Free Essay

Climate for Olive Trees

In: Science

Submitted By tebow2020
Words 996
Pages 4
“Climate Conditions for Growing Olive Trees”
The olive tree is a type of evergreen tree that can grow to heights of fifty feet and has a remarkable life expectancy of 500 years. The tree bears the olive fruit, a green drupe that gradually turns blackish-purple as it ripens. Cultivated since antiquity, the olive remains one of the most sought-after agricultural commodities in the world. Olives are the source of olive oil, a common ingredient used in cooking, as well as in the production of certain cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Demand for olives has increased in recent years due to studies confirming that consumption of olive oil can help prevent heart disease and reduce the risk of some cancers. In response to the growing market for olives, “its cultivation area has tripled in the past 44 years, passing from 2.6 to 8.5 million of hectares” (Bartolini, 2005). Besides the valuable fruit the olive tree produces, the tree appeals to growers because it can withstand periods of drought, requires little maintenance, and is extremely resilient. Despite their tough exterior, however, olive trees require specific climate conditions to yield high-quality fruits and oils. Only a few locations in the world – the Mediterranean basin, Southern California, central Chile, southwestern South Africa, and southwestern Australia – possess the Mediterranean climate ideal for olive cultivation. The Mediterranean climate regions of the world typically experience cool, wet winters and mild-to-hot, dry summers. Mediterranean climates prevail “only in the mid-latitudes and then only on the western side of continents because of the earth’s atmospheric circulation of high pressure cells that control the temperature and precipitation patterns of the climate” (Rosenvall, 2009). During the summer, sinking air from the subtropical highs produces generally fair weather, diverting any storm systems to the north. In the winter, the subtropical highs shift southward toward the equator, exposing Mediterranean climate regions to storms that bring desperately needed rainfall. Average annual precipitation amounts vary between 11 and 35 inches, most of which falls during the winter months. Situated near large bodies of water, locations with Mediterranean climates experience a moderate temperature range throughout the year. Prevailing winds blowing in from the water prevent locations along the coast from registering bitterly cold temperatures in the winter and very hot temperatures in the summer. Locations further inland encounter larger, but still moderate, annual temperature ranges. Generally, temperatures during the warmest months in Mediterranean climates average between 70 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit, although some inland locations can experience triple-digit temperatures during the summer. Temperatures during the winter months rarely fall below freezing.
The relatively mild year-round temperatures allow for a long growing season, making Mediterranean climate regions especially attractive to olive growers. The olive growing season begins in the spring as temperatures warm to around 70 degrees Fahrenheit, causing trees to blossom after a dormant winter. Frost can damage the flower buds, but the mild spring temperatures in Mediterranean climates provide hospitable conditions for the budding to occur. Once the actual olive fruit emerges, it requires plenty of sunlight and relatively high temperatures to continue growing and ripen properly, conditions Mediterranean climates amply provide in the summer. To survive the dry summer months, an olive tree has certain features that allow it to retain sufficient moisture. Olive trees have relatively shallow, but extensive root systems that soak up any water in the soil. Complementing the roots are leaves that have “a protective coating and hairy undersides that slow transpiration” (“Olive Tree,” 2001). By autumn, the olive harvest begins as growers pick the green olives from their plants. The remaining olives will continue to ripen through autumn and even into the winter in some Mediterranean climate regions. Ultimately, the timing of a harvest depends on how the growers intend on using the olives. For instance, olives used in the production of the finest olive oils may require a ripening period that culminates in late November (in the Northern Hemisphere). Any unseasonably cold temperatures, frost, or excessive rainfall this late in the year could destroy the entire year’s crop. Mediterranean climates, however, provide the stable, generally mild conditions needed to yield a successful olive crop.
Mediterranean climates also offer appropriate conditions for vernalization to occur in olive trees. Like most fruit tree species, olive trees require exposure to low temperatures in the winter to induce flowering the spring. Although it can tolerate cold temperatures, the olive tree “will sustain damage to leaves and small stems at 17 degrees Fahrenheit and more severe damage at 12 degrees Fahrenheit” (McEachern & Stein, 1997). Winter temperatures in Mediterranean climates are cold enough to initiate bud development in the spring, but not cold enough to inflict any damage on the plant. The Mediterranean climate is the only climate that can consistently provide these ideal temperatures each winter. While the Mediterranean climate regions supply the best olive yields in terms of quality and quantity, fruit-bearing trees will grow outside traditional olive-producing regions. Unlike other fruit trees, olives can tolerate and recover from long periods of drought, below freezing temperatures, and even physical damage to fruits, shoots, and branches. These characteristics allow olive trees to grow in the temperate climates of the southeastern and southwestern United States, New Zealand, and even parts of the United Kingdom where plenty of sunlight and warm temperatures prevail during the summer. Olive trees are also scattered along the Nile River basin, as they have adapted to grow in the sandy soil that covers the region. Tropical areas, however, possess unsuitable conditions for olive cultivation, since the humid climate and incessant rainfall expose the trees to too much moisture. The large annual temperature ranges and extreme cold of the continental climates also do not support the cultivation of olives. Thus, anyone wishing to cultivate olives outside the Mediterranean climate regions should research local climate data and determine if the area is prone to extreme cold or any other conditions that could adversely affect their crop.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay


...Business Case : Olive Oi Prepared By : Rania Alsh 988 INTRODUC 3 PRODUCTION CONSUMPTION 3 GOVERN 4 ENVERONMENTAL PAC 5 Maintaining and Improving Positive Effect 5 SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT 6 BUSINESS STRATEGY 6 Tree Management Strategy 7 SUSBITANABILITY OF OLIVE OIL 7 Farmers Rights 8 PRICE AND PERFORMANCE 9 WORLD’S TOP OLIVE OIL EXPORTERS 9 The Profile Of Company (Leader): 10 Mario Strategy 10 The Greek Strategy 10 Italian Strategy 11 CONCLUSION 11 REFERENCES 11 INTRODUCTION Consuming and trading Olive Oil is globally linked to the Mediterranean as non-Mediterranean countries account for less than 2.5 per cent of world production. The complex market of olive oil is due to the spread of production over developed and developing countries and is done through varying production systems. Olive oil production has many activities. Bottling has become increasingly intense, with a strong presence of multinational firms. Branding by small bottlers with effective marketing strategies is becoming profitable. Olive oil consumption is growing with varying consumption patterns in quantity and quality. Market segmentation has come to assume an increasingly important role in consumption decisions. The European Union (EU) is the largest producer and consumer of olive oil. EU keeps protecting its domestic market, despite the preferential access it grants to a number of Mediterranean countries. Some countries play the dual role of......

Words: 2902 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Ancient Rome

...Ancient Rome Directly Joe Hubbell Period 6 Geography Rome has a mixture of hills, plains, and mountains. Rome has good climates known as the Mediterranean Climate mild winters and hot summers so. Why Would You Live There Rome has rich soil for Agricultural purposes. The Italian Peninsula provides great soil for growing many different crops, one crop that was grown in big quanties was olives, the olive trees could grow on the mountain sides. 3 Engineering/Architecture facts · Aquaducts were created in early Rome that provided the city with fresh clean water they could use for everyday use. · The Colosseum was started in 72 BC and ended in 80 BC it was built so Emperors could host shows to show there people first starting as comical acts and usually ending with animal to animal death dual or animal and gladiator death dual. · The Circus Maximus was built by one of Romes first Emperors Romolus and he usually used it for entertainment he held chariot races there for the public to watch. Roman Legal Code Roman law was ver simliar tothe one in the united states they used a system used the 12 tables which was 12 laws which must be followed and abided by everyone kinda like the first 10 amendments in the United States. Social Classes 1. Imperial Domus- Rich loyalties that lived in big houses. 2. Senators- Members of the roman senate. 3. Equestrains- A rider of preformer on horseback. 4.......

Words: 337 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Insect Repelant

...Natural Insect Repellents | | | Maintain a healthy lifestyle with ALVEO | Around the world millions of people spend a lot of money on buying insect repellents for domestic use. This is a very important investment for families as insects and various arthropod pests spread dangerous diseases, killing or sickening millions of people each year. In fact, the health of a family may sometimes depend even on the choice of insect repellent being used at home. Insects and other disease spreading pests can threaten the health and lives of families and individuals in a community, many lethal diseases such as Lyme disease, bubonic plague, dengue fever and malaria, for example, are spread by biting or stinging pests. The pests include all insects, example, the mosquito is responsible for spreading malaria, as well as ticks which spread Lyme disease. The citizens of first world countries typically tend to become infected through the bite or sting of insects and bugs while they are abroad. Indeed, travelers to exotic locales are often affected by nasty diseases transmitted by insects or bugs and bring such disease home with them. The greatest dangers lurk closer home and one need not travel across the world to face tiny pests. Many local insects and bugs in North America can cause serious diseases. Therefore, protecting the entire family through the prudent use of good quality insect and bug repellents is a necessity. Insects and bugs as vectors Each year, millions of people......

Words: 11126 - Pages: 45

Free Essay

The Beauty

...“Regal”. More so it is extremely beautiful. Corfu is blue waters, golden beaches and hills with succulent green. The charms of the place were also valued by the eminent persons - William Shakespeare or Zbigniew Herbert. One can see the famous Achilleion Palace which has been raised by Empress Elisabeth of Bavaria who was an admirer of the Hellenic Culture, and also spoke Greek. She used to spend every free moment on the isle. She had a friendly relations with the locals, who at the time were proud that the Empress had chosen their tiny island on the Ionian Sea. Corfu is simply a botanical garden, the favorable climate has made it possible for the flora to be both abundant and breathtaking. As many as seven varieties of orchid can be found here and the same number of the varieties of mint. Citrus fruit, the kumquat (a fruit similar to the apricot), olive trees, laurel trees and other spices - these are just a few of the numerous varieties of vegetation. It is not surprising that the autochtons of the isle have always collected herbs during their afternoon walks. If we want to spend a holiday in “paradise”, admire...

Words: 349 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...Hindu Kush Mountain Range Pakistan Hindu Kush Range, a Persian word which means “Indian Mountains”, is the extension of the Karakoram and Pamir mountain range from west. The whole northwest of Kabul and the basins of the Kabul, and Helmand rivers from that of the Amu Darya is considered to be in Hindu Kush Range. It is also considered as the sub-range of the Himalaya mountain range. It is located between the borders of two Muslim countries Pakistan and Afghanistan and is also considered to be the geographic center of population of the world. Tirich Mir, Noshes, and Istoro Nal, the highest peaks in the Hindu Kush are located in  Chitral District of Northern Pakistan. Its eastern side range is also known as the High Hindu Kush range which is located in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Chitral is considered to be the pinnacle of the Hindu Kush region. The highest peaks, as well as countless passes and massive glaciers, are located in this region. The Chiantar, Kurambar, and Terich glaciers are amongst the most extensive in the Hindu Kush and the melt water from these glaciers form the Kunar River, which eventually flows south into Afghanistan and joins the Bashgal, Panjsher, and eventually the much smaller Kabul River. The jazz musician Katie Melua wrote a song called "Halfway Up the Hindu Kush", probably because in the 1960s and 70s Afghanistan was depicted in the media as the romantic haven of nomads and a resort for hashish-smoking hippies. Hindu Kush Hindu Kush a high......

Words: 2011 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Fleurieu Peninsula

...The Fleurieu Food The Fleurieu Peninsula is approximately 30km south of Adelaide and is 2 963.0 km2 and produces $336.4 million dollars of products each year. A new and exciting development is emerging from this relatively small area, a growers’ paradise with rich fertile soils, temperate climate and reliable rainfall. The lifestyle here is governed by the rhythms of the seasons, the food is good, fresh and full of flavour. Regional foods, that are produced are made up of crops (wheat, barley oats) meat, (beef, pork, lamb, venison) livestock products (milk) agriculture (vegetables, orchard trees, fruit trees, grapes) poultry, and aquaculture. Almonds grown in Willunga are the finest in Australia, Olive oil being produced is now compared to Italy’s finest, and talented bakers produce real bread from long lost but recovered recipes, our cheese makers create authentic French-style goat’s curd and feta cheeses, or thick rich Jersey milk cream and traditional cheddars. This is why so many hospitality businesses are buying and using food obtained from the Fleurieu Peninsula. It also has to do with what is called the Carbon Footprint “The amount of carbon dioxide emitted due to the consumption of fossil fuels by a particular person, or transport.” When Food is transported from interstate by semi-trailer or overseas by shipping the engine burns fossil fuel this creates CO2 (carbon dioxide) which is emitted into the atmosphere these greenhouse gas are then thought to......

Words: 485 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Domestication of Early Plants

...only bigger size ones to compensate the while to get sunburned and mosquito bitten. Bitterness: Many wild seeds evolved to be bitter, bad-tasting or even poisonous to keep human or animals away from eating them. Natural selection functioned as getting the fruit tasteful dispersed by animals and continue the process of reproducing, meanwhile if the seed remained tasteful, the animal will chew them up as well. Occasional individual almond trees have a mutation in a single gene that prevents them from synthesizing the bitter-tasting amygdalin, which breaks down to yield poison cyanide. Such trees die out in the wild, while the trees lived near humans survived by being picked up by curious children or early farmers who noticed the non-bitter fruit. Fleshiness, Oiliness and fiber length are all similar in the selection process. Initially the wild fruit had less fruit around their seeds, but early farmers chose the fruit mutated to be with more Fleshiness, less seeds, such as squashes, pumpkins, bananas oranges, grapes, watermelons. Olives were cultivated earliest around 4000 B.C. Ancient farmers also selected sesame, mustard, poppies and flax for oily seeds. Modern plant scientists have done the same for sunflower, safflower, and cotton. Before recent development of cotton for oil, it was for its fibers, used to weave textiles. Flax, hemp. Seed dispersal...

Words: 1107 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Saguaar Research Paper

...effect. 14. Mojave-aster Technically an herb, the Mojave-aster can be found in desert areas around canyons, and it has a small stem, usually with a white flower. 15. Jumping Cholla The Jumping Cholla is somewhere between a tree and a cactus, but rather than leaves it has spines! These guys can be sneaky – their spines carry tons of little spikes that can act like Velcro and attach to everything. 16. Joshua Tree Joshua Tree is another desert dwelling plant stuck between a tree and a cactus, and it is actually a Yucca. They can grow quickly, and are common to areas in California (such as Joshua Tree National Park). 17. Elephant Tree Elephant Trees are so defined by their ability to store water in their trunks (ha). They can be seen in the deserts of Southwest United States and in parts of Africa, and are especially suited to dry climates. 18. Ocotillo While Ocotillos can sort of resemble a cactus, they are not actually so. It most often looks like dead twigs, but actually sprouts lush leaves after rainfall and has a beautiful red flower that follows. 19. Yellow Paloverde With a – you guessed it – yellow flower, these paloverdes are common amongst the deserts of the United States. This very slow-growing tree resembles a bush, but can actually reach over 20 feet in height. 20. Soaptree Yucca Soaptree Yucca is able to withstand bursts of cold weather, but its love for sunlight is what makes it at home in the desert. These pants have a long history of being useful for many......

Words: 1322 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Differences Between James Oglethorpe And Other Philanthroptor

...James Oglethorpe and other Philanthropist wanted to help debtors have a new life. Before Oglethorpe could help the debtors he needed to find land for the debtors to live, so in 1729 Dr. Thomas Bray choose trustees to help establish the land. Before they could settle in the land they needed permission. So in 1730, Oglethorpe and the trustees gave a petition for the charter to the Privy Council. The council negotiated on letting the debtors and the poor move to start a new life. Although the Privy Council accepted, they made a set of rules for the trustees to follow. It wanted them to protect South Carolina and produce wine and silk for England. Since the trustees needed military defense, goods and materials for England, and a place for poor...

Words: 420 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Central Asia Agriculture

...Agriculture 1. Climate 2. Lands (upland and lowland, steppes, tundra) 3. Type of Agriculture 4. Agricultural Practices (husbandry, farming, fishing) 5. Agricultural Process (irrigation, dry farming, etc) * Sources 6. Agricultural Products 7. Exports II. Problems A. Problems 1. Rebel Activities 2. Drying of the Aral Sea and other bodies of water B. Factors Affecting the Problems C. Solution 1. Role of Government** III. Agricultural Events A. Festivities AGRICULTURE IN CENTRAL ASIA I. Agricultural Background of Central Asia A. Climate * Very dry climatic conditions * Hot summers and cool winters (much sunshine and very little precipitation) B. Land Use * Majority of the region consists desert land * Only 20% of the land is arable and is suitable for agricultural use C. Agriculture Practices (Process and products) 1. Animal Husbandry >Animal Herds (Cattle and Sheep) * Animals are one of the important exchange commodities – aside from their transportation use; they are also used for wool and skins production * herds provide food such as meat and dairy products, wool and leather from which to make clothes and all kinds of other household items such as felts, quilts, pillows, and mattresses. Minor animals: Chickens, goats, and pigs are also raised. 2. Farming - Almost all the sown agricultural land is under irrigation because of its arid......

Words: 811 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Mediterranean Climate

...------------------------------------------------- Mediterranean climate From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For the influence of Mediterranean climates on viticulture, see Mediterranean climate (wine).   Areas with a Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is the climate typical of the lands in theMediterranean Basin, and is a particular variety of subtropical climate. The lands around the Mediterranean Sea form the largest area where this climate type is found, but it also prevails in much of California, in parts of Western andSouth Australia, in southwestern South Africa, sections of Central Asia, and in parts of central coastal Chile. Contents  [hide] * 1 Köppen climate classification * 2 Precipitation * 3 Temperature * 4 Mediterranean Biome * 4.1 Natural vegetation * 5 Hot-summer Mediterranean climate * 6 Warm-summer Mediterranean climate * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links | ------------------------------------------------- Köppen climate classification[edit] Under the Köppen climate classification, "dry-summer subtropical" climates (classified as Csa and Csb) are often referred to as "Mediterranean". Under the Köppen-Geiger system, "C" zones have an average temperature above 10 °C (50 °F) in their warmest months, and an average in the coldest between 18 to −3 °C (64 to 27 °F) (or, in some applications, between 20 to 0 °C (68 to 32 °F)). The second letter indicates the precipitation pattern: "s" represents dry......

Words: 2328 - Pages: 10

Free Essay


...Barcelona the city of my dream Barcelona is the city of my dreams and I hope to have the opportunity to visit this it. This city is best place for tourism because of its monument, climate and soccer. First and foremost, Barcelona can be described as an ancient city in Spain, rich in civilization. There are lots of memorials in its museum, covering the most of the historic events. You can enjoy its monuments too. Barcelona has been well-known by its historic buildings. There are lots of eye-catching structures visible throughout the city. Many famous architects have displayed their abilities by developing amazing buildings and make it be one of the most interesting cities for tourism interested in monuments like me. Second, Barcelona enjoys a Mediterranean climate with mild- cool winter and warm summer suitable for sunbathing. It has several beaches around the city. Snowfalls are not prevalent in the city but those are common on the outskirts of the city. its humid weather is so pleasant and often producing no rain. It is a sunny city and suitable for me to travel. Last but not least, Barcelona has a long sporting tradition specially soccer. FC Barcelona is a sport club best known worldwide for its soccer team and I am one of its dedicated fans. Messi, who is chosen as the best soccer player in the world, is playing in this team. "camp nou" is FC Barcelona stadium and lots of matches will be held in there every year. Being in "camp nou" and......

Words: 4595 - Pages: 19

Free Essay


...* Versailles * Second gate * Guards stand by to secure firearms, and that people are properly dressed * Swords and hats can be rented at entrance * Caterers * Laid table for royal family * Windows- from secon room * Can see hall of mirrors * Room called the Buzai? * Take shape from circular window * Tastes youth be ever present without him * Bed Chamber * Royal bed protected by guilded building * Personification of france watches over sleeping king * The royal bed is the symbol of power * Center of bed room * All who pass have to bow before it * Ritual * Ceremony of awakening * Ceremony of Grand Awakening * Constants stream of coming and goings * 100 people buzzingle in and out * ambassadors, parliamentary officials, bishops * to be seen and gossip * Louis the XIV chooses self portrait to hand on too of door * Painting of St .John, St. Mathew, St. Marc * Royal office * Louis XV transformed this room * Symbol of septor and hand of justice * 1682-1789 Versaille is seat of absolute monarchy * King rules alone * Demands consistency and obedience * Summons counselors and documents * Architects also summoned here * Originally hunting......

Words: 813 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...Appellation 1: Humagne rouge de Salquenen Appellation | Salgesh | Country | Switzerland | Region | Valais | Sub Region | Leuk | Village | Salquenen | Estate Vineyard | N/A | Grape (s) Variety(ies) | Humagne rouge | Climate conditions | The vineyards of the Valais have a mild continental climate and undergo to the “ foehn” warm winds which are beneficial to the growth of the harvest. It is a relatively dry climate and the rainfall in this region is low because of the barrier formed by the Alps, both to the north and to the south. Salgesch is blessed with a very sunny, south-eastern exposure. Because of location the vines here have sunshine available to them for a much greater proportion of the day and are able to reach higher levels of ripeness during the growing season. | Soil Composition | Stony, chalky soils predominate through the vineyards towards Salquenen. Salquenen soil is rich in lime and magnesium. In this region the vineyards have a light, well-aerated soil, poor in clay. This warms up rapidly in sunshine but does not retain water very well. | Type of wine | Red, dry, still | Character of wine | Intense ruby colour. Intensive aroma of wild berries, eucalyptus and red cherries The palate exhibits earthy aromas with a full-bodied structure combining supple and silky tannins. This wine is soft and fruity. The grapes are picked in November by hand.Humagne Rouge wines have great aging potential and can keep for 4 to 6 years.  | Food harmony 2......

Words: 2853 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Privatisation of Insurance Sector in India

...height or only perennial species. At its broadest, trees include the taller palms, the tree ferns, bananas and bamboo. A tree typically has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground by the trunk. This trunk typically contains woody tissue for strength, and vascular tissue to carry materials from one part of the tree to another. For most trees it is surrounded by a layer of bark which serves as a protective barrier. Below the ground, the roots branch and spread out widely; they serve to anchor the tree and extract moisture and nutrients from the soil. Above ground, the branches divide into smaller branches and shoots. The shoots typically bear leaves, which capture light energy and convert it into chemical energy by photosynthesis, providing the food needed by the tree for its growth and development. Flowers and fruit may also be present, but some trees such as conifers instead have pollen cones and seed cones, and others such as tree ferns produce spores instead. Trees tend to be long-lived,[1] some reaching several thousand years old. The tallest known specimen on Earth is 115.6 m (379 ft) and they have a theoretical maximum height of 130 m (426 ft).[2] Trees have been in existence on the Earth for 370 million years. Trees are not a taxonomic group but are a number of plant species that have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants and make full use of the sunlight. Trees play a significant role in reducing erosion...

Words: 7782 - Pages: 32