so dirty, and we should try and preserve it. If we don’t it will be become so polluted that it will be considered dead, this happened in the 1960s due to all the factories dumping waste in to the Lake. It was literally a dumping ground and it even caught on fire a few times due to the toxic wastes. The phosphorus levels in Lake Erie are increasing due to the pollution causing harm to the fishes that reside in it. In 2014, Lake Erie had so much algae from pollution that it caused the City of Toledo to be left without fresh water. This algae was caused by the excessive amount of phosphorus in the lake. This excessive amount of Phosphorus is caused when the fertilizer is dumped into the lake by farmers. There has also been an excessive......

Words: 1188 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Curbing Oil Spillage for Sustainable Development of the Environment

...CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Oil spill is the leakage or discharge of petroleum onto the surface of inland or coastal water. It assumes disastrous dimension when an uncontrollable well blows out or pipeline ruptures. On water surface, spreading takes place immediately, which is very harmful to various types of aquatic lives as it prevents sufficient amount of sunlight from penetrating and also reduces the land-dissolving capacity in the water. The magnitude of crude oil pollution and damage occasioned by multi-national oil companies operating in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria is incredible (Urhobo Historical Society, 2003). It is noteworthy that the devastating consequences of the crude oil spill in the region with its eventual hazards on both aerial and terrestrial environments is tantamount to an irreversible chain effect on both the biodiversity and human safety. Abbot (2007) in her article entitled “Think Jamaica is Bad? Try Nigeria” notes that the discovery of oil has been an ecological disaster for the Niger Delta where the oil is extracted. Oil and natural resources of a country are often considered to be national assets. Oil penetrates into the structure of the plumage of birds and the fur of mammals, reducing its insulating ability, and making them more vulnerable to temperature fluctuations and much less buoyant in the water. Animals that rely on scent to find their babies or mothers fade away due to the strong scent of the oil....

Words: 8292 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay

Clean Water Act

...fishing industry due to pollution in Chesapeake Bay, and then in 1969 it was found that over 41 million fish had been killed due pollution (Moyers); shortly after in 1972, the Clean Water Act was passed as a response to unhealthy water due to pollution. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of the Clean Water Act has been debated for the past thirty years. The issue of clean, safe water has been plaguing our nation ever since the Clean Water Act’s passing and has been exacerbated by the surge of plastic in our consumer-driven society. There is no doubt that plastic pollution has become a huge nuisance namely in our waterways, but what has been done about it and moreover, what can be done about it? In 1983 the...

Words: 1005 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Chief Env. Scienist

...excellence through hard-work, integrity and result oriented services to succeed. ▪ To engage in a challenging task around with opportunities to make decision on managerial level. PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES ▪ Ability to take on tasks and accomplish them ▪ Ability to assume responsibility quickly and effectively ▪ Inter-personal skills ▪ Ability to adapt to change ▪ Excellent communication skills INSTITUTIONS ATTENDED WITH QUALIFICATIONS ▪ University of Lagos, School of M. Sc Geography Postgraduate Studies. (2007- 2008) ▪ University of Lagos, Faculty B.Sc (Hons.) Geography & Planning of Environmental Sciences, (1986-1990) Geography & Planning ▪ C.M.S. Grammar School, Bariga W.A.S.C O’Level Lagos – State (1978-1984) • Biggix Limited Corporate Management Integration N.P.A.Tin Can Island Port, Lagos. (CMI). (September 22-24 1999) • Laimog (Consulting) Ventures Effective Cost Management Strategies Tin Can Port, Apapa. Course. (October 24-26, 2001) • Flame Communications International...

Words: 1012 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Natural Resources

...expansion, poor environmental protection, and external factors such as climate change, however, have placed the country’s environment and natural resources under grave threat. For the medium-term, an environment that is healthy, ecologically balanced, sustainably productive, climate change resilient, and one that provides for present and future generations of Filipinos is envisioned. This vision will be pursued through an integrated and community-based ecosystems approach to environment and natural resources management, precautionary approach to environment and natural resources, sound environmental impact assessment (EIA) and cost-benefit analysis (CBA). These, then, are all anchored on the principles of shared responsibility, good governance, participation, social and environmental justice, intergenerational space and gender equity, with people at the core of conservation, protection and rehabilitation, and developmental initiatives. Assessment State of the Environment and Natural Resources The degraded state of the country’s environment and natural resources is felt most intensely by the poor, especially the rural communities given that they depend on these resources for their primary source of living. On the other hand, poverty frequently aggravates environmental stress as the marginalized population presses upon limited resources, such as unregulated activities and upland cultivation. Major urban centers are polluted… With regard to water pollution, the......

Words: 2657 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Royal Caribbean: Exotic Promises and Toxic Waters

...Environment Protection Agency and the cruise industry (Johnson, T. & Arnold, D., 2007, p. 554). The research shows that the typical cruise ship can produce up to 30,000 gallons of sewage a day (Johnson, T. & Arnold, D., 2007, p. 554). Also known as “black water” it may or may not be treated before being dumped into the ocean (Johnson, T. & Arnold, D., 2007, p. 554). Water produced from laundries, showers, kitchens, and engine operations, also known as “gray water” generates more than 200,000 gallons daily (Johnson, T. & Arnold, D., 2007, p. 554). Add in the oily bilge and ballast water and other debris, multiply the output by the number of ships plying the oceans, and it is easy to see the pollution problem and the harm being done to the fragile coastlines and reef ecosystems (Johnson, T. & Arnold, D., 2007, p. 554). With cruise companies using images of excursions in pristine waters in their marketing campaigns, they should have more respect for the oceans’ life. Despite multiply fines and numerous punishments given to cruise ship companies, illegal dumping continues to occur. It is the cruise companies’ responsibility to cease illegal dumping in the oceans. It is the cruise ship companies’ obligation to follow the Clean Water Act, the Clean Cruise Ship Act of 2004, and the Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships, not the responsibility of the customers...

Words: 751 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Why We Should Be Concern About Ocean Pollution

...about the ocean pollution? Because everything in the world we use comes from the ocean in some way. The ocean provides us with everything we need like; the air we breathe, water we drink, food we eat, new medicines, climate, and products we use daily. Our ocean absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and maintain our climate change impacts. The ocean holds about 97 percent of the worlds water supply. Is it the largest ecosystem on earth and it provides most of the animal protein we eat. Researchers says that there’s is about 50-80 percent of life underwater, and only 5 percent of it has been explored. Leaving thousands of millions undiscovered species. Here are some various types of ocean pollution and does it affect our ecosystem. Oil Pollution An oil spill happens when a crude oil and a refined oil spill on lands and into the water. For example, trucks can be a major cause of oil spill, because they transport oil from one place to...

Words: 986 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Term Paper

...Content Water they say is life, and indeed they were right. With about 70% of the earth’s cover being water; it undeniably becomes one of our greatest resources. Water resources are used in various ways including direct consumption, agricultural irrigation, fisheries, hydropower, industrial production, recreation, navigation, environmental protection, the disposal and treatment of sewage, and industrial effluents. Water has sources and supplies, economic, social, and political characteristics which make it a unique and challenging natural resource to manage. Water resources refer to the supply of groundwater and surface water in a given area. Water resources may also reference the current or potential value of the resource to the community and the environment. The maximum rate that water is potentially available for human use and management is often considered the best measure of the total water resources of a given region. With two thirds of the earth's surface covered by water and the human body consisting of 75 percent of it, it is evidently clear that water is one of the prime elements responsible for life on earth. Water circulates through the land just as it does through the human body, transporting, dissolving, replenishing nutrients and organic matter, while carrying away waste material. Further in the body, it regulates the activities of fluids, tissues, cells, lymph, blood and glandular secretions. An average adult body contains 42 litres of water and with......

Words: 11852 - Pages: 48

Free Essay

The Lack of Awareness of Overconsumption of Los Angeles Residents

...America (Humes). In the article “Can Psychology Help Save The World? A Model For Conservation Psychology,” Susan Clayton, a professor of psychology at the College of Wooster, and Amara Brook, a professor of Santa Clara University, use psychology to help explaining the human behavior which causes environmental problem. Although the government spends a lot of money on waste management, the lack of awareness of Los Angeles residents causes high volumes of waste, which leads to ocean pollution and health problem. The Los Angeles government spends a lot of money for trash management and controlling the amount of trash. California government spends millions a year to clean trash from their beaches and alley ways. In the article “L.A. lawmakers press for cleanup of city's trash-strewn alleys” by Emily Alpert Reyes, she states, “Now officials are poised to start spending more, with Mayor Eric Garcetti proposing $5 million to straighten up alleys, streets and vacant lots across the city”. The government is willing to help citizens to collect trash, so it does not end up into the ocean or somewhere else. Even though the government contributes so much to society, people are still unawared of the pollution which leads...

Words: 2404 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Dudes

...Environmental Legislation For each of the terms and pieces of Legislation, that contain an *, you are to write an index card. The term or Law is on the front of the index card, and the definition or description on the reverse side. Legislation Quizzes will begin on Monday October 1, 2012 *Conservation – “Controlled Use”, “Scientific Management” of natural resources. “Greatest good for the greatest number of people. *Preservation – Remaining wilderness areas on public lands should be left untouched. *Restoration – To bring back to former condition (former natural state/condition), active restoration seeks to reestablish a diverse, dynamic community at sites that have been degraded. *Remediation – Most often used with cleanup of chemical contaminants in a polluted area. *Mitigation – Repairing/Rehabilitating a damaged ecosystem or compensation for damage. Most often by providing a substitute or replacement area; frequently involves wetland ecosystems. *Reclamation – Typically used to describe chemical or physical manipulations carried out in severely degraded sites, such as open-pit mines or large-scale construction. Environmental Legislation/Agreements NAME | Abbr. | Description | Atomic Energy Act | | The act establishes a general regulatory structure for construction and use of nuclear power plants and nuclear weapons facilities. Unlike most environmental statutes, it does not permit citizen suits and affords only limited opportunities for suits by public......

Words: 1725 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Natural Resources

...Paper SCI/256 July 09, 2013 . Marine Ecosystem Out of all of the large and natural resources available for generating electricity in the United States, it is the ocean. Ocean energy may be the last investigated for its potential. The ocean is so vast and deep, until recently, it was assumed that no matter how many chemicals or how much trash humans dumped into the ocean, the effects would be negligible. Dumping into oceans have even got the catchphrase: “The solution to pollution is dilution” (National Geographic, 2013) Impacts Associated With Agriculture Pollutants from agriculture have affected the marine’s ecosystem in ways that may not be reversible, and may also be slowly harming rivers, streams, and coastal waters. Pesticides and fertilizer are two major components that have disturbed the marine’s ecosystem; both contain harmful chemicals that can be hazardous to living organisms in the water. Fertilizer and pesticide run-off from large farms may have initiated bursts of marine algae which may disrupt the ocean’s ecosystem by causing massive blooms in marine waters (Schwartz, 2005). Winds cause nitrogen and other nutrients from the seafloor to surface, which promote the growth of algae called phytoplankton. Phytoplankton is a main source of food for many living organisms in the marine waters. Agricultural pollutants may have triggered phytoplankton to produce harmful blooms in tides, which are giving-off poisonous toxins to marine life. These poisonous toxins......

Words: 1602 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Pdci

...Professional Development: Contemporary Issues Presented by Tsang, Kwong Yuk (Mia) Content  Environmental Issues  Background  Impact: Regulation and requirement  International, nation and local regulations  Primary challenges  RCL response  Skills and knowledge required of future managers  Personal assessment  Conclusion Environmental Issues  Air emission  Greenhouse gas: CO2 , CH4 ,O3  Air pollution: Sox , NOx , CO, CFCs  Generated by diesel engines  Global warming and climate change    Rising annual temperature Rising sea level Extreme weather (IMO, 2009)  Marine Pollution  Discharge of waste: solid waste (garbage and plastic), hazardous wastes  Discharge of wastewater: graywater, blackwater  Ocean acidification:pH values are altering the complex web of systems that allow life to thrive (Copeland, 2008) Background  Not concerning the environmental issues in the early 90’s :   In 1993, the U.S. Coast Guard caught the Royal Caribbean ship dumping oil off the coast of the Bahamas Other 87 confirmed illegal discharges from cruise ships (Hinckley, 2007)  Wake-up call  “Regrettably, there have been violations of environmental laws involving cruise lines in the past. These incidents have served as an important wake-up call, causing our industry to redouble its efforts to improve its environmental performance.” (CLIA, 2011) Impact: Regulations and standards International level: International Maritime......

Words: 1411 - Pages: 6