Free Essay

Clinical Supervision

In: Other Topics

Submitted By louise123
Words 2871
Pages 12
Clinical supervision continues to be a term evident in everyday language in nursing and definitions of the term are variable. Definitions suggest it has a broad purpose in nursing and can appear to have a lack of accord and focus.

Jones (1999) suggests that clinical supervision offers nurses guidance, support and education and is concerned with quality, safety and protection of clients which reflects the Department of Health ‘Vision for the Future’ (1993) interpretation of clinical supervision as a:
‘formal process of professional support and learning which enables individual practitioners to develop knowledge and competence, assume responsibility for their own practice and enhance consumer protection and safety of care in complex situations. It is central to the process of learning and to the scope of the expansion of practice and should be seen as a means of encouraging self assessment and analytical and reflective skills.’

The following assignment aims to demonstrate a critical appraisal of the concept of clinical supervision, critique the process and the outcomes of clinical supervision and review contemporary research that directly informs understanding and application of clinical supervision to practice. It will also reflect on personal knowledge, skills and attributes required for effective clinical supervision and evaluate the impact that clinical supervision has on health and social care practice with the emphasis on my professional discipline of nursing/ mental health nursing.

During this paper I will be reflecting back on my experience of conducting clinical supervision and will refer to myself as ‘the supervisor’ and to maintain confidentiality will refer to the colleague undertaking supervision as ‘the supervisee’. The supervisee is employed within the same NHS Trust and clinical area as the supervisor although has a different professional qualification.

The supervisor currently works as a case manager for the XXXX Programme within an NHS Trust and has a professional background grounded in General and Mental Health Nursing. XXX is a joint initiative between the Department of Work and Pensions and the NHS and aims to deliver a programme of interventions to aid those people who are out of work due to their health condition to gain a sustainable return to work, training or increased activity. The team consists of professionals from a multidisciplinary background delivering the same programme and drawing on each others specialities as required and clinical supervision is encouraged to take place on a monthly basis.

Case managers have access to a supervisor of their choice; due to the distinctiveness of XXX this is usually another case manager with more experience. However as the team is geographically spread over a number of areas the process of choosing a supervisor can be limited and as there is a shortage of case managers who have received training in clinical supervision sessions vary according to the individual conducting the supervision. Clinical supervision can also include managerial issues depending on the supervisor and due to the lack of structure can progress to being more of a chat rather than a reflective practice exercise.

The supervisor has facilitated clinical supervision sessions with colleagues in the past but they have not always utilised clinical supervision or reflective models of practice, therefore the supervisor hopes to implement a more reflective approach to clinical supervision in their own practice and clinical area so as to promote and ensure high standards of practice are maintained and to identify areas for improvement and training.

The NHS trust that is responsible for the delivery of XXX is committed to ensuring all clinical staff has access to clinical supervision. It has provided a clinical supervision policy that provides a detailed overview of what both supervisor and supervisee can expect from clinical supervision and provides a sample clinical/professional supervision contract (Appendix 1), supervision record (Appendix 2) and supervision monitoring record (Appendix3) available to use when conducting and recording of clinical supervision.

Clinical supervision forms part of the clinical governance agenda and supports Care Quality Commission requirements. It is a requisite as part of Care Quality Commission registration that suitable arrangements are in place to ensure staff receive:
‘appropriate training, professional development, supervision and appraisal’ (Care Quality Commission 2010).

XXXX Trust (2010) Clinical and Professional Supervision Policy summarises supervision as ‘essential in achieving and sustaining high quality practice’ and goes on to set out its aim for clinical and professional supervision as supporting the individual practitioners’ development through in-depth reflection on their practice.

Clinical supervision is recommended by registered bodies of Allied Health
Care Professionals and Nursing and was introduced as a way of using reflective practice and shared experience as part of the standards of Continuing Professional Development (Royal College of Nursing 2002). The Nursing and Midwifery Council (2008) formerly the UKCC (1996) supports the process of clinical supervision as a practice focussed professional relationship and recognises the importance of reflective practice in insuring better and improved nursing practice. However despite the emphasis of clinical supervision from professional and statutory bodies Faugier and Butterworth (1994) suggest there is a diverse understanding of the term among the nursing profession and in the supervisors experiences this can lead to some confusion as to how clinical supervision sessions are conducted.

Johns (1995) suggests that reflection is a developmental process where an individual critically explores everyday features of their practice and engages in self- evaluation and appraisal of the experience. Kohner (1994) identifies patient- centred reflective practice as the main purpose of clinical supervision.
However there is a danger that if supervision does not involve a balanced critical assessment that personal reflection can centre on the negatives of an experience.

There are a number of frameworks and models that can facilitate the reflective process. Gibbs Framework for Reflection (1998) is fairly straight forward and encourages a clear description of the situation, examination of feelings, evaluation of the experience, analysis of the sense of the occurrence, what else could have been done and what to do if the situation re-occurs.

Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory Model (1984) offers both a way to understand individuals learning style as well as a four stage cycle of learning that takes an experience, facilitates reflecting on this event, forms concepts and generalisations for action and tests out these ideas to enable new experiences where as Driscoll’s (2000) model is formatted around three simple questions- what?, so what? and now what? These questions are trigger questions that add to the reflective process.

Johns’ Model for Structured Reflection (1994;1995) can be utilised as a guide for addressing a significant incident or broad reflection of an experience and encourages the use of a reflective diary. Johns’ model adopts some earlier work by Carper (1978) using Carper’s four patterns of knowing and adding a fifth pattern ‘reflexivity’. It is based on five cue questions that enables you to break down the event and reflect on the process and outcomes.

Learning through reflection is more valuable if there is an understanding of reflective models and frameworks. The use of models of reflection were discussed prior to the clinical supervision session by the supervisor and the supervisee and the supervisee concluded that Johns’ model (Appendix 4) was relatively easy to use as it provided clear cues for the supervisee and would fulfil the reflective process. The use of a reflective diary was also encouraged to document experiences to allow for greater reflection of practice rather than reflecting on a lone experience.

Supervision can be provided in a number of ways be it on a one to one basis otherwise referred to as individual supervision where a supervisor is providing supervision to one supervisee and is probably the most common format in nursing (Duarri and Kendrick 1999), peer supervision or group supervision and the frameworks used to structure supervision sessions can also vary.

There is no definitive model of clinical supervision but there are a number of well documented frameworks and models to choose from as a supervisor that can support the successful delivery of clinical supervision, however despite an increase in the number of clinical supervision models documented in nursing literature Rogers (1999) suggests there is evidence to suggest their uptake in specific nursing context is limited.

Driscoll (2000) has described a model for clinical supervision based on Heron’s (1989) six category intervention analysis framework; divided into the ‘authoritative interventions’ these enable the practitioner/ supervisor to maintain an element of control over the relationship and are broken up into prescriptive, informative and confronting categories and the ‘facilitative interventions’ that allow the locus of control to remain with the client/ supervisee and are divided into cathartic, catalytic and supportive categories. It is a conceptual model for understanding interpersonal relationship and understanding possible therapeutic interactions between two people.

A more popular model of supervision is Proctor’s (1986) three facet interactive model, it is the most frequently cited supervision model and has been advocated for a range of nursing contexts including mental health nursing (Cottrell 2001). This interactive model of clinical supervision offers a starting point for anyone thinking of commencing clinical supervision.

Proctor (1986) refers to the normative, formative and restorative aspects of supervision. The normative (awareness and adherence to standards) function of the model refers to what the supervisors responsibility is for ensuring that the supervisee’s work is professional, ethical and within organisational and professional codes of practice, addressing the quality of the supervisee’s practice compared to the standard and can be perceived as focussing on managerial issues. The formative (skills and educational development) phase is where the supervisor acts to provide feedback and facilitate the development of theoretical and practical knowledge so that the supervisee becomes more competent as a practitioner. The restorative (supportive) facet is when the supervisor listens, supports and addresses the supervisee about personal issues and insecurities to maintain stability and boundaries.
However Fowler (1996) argued that there is not one model of supervision that suits the needs of all nursing contexts and Sloan and Watson (2002) recommend that those engaging in the clinical supervision process should decide on the choice of framework.

The supervisor’s organisation does not advocate any particular model for clinical supervision therefore Proctor’s (1987) model was chosen by the supervisor as a framework to facilitate the supervision session as it was the model the supervisor was most comfortable and familiar with and this would allow the supervisor to feel more at ease carrying out the supervision session without being distracted by the need to use an unfamiliar tool which may have inhibited the development of the relationship between supervisor and supervisee and the effective use of interpersonal skills required for successful supervision.

It has been suggested that the relationship between supervisor and supervisee is the single most important contribution to effective clinical supervision (Kilminster and Jolly 2000) and it is argued that the shared understanding of the purpose of supervision sets a firm basis for the supervisory relationship (Sloan 2005).

Within the team this relationship would ordinarily commence with the choosing of a supervisor and the introduction of supervision to the supervisee if they were unfamiliar with the process or to establish the organisation and supervisee’s requirements of supervision. As fore mentioned both supervisor and supervisee are employed in the same team, the supervisor has previously supervised other members of the team but this was the beginning of this supervisory relationship and the direction of the clinical supervision session was new to both.

Fish and Twinn (1997) highlight the importance of clinical supervisors’ preparation to implement supervision as an important consideration in successful delivery of clinical supervision.

The supervisor approached their colleague and discussed with them the context of them beginning this relationship in respect of the supervisors training. The prospective supervisee discussed concerns and queries regarding taking part in the supervision session at this point before agreeing to the sessions. This new supervision relationship was also opportunistic in respect that the supervisees’ current supervisor had recently left the team and so the supervisee was requesting a new supervisor. By addressing the concerns and queries of the supervisee prior to the session barriers and anxieties over supervision were reduced.

Bond and Holland (1998) suggest that anxiety is a frequent and natural experience for both supervisee and supervisor, the aforementioned NHS Trust Clinical Supervision policy lays out the role of the supervisor, supervisee and what the aim and context of clinical supervision, information that can be useful in providing guidance for both supervisor and supervisee that may help in alleviating some anxiety around partaking in supervision.

The supervisor and supervisee agreed to look at the policy together prior to commencing their first supervision session together to establish the organisations requirements. Howard (1997) illustrates how a clinical supervision checklist can be useful in the early stages of clinical supervision relationship as it provides the opportunity for both supervisor and supervisee to get to know each others professional experiences and establish the supervisee’s requirements from supervision however a formal checklist was not used both supervisor and supervisee had worked with each other for some years and were familiar with each others professional experiences.

The supervisor meets the requirements of the organisation; The NHS Trust concerned sets out the requirements of a supervisor as someone who has a minimum of two years post registration experience, however whilst it maybe considered reasonable to expect a supervisor to have experience Devine and Baxter (1995) and Kohner (1994) emphasise the personal qualities of the supervisor such as compassion, honesty and approachability rather that their experience or qualification. Power (1999) pays some attention to the first supervision session and proposes that this is when, what supervisee and supervisor need to know about each other is established, hence supporting the use of a checklist and supervision contract.

Sloan (1998) recognised that the supervisor’s characteristics whilst regarded as one of the most important areas of the relationship between supervisee and supervisor leading to effective clinical supervision where largely neglected in nursing. The supervisor recognised the importance of these interpersonal skills in developing an effective relationship with the supervisee, these skills were already present in the relationship between supervisor and supervisee due to their working relationship, however the supervisor was increasingly aware of the need to practice these skills in the supervision context in order for the supervisee to feel confident in sharing their experiences.

Catmur (1995) suggests the supervisor should have specialist skills, supportive skills and communication skills whilst other characteristics from a supervisor’s perspective include promoting autonomy, being knowledgable and competent, provide feedback on performance and provide specific ideas about interventions (Pesut and Williams 1990). The supervisor was confident that they were able to mirror these skills in supervision and felt confident in the supervision process, on reflection this was due to the past experiences of the supervisor in this role and in providing clinical supervision in the past. Alternatively Fowler (1995) and Sloan (1999) on investigating characteristics from a supervisee’s perspective found similarities such as formation of a supportive relationship, having good listening skills, possessing relevant knowledge and clinical skills as well as a commitment to clinical supervision. The supervisor and supervisee discussed at the pre supervision meeting what they felt were important skills for the supervisor to possess and they were reflective of these findings as well as the confidence in confidentiality and a non- judgemental approach from the supervisor.

Recording of the supervision session was also discussed and in keeping to the organisations requirements it was concluded that when clinical supervision sessions had taken place it would be documented and the clinical supervision monitoring record (Appendix 3) updated to provide evidence of supervision. The contents of the sessions would be recorded for personal use on the clinical supervision record (Appendix 2) and kept by the supervisee as well as other notes taken in the session being verified by the supervisee and copies kept by the supervisee with the supervisor taking and keeping notes if they were thought to be essential for future sessions. The use of the reflective diary and notes pertaining to this were to be kept by the supervisee.

However Johns (1996) advocates that the supervisor always takes notes and these are then used at the next supervision session, enabling the supervisor to highlight key issues. This could be argued that this may take the focus away from the supervisees’ requirements at the next session and focus on the supervisors perspective of what is needed.

Powers (1999) supports that the recording of information such as date, start and finish time, names of those attending, brief notes of the content of the supervision and the next supervision date be recorded as these aspects are pertinent to the organisation of supervision.

Alternatively Clark et al (1998) argue in favour of the minimum amount of recording in supervision sessions and suggests that only the contract set out at the start of supervision be the only record kept; a view supported by Bond and Holland (1998) where concerns are recognised that if supervision records identify a particular client then the client has the legal access to these records and if supervision takes place during working time then the employer maybe able to access them and use them in disciplinary proceedings. However with the introduction of the Care Quality Commission (2010) t is a requisite as part of Care Quality Commission registration that evidence that supervision is taking place is apparent.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Clinical Supervision

...Markus Sinclair March 23, 2013 HRDT 6666 Professor Williams Unit Assignment 8- Clinical Supervision Summary The purpose of clinical supervision is to assist the teacher to learn from his or her experience and progress in expertise, as well as to ensure good service to the student. It is not only an observation but also an existence. The author points out that most teachers have a negative view of supervision and the relationship between the teacher and supervisor can be hostile and only provides summative evaluation. To counteract the situation, the clinical supervision model was introduced to propose that teachers can be familiar with the evaluate approach of clinical supervision. Under this model, the following supervisory requirements for successful implementation of clinical supervision are identified: teachers should learn specific intellectual and behavioral skills to improve instruction. Supervisors should take responsibility for helping teachers to develop skills for analyzing the instructional process and emphasize what and how teachers teach, to improve instruction not to change the teacher’s personality. Planning and analysis should center on making and testing instructional hypotheses based on observational evidence. The planning conference is to establish a common frame of reference for the planning observation, also establish rapport between the teacher and those supervising. The lesson plans should be implemented during the observation and discussed.......

Words: 476 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Clinical Supervision

...Rationale for Competency-Based Supervision Deonae Shackelford Western New Mexico University Rationale for Competency-Based Supervision The subject area of competency-based supervision is not one that I ever considered until I entered into the field work phase of the MSW program. Even upon entering the program I had not considered nor had I an understanding for what the field work portion would entail and the importance of it. My idea was that I would have an opportunity to gain some practical experience to go along with the education and knowledge I am acquiring while in school. How well the person in charge of me is trained or how in-depth their knowledge is about the practice of social work is was not a consideration. Now, that I am in an agency, in particular one where the person in charge of my supervision does not hold a degree of any kind, I have personal experience with the necessity of competency-based supervision when working in the social services field, particularly social work. Analysis of Supervision The National Association of Social Workers (NASW) and the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB) have developed Best Practice Standards in Social Work Supervision. The goal of this regulatory board and organization of professional membership task force is to support and strengthen supervision standards for professional social workers. The Best Practice Standards are also to provide a general framework that promotes uniformity and serves as a resource...

Words: 2874 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Latchkey Home Alone

...Kristie Tolle Mr. Burton July 23, 2014 WR121 Generation Home Alone I remembered the rules –go straight home, have a snack, if somebody comes to the door, tell them we are busy; never tell them we are not home, do not go outside, do your homework, and do not call me at work. Besides chasing my sister back into the house when she escaped, we followed the rules and waited until our parents to get home. Merriam-Webster defines a Latchkey child as a school-aged child of working parents who must spend part of the day unsupervised (as at home) —called also latchkey kid Generation X,—born between 1965 and 1980— became a generation that was pushed into adulthood at an early age. It was an era of new technology. We watched the evolution of computers the size of a room become the norm as a desktop appliance. By interacting with computers at an early age, Gen Xers have a greater understanding of its concept. We spent less time with our parents then earlier generations. It was common for Boomer mothers to stay at home and raise their children, while the fathers went off to work. Unlike Boomers, Gen Xers were the first generation to be recognized as latchkey kids. Our generation found ourselves at home taking care of our younger siblings and ourselves while our parents worked. I never considered myself a Latchkey kid. I was like all the other fifth graders with working parents and younger siblings. I babysat all the time when my parents ran to the...

Words: 997 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Latchkey Children

...Characteristics of At-Risk Students: Latchkey Children Tiffany Tham AED 201 Linda Rosiak Axia College, University of Phoenix June 13, 2010 Children who go home to an empty house without parental supervision are called Latchkey Children. These children are usually left alone until one or both parents arrive home from work. Latchkey children are often told by parents not to open doors for strangers or step outside. A list of emergency contacts is usually left in a place where the children can see in case of an emergency. Parents usually provide a snack for the children to come home to while they wait for their parents’ to come home and make dinner. Some parents even cook dinner the night before so the child can just reheat and eat. I was not a Latchkey child, but many of my friends were. Many of them would walk home to an empty house every day; some of them would have food prepared for them; and some would have to do it themselves. At our age I never realized that my friends would be categorized as at risk students because they went home to no one. The programmed I researched is called the START program. The Start program helps children with anything from homework to tutoring, as well as reading, literacy, math and recreational activities. START also provides extended daycare needs to those students who need them. Each school’s extended program varies but all provides similar activities for students. Start also offers programs through community partners. The START......

Words: 819 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Us Treasury Bills Auction Pricing

...2013       MANAGERIAL  ECONOMICS   GROUP  PROJECT:   “US  TREASURY  BILLS  AUCTION  PRICING:  ANALYSIS  OF  THE  STRUCTURE  AND  PROCESSES”   Professor:                     Done  by:   The goal of this paper was to analyze and explain the auction system process held by US Treasury and the possible alternatives for it (multiple-pricing auction). Introduction. The U.S. Treasury Department regularly borrows to finance the Federal Government's debt. From 1980 to 2006, the public debt of the United States grew from $930 billion to $8.68 trillion. Approximately one-half of that debt is held in Treasury bills, notes, and bonds, or "treasuries." The Treasury Department sells these securities at auctions held at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, and the Bureau of Public Debt (BPD) in Washington, D.C. The rest of the debt is held mostly in federal and federally sponsored agency securities and U.S. Savings Bonds, and is not sold through the auction process.1 The modern auction process for bills, notes, and bonds begins with a public announcement by the Treasury. A typical announcement might read, "The Treasury will auction $11,000 million of 91-day bills to refund $9,000 million of maturing securities and to raise about $2,000 million new cash." This statement clearly describes the 2 goals of Treasury: to refund old debt and to raise new funds. Such announcement is carried by...

Words: 4454 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Persuasive Essay

...Article Rebuttal “Three banks singled out for not helping homeowners” BCOM/275 Article Rebuttal Wells Fargo, Bank of America, and JPMorgan Chase are all banks that have been bailed out by the American taxpayer in order to make home affordability a reality. In an effort to assist homeowners, the Obama administration rolled out several Programs that would enable homeowners to modify their existing loans. The Department of Treasury and Housing and Urban Development created a program that would assist troubled homeowner during these challenging economic times. The Home Affordable Modification Program (HAMP) and the Home Affordable Refinance Program (HARP) were created to help modify and refinance loans that became unbearable to manage. The big three claim to have helped countless homeowners modify and refinance their current loans, yet homeowners have openly stated that they have been given the runaround. What is happening to the federal bailout money? Is it really being used for its initial intent? Claim 1 Bank of America claims to have helped tens of thousands of homeowners into mortgage modifications and refinances every month. The three lenders received $24 million in incentives from the government and get $1000 for each completed modification. . Rebuttal The Obama administration singled out three of the nation’s largest mortgage servicers for impeding its foreclosure efforts by failing to help homeowners modify their loans. The administration will......

Words: 519 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Fgvdsc

... |Depression and Anxiety Service | |Base: |Newton Abbott | |Responsible To: |Local Team Clinical Lead | Job Purpose The principal purpose of the job is to improve the psychological health & wellbeing of people within an identified Devon locality. The post holder will be part of an Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) service and will provide high intensity interventions - initially cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). The post holder will work with clients who have a range of complex Anxiety and Depression related problems for which CBT is demonstrated to be clinically effective. The post holder will work with people with different cultural backgrounds and ages, using interpreters when necessary and should be committed to equal opportunities   The post holder will act as a lead specialist for IAPT, providing professional clinical supervision to less experienced staff, trainees & students. As a senior clinician the post holder will be expected to contribute to the leadership of the local service providing support and undertake delegated responsibilities under the...

Words: 2564 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Business 415 Final Team Assignment

...Washington Federal Savings University of Phoenix Business Law BUS 415 Deborah Gronet October 20, 2007 Washington Federal Savings Washington Federal Savings is a financial institution that has served communities statewide since 1917. As a savings and loan institution, Washington Federal offers checking and savings accounts and mortgage loans. Defining itself amongst competitors, Washington Federal provides customers with the “human touch” in its simplest form - quality customer service. Operating in eight states, Washington Federal maintains a relatively small staff of 885 employees. As a financial institution, Washington Federal is highly regulated by certain federal agency regulations. This paper will explore the regulations currently in effect for financial institutions, as well as the origin, evolution, and efficacy of these regulations within Washington Federal Savings. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation [FDIC] is an independent agency of the United States government. The FDIC protects depositors against the loss of deposits if an FDIC-insured bank or savings association fails. FDIC insurance is backed by the credit of the United States government. An insured bank is any bank or savings association with FDIC insurance (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation [FDIC], 2007). The FDIC was created in 1933 by the Glass-Steagall Act. This was a merging of two separate acts which were created by the U.S.......

Words: 3320 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Washington Mutual

...them. Starting in 2004 they started using a strategy in lending to make more money by taking high risk loans. In 2006 they started experienced high rates of failure and defaulting loans. By 2007 the bank was losing money that had to do with poor quality and fraudulent loans and securities. The bank internal control systems fail because no one took the evidence that was provided by employees in email, audit reports, and reviews seriously. The bank CEO and president was told of the extensive fraud by Long Beach Mortgage Company. After looking over the review the bank tried to stop the fraud, but it was ineffective. The senior management also helped in sells the delinquency loans to investors. Regulatory failure of the Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS) did not try to stop what they knew was unsafe and unsound practices at WaMu that help with their down fall. This bank had over 500 grave defects. The records of OTS has shown that during the last five years the bank had many problems dealing with lending, risk management, asset quality, and appraisal practices, but WaMu told OTS that the problems would be fixed, it never happen. OTS did not follow through with enforcement acted. 1999 WaMu bought Long Beach Mortgage Company and they started doing shoddy lending procedures. WaMu knew the loans were fraudulent...

Words: 1431 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Financial Crisis Paper

...What caused the financial crisis of 2008 and who is responsible for it? My original intent for this paper was to argue that market failure, particularly in the housing sector, was the primary cause for the crash. Unfortunately my research has lead me in a different direction. According to the discussions we had in class that means I should be arguing from the perspective that the crisis was caused by government intervention then, right? I’m not so sure that’s the case either. Instead I’ll argue that the financial crisis of 2007-08 and the following “Great Recession” were the result of a perfect storm of both regulatory and market failure. Senators Carl Levin and Tom Coburn lead a 2-year long Senate subcommittee investigation into the crash. In April 2011 they released a 635 page report on their findings where they concluded that there was indeed no singular cause of the crash. The bipartisan subcommittee implicates several primary causes. Inflated credit ratings on mortgage related securities are cited as being “…the most immediate cause of the financial crisis…” The two primary rating firms, Standard & Poors and Moody’s had been assigning risk profiles to mortgage related securities similar to that of Treasury Bills – widely regarded as the most secure investment you can make since the government can just print money to pay you. In July of 2007 both firms did massive downgrades that exposed how risky these investments actually were. The downgrades resulted in a...

Words: 801 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Food and Drug Administration

...is responsible for protecting and advocating public health. They are the official government agency that ensures our drug supply is safe and effective. This is achieved through the regulation and supervision of food safety, dietary supplements, veterinary products, cosmetics, vaccines, biopharmaceuticals, medical devices, prescription and pharmaceutical drugs that can be purchased over- the- counter. When a pharmaceutical company creates a new drug, it has to go through the FDA and is required to submit a New Drug Application (NDA) to the FDA. The FDA reviews the application to assure that there is an objective proof that the proposed drug is safe and effective. If the drug proves to be effective and safe, the FDA will approve it. However, the FDA requires some drugs to be furthered studied and require additional clinical trials. When the drug is officially approved, the FDA sends an approval letter to the company- this process may take many years. Some important steps taken for an approval are (2008 Internet Drug News Inc.): Synthesis & Purification - FDA estimates that it takes approximately eight-and-a-half years to study and test a new drug before it can be approved for the general public. This estimate includes early laboratory and animal testing, as well as later clinical trials using human subjects. Animal Testing (short term) - Generally, two or more species (one rodent, one non-rodent) are tested because a drug may affect one species differently from another. ...

Words: 877 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Career in Psycholygy

...study the effect of stress on health problem in order to educate people about stress reduction techniques and teaching people how to avoid unhealthy behaviors. They also help and guide their patient to cope with pain or illness and how to get them to seek treatment for medical conditions. Health psychologist need to hold a doctorate level degree in Psychology (Ph. D or Psy. D). In order to become licensed health psychologist in clinical or counseling psychologist, they must complete a minimum of a one-year internship after earning a doctorate degree. The American Board of Professional Psychology also offers board certification in health psychology. There are some positions for people who have a bachelor’s degree or master’s degree to employ in community mental health offices or correctional facilities. They could study undergraduate degree in general psychology then specialize major in psychology in graduate school to get higher degree, but they have to work under the supervision of a licensed clinical psychologist. Health psychologist work in clinical and medical setting or conduct research on a variety of health related issue, or they work in government or private agency setting to influence public policy on health issues. California has many accredited school which offer the education or training for health psychology. Academic program in health psychology includes psychology training at many levels, from psychology certificate, associate degree, bachelors, masters or......

Words: 808 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

London Whale Article

...The Logic of JPMorgan Chase Whale Trades The main purpose of this report is to expose the findings and misconduct of disclosing important information of the JPMorgan Chase Whale Trades. This report explicitly details the negligence by the Chief Investment Office in misleading the Office of the Comptroller of Currency of their Synthetic Credit Portfolio. The author’s intention is to inform what went wrong with the trading in the derivatives market by JPMorgan Chase. The key question the author is addressing is why the CIO deviated from their standard midpoint markings to later assigning more favorable prices. Also, the author is addressing why the OCC was unaware of the losses and the risk associated with the SCP. The most important information in this article is the deceptive actions committed by the CIO in the London Whale Trades. It became apparent that senior managers downplayed the problems of the SCP and kept describing the portfolio as a risk-reducing hedge, when in actuality it was a massive portfolio losing billions of dollars and had stopped providing credit loss protection to the bank. The whale trades shows how financial institutions engage in high risk trading activities with federally insure deposits and attempted to divert attention from these synthetic derivatives. The main conclusion s in this article is a combination of poorly executed hedging decisions by the CIO of JPMorgan Chase in their SCP. The CIO failed to alert its regulators of their......

Words: 858 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Fines Imposed on Banks for Money Laundering

...Economic Impact of Fines Imposed on Banks Ebony Miller-Pugh Wilmington University Abstract This paper will discuss the fines imposed on banks. Furthermore, this paper will determine if these fines have an effect on the economy – both from a national and global scale. I believe that fines imposed on banks will have a detrimental effect on the economy. In my opinion, the top three potential impacts of these fines are: Lower profits Potential lending issues Consumer and employee impact Introduction The financial institution of today is vastly different from those of yesteryear. Those that have survived the test of time and have been in business for many years have seen many changes over the years. Those changes in which financial institutions face differ greatly within a global, and national and a regional one. Regulators today are no loner letting things “slide” and are imposing steep fines and/or penalties to financial institutions in an effort to enable a business environment where the “right way of doing business” supersedes that of pure profit. Global financial institutions are on an uphill battle as well. They have to do right by their stakeholders – they have a fiduciary responsibility – while also maintaining the laws and regulations within the company as a whole and also within each jurisdiction they are located. Financial institutions today are faced with increasing regulations from a......

Words: 768 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Addiction

...Studies 4 Essentials of Chemical Dependency Counseling Perspective Jacy Patt Basic Chemical dependency counseling skills are understanding addiction, treatment knowledge, application to practice, professional readiness, and clinical evaluation. Others include screening, assessment, treatment planning, referral, case management/service coordination, implementing the treatment plan, consulting assessment and treatment planning. Possible assessments evaluation instruments are: substance use history, family dynamics, work history, psychological concerns, physical and mental status. Also, educational and life skills, current legal status, use of community resources, and more. Core elements for individual counseling are rapport, empathy, genuineness, attentiveness, respect, immediacy, concreteness, and warmth. Counselor skills go together with the elements of counseling and guide the counselor in the therapy process. Listening, reflecting, questioning, confronting, self-disclosing, interpreting, and clarifying are among these skills. Documentation is the recording of the screening and intake process and the assessment and treatment plan as well as the preparation of written reports, clinical progress notes, discharge summaries and other clinical-related data. Successful charts should be notable for the thorough and accurate charting of all pertinent aspects of patient contact. Responsibility to find a good supervisor, meeting their training needs, is up to the......

Words: 272 - Pages: 2