Premium Essay

Cloning & Individualism

In: Social Issues

Submitted By glennheng22
Words 2058
Pages 9
Results May Vary: Adam Phillips’s Theory of Cloning and The Paradoxical Apotheosis of Individualism Adam Phillips’s essay “Sameness Is All” takes the form of a dialogue with two children to introduce the fantasy of cloning in which everyone is identical. Specifically, Phillips observes that cloning is a “denial of difference and dependence” which leads to a “refusal of need” (92). However, Phillip remains mindful that such fantasy of physical or psychological sameness is implausible as everyone is different - even clones. One then questions the significance of such wanting of sameness, or if the sense of sameness serves any purpose. Using the concept of Self and Other that Joanne Finkelstein examines in “The Self as Sign,” I propose that the sense of sameness that is offered by the illusion of cloning allows one to establish a sense of identity. In a final analysis, I will elaborate on Finkelstein’s arguments on the Self and Other to shed light on the question posed by Philips on whether cloning was the death or apotheosis of individualism, and suggest that cloning has the paradoxical outcome of reinforcing individualism even as one seeks uniformity. Cloning is supposed to lead to conformity and uniformity, the absolute sameness. Phillips argues that cloning is appealing to society because it seems to represent a cure for “the terrors and delights of competition” (90-91). What is interesting, however, is the eventual admission by Phillips that this absolute sameness is impossible as “people, in actuality, can never be identical” (94) due to the difference in our individual histories and environment - among other factors which influences our individuality. This admission by Phillips prompts us to further ponder a question he poses in his essay: “Is cloning the death or the apotheosis of individualism” (88)? If we consider cloning as...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay


...have research on recent laws regarding your issue place it here. If not, delete it.) E. Thesis: Your perspective (argument) on the issue based on three main points. 1. Example Thesis: Human cloning should not be legalized because it is dangerous, expensive, and unethical. II. Brief Overview of Opposing Position A. Describe the basic view point of the opposition 1. Initially, many would argue that cloning should be legalized because it may cure diseases. B. Provide the supporting arguments and facts (supported by references to texts and well-known authorities) 1. For example, some scientists say that cloning may provide clues to genetic mapping and diseases (Bogo 1). 2. Additionally, research seems to show that cloning allows individuals to have a “back-up” of their specific blood, plasma, and even organs (Samson 2). C. Elaborate/Analysis and summary of perspective A: 1. To summarize, supporters of cloning believe that it is medically beneficial to humans. D. Counterargument: 1. Indeed, many might believe cloning is beneficial. However, cloning should not be legalized because it is dangerous, expensive, and unethical. III. Your Argument: Main Point #1 (Strong Point) A. Describe any “common ground” between the two...

Words: 645 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Advantages and Disadvantages of Cloning

...The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Cloning Since the cloning of Dolly the sheep in 1996, cloning has become something of a buzzword, especially in scientific circles. Formerly a staple of science fiction stories, it entered the public consciousness as it never had before. Not surprisingly it has generated controversy, with many of the objections coming religious organizations. Ethical implications aside however, there are however, advantages and disadvantages to the practice of cloning. Those listed below are just a few of the many pros and cons associated with cloning. Advantages of Cloning 1/Potential benefits to modern medicine Even today, the full potential of stem cells has not been fully explored. The issue of stem cells has led to controversy because embryos are generally used and they have to be destroyed for the cells to be used. However, a number of researchers believe thatstem cells will eventually change the face of medicine as we know it. Given the fact that the cells can be manipulated to mimic other types of cells, this can provide new ways to treat diseases like cancer and Alzheimer’s. Cloning also offers hope to persons needing organ transplants. People requiring organ transplants to survive an illness often wait years for a suitable donor. In many cases these patients die waiting, as there are long lists of people requiring organs. Theoretically,cloning could eliminate this by producing more animals that can act as suitable donors. Pig livers have......

Words: 669 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Future World

...Megan Davis 9/30/12 HLT 305 Professor Edwards Future World Everything about the world and society is constantly changing. New discoveries are still being made whether it is geographically or scientifically. While there is less confusion about the edges of the planet and even the universe, there is more to worry about in the healthcare world. New medicines are being made, new surgical techniques are being performed, and incurable diseases are coming closer to an end. Things such as cloning were looked at as something that would happen hundreds of years from now and yet “the first mammal, Dolly the sheep, was cloned in 1997” (Munson 2008). It will still be a long time before humans are cloned, but it is clear that we are discovering new technology at a much faster rate than expected. The human genome can be used to eradicate disease in many different ways now that “the most significant discovery in the history of mankind” (Lecture Notes) is complete. With this incredible resource, genes can be repaired or altered so that a person can avoid developing a particular disease in the future. Although “gene therapy is still in the experimental stages,” (Lecture Notes) I think that this is something that is going to become very viable by 2100. This could completely change the world of medicine. If successful, genes could be changed so that a person will not get Alzheimer’s or diabetes. The possibilities would be endless and that would change the life expectancy of our...

Words: 1119 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Pros and Cons of Cloning

...Contrary to popular notion, cloning started more than a century before Dolly, the first cloned mammal, became famous. It cannot be denied, nonetheless, that Dolly awakened the imagination of the populace regarding the pros and cons of cloning. It is a debate that continues to polarize society 15 years after the birth of the most famous sheep on Earth. Discussion We must emphasize that the cloning referred to in this article refers to reproductive, gene and therapeutic cloning. Reproductive cloning is used in the creation of an animal with the same nuclear DNA as another animal, the latter of which may be currently or previously in existence. This was the technology used in the creation of Dolly. Therapeutic cloning refers to the production of human embryos for the purpose of research. It has also been applied to create new organs or tissues for transplantation into a waiting patient with possible applications in the treatment of diseases like diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease and even cancer. These two types of cloning – there is a third type known as gene cloning, by the way – are at the center of heated debates. If you wish to cast your vote on the pros and cons of cloning, it is important to acquire as much reliable and relevant information and education on the matter. Advantages of Cloning With that being said, the following are the generally accepted benefits of cloning: • Easy replacement of internal organs and tissues for patients in need of......

Words: 548 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

The Evolution of Non Traditional Families

...College Education vs. Technical Training - College Education vs. Technical Training A few years ago, the DeVry technical institute released a commercial that compared two brothers in their educational pursuits. The younger brother started school at DeVry and graduated in two years. The older brother had chosen college and was still stuck in his dorm room studying history while his younger brother worked on the future. The question this commercial presented was obvious, why waste all that time in a university learning trivial facts which don’t apply to the real world when you can bypass it and still learn an important skill.... [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Educating Essays] 1329 words (3.8 pages) $29.95 [preview] America: Culturally Constipated? - ... Cultural pluralism or cultural diversity replaces the melting pot image with what is frequently described as a “mosaic” or almost a “tossed salad.” As Christine Bennett stated “each part retains some of its uniqueness while contributing to the beauty and strength of the whole composition.” The United States still has failed to become part of the tossed salad idea we don’t diversify with other cultures, why. Prejudice and racism is a root problem for cultural barriers within the borders of the United States.... [tags: American Culture] 763 words (2.2 pages) $19.95 [preview] Cultural Challenges Of Doing Business Overseas - The Cultural Challenges of Doing Business Overseas Steve Kafka, an American of Czech origin......

Words: 670 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...up controversy. One of the ethical issues in technology that is very controversial is cloning. Some people would say cloning is the future, while others including myself would say it is harming our futures. I am against cloning because of the unethical experimentations, procreations turn into manufactures, and it threatens individuality and identity. In this report you will be learning about what is cloning, the pros and cons of cloning, and how to fix this controversial issue. Cloning is a cell or organism that is genetically identical to the unit or individual from which is was derived from. Cloning can be done on animals, plants, food, and even humans. The three types of cloning are Gene, Reproductive, and Therapeutic Cloning. Gene cloning creates copies the DNA, Reproductive cloning involves copies of animals, and Therapeutic cloning deals with stem cells in human beings body. One of the pros from cloning is that it can replace internal organs and tissue. Embryonic stem cells can grow and produce new organs and tissue from the damaged one. When patients are in need of a transplant, instead of waiting for an organ donor, they would just clone their organs and tissues. So if someone got into a car accident and needed a new heart and a new face, cloning would produce the organ so they could have another organ and the tissue so they could make his face without scars. Another pro for cloning is it being the solution to couples who have infertility issues. There are......

Words: 730 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Cloning: Right or Wrong?

...Running Head: CLONING RIGHT OR WRONG? Cloning Right or Wrong? Should the cloning of humans be legalized? Diane Lentz English 215 Strayer University Online Cloning Right or Wrong? Should the Cloning of Humans be Legalized? Scientists have been cloning animals from embryonic cells for decades (Cowen, 2001). With the introduction of Dolly, the first animal cloned from mature tissue, the issue of cloning has reached a fevered pitch. Individuals for cloning and those against are taking their battle to new arenas, such as congress. The battle will continue as research progresses. The process of cloning and the information compiled from cloned animal experiments are as important as the benefits and complications as well as the ethical and legal ramifications of it, which are at the core of the modern day debate. In 1997, a sheep named Dolly gained national recognition. Dr. Ian Wilmut, a Scottish scientist from the Roslin Institute, introduced her to the world as a genetic copy of her mother. Animals, as humans, receive half of their DNA from their mother and half from their father. This creates a unique individual. It took scientists 277 tries to succeed in creating Dolly. While Dolly has the same DNA as her mother, they are different in many ways. Human twins share the same DNA but have different personalities due to life experiences. The process Dr. Wilmut used to create Dolly is called “nuclear......

Words: 1677 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Stem Cells

...Stem Cells: Past, Present, and Future Timothy T. Botts DeVry University: Online FALA10 Sec N Professor Jackie Sexson Stem cells are a difficult topic to breach without heated words arising on both sides of the debate. Research Legislation on stem cells has a long history, but in the United States, it is quite young. It seems with the change in the political powers of America comes a change in the views of stem cell research and its legislation. The NIH Revitalization Act of 1993 was signed into law by President Clinton. It was through this Act that in vitro fertilization (IVF) research was congressionally sanctioned without prior approval of the Ethics Advisory Board. President Clinton decided still to create a 19 member committee to oversee the ethical dimensions of this research. The committee was called the NIH Human Embryo Research Panel. This committee came back in September of 94’ and their decision was that government spending should be allotted and that human embryos could be specifically created for research. President Clinton decided not to take the panel’s suggestion and enacted an executive directive prohibiting federal funding on research to support the creation of human embryos used exclusively for research purposes. President Clinton mandated that federal funds can only be applied to research using human stem cells derived from frozen embryos that were created for purposes of infertility treatment and were in excess of clinical need or from fetal......

Words: 1687 - Pages: 7

Free Essay


...WHAT IS CLONING? Have you ever wished you could have a clone of yourself to do homework while you hit the skate park or went out with your friends?Imagine if you could really do that. Where would you start?What exactly is cloning?Cloning is the creation of an organism that is an exact genetic copy of another. This means that every single bit of DNA is the same between the two!You might not believe it, but there are human clones among us right now. They weren't made in a lab, though: they're identical twins, created naturally. Below, we'll see how natural identical twins relate to modern cloning technologies.How is cloning done?You may have first heard of cloning when Dolly the Sheep showed up on the scene in 1997. Cloning technologies have been around for much longer than Dolly, though.How does one go about making an exact genetic copy of an organism? There are a couple of ways to do this: artificial embryo twinning and somatic cell nuclear transfer. How do these processes differ?1. Artificial Embryo TwinningArtificial embryo twinning is the relatively low-tech version of cloning. As the name suggests, this technology mimics the natural process of creating identical twins.Open large version  In nature, twins occur just after fertilization of an egg cell by a sperm cell. In rare cases, when the resulting fertilized egg, called a zygote, tries to divide into a two-celled embryo, the two cells separate. Each cell continues dividing on its own, ultimately developing into a......

Words: 1050 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...have been successfully cloned from an adult cell. Previous clonings have been from embryo cells. The sheep's birth has been heralded as one of the most significant scientific breakthroughs of the decade although it is likely to spark ethical controversy. Scientists in Scotland cloned a ewe by inserting DNA from a single sheep cell into an egg and implanted it in a surrogate mother. They now have a healthy seven-month-old sheep - Dolly - who is an exact genetic duplicate of the animal from which the single cell was taken. DNA tests have revealed that Dolly is identical to the ewe who donated the udder cell and is unrelated to the surrogate mother. “It will enable us to study genetic diseases for which there is presently no cure” said Dr Ian Wilmut, Embryologist. | Embryologist Dr Ian Wilmut, from the Roslin Institute, said: "It will enable us to study genetic diseases for which there is presently no cure and track down the mechanisms that are involved." The research, published in Nature magazine, follows the Edinburgh team's success in cloning sheep embryos. Last year they produced two identical sheep, which were clones of an original embryo. The company which has bought the rights to the research, PPL Therapeutics, said Dolly would help to improve understanding of ageing and genetics and lead to the production of cheaper medicines. US President Bill Clinton has set up a special task force to investigate cloning in order to examine the legal and ethical......

Words: 316 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Ethics and Fears and Wonders of Human Cloning

...REACTION PAPER Ethics and Fears and Wonders of Human Cloning By Dr. Alfredo P. Co What is a clone? According to the Encyclopædia Britannica (1979), “a clone is a population of organisms derived originally from a single individual. By definition clones occur only in organisms capable of asexual reproduction and consist of genetically identical individuals”. There has been a successful recorded experiment which regard to cloning, although it was just an animal (a sheep to be more specific), there has been speculations that Human Cloning is not very far away. Before judging this issue, we should refrain having ignorant thoughts and try to study and understand the issue and detach ourselves from our emotions, religious dogmas and cultural habits/ or entrenched habits. We should see all the possible outcome of this, both positive and negative. Cloning is an issue that cannot be overlooked because everyone will be affected by the decision that would be put upon the issue, lives will either be saved and/or lost. In February 1997, Dolly the sheep, was successfully cloned from an adult sheep. After this experiment, some people were enthusiastic with this successful discovery, because it may be the key to unlocking the ‘untreatable diseases’ that we are currently facing today. It may give life and/or prolong life, it may be the only solution and the only hope for families that are experiencing a very difficult time in watching their loved ones suffer, and it may be the only......

Words: 753 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Genetic Engineering

...The Science and Ethics of Genetic Engineering Research & Position Paper Table of Contents DNA Fingerprinting/ Genetically Modified Foods --------------------------------------------------- p. 3 Gene Therapy/Cloning------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ p. 4 Stem Cell Technology------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ p. 5 Position Paper------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- p. 6-7 Bibliography-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- p. 8-10 Evaluation Rubric----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- p. 7 DNA Fingerprinting DNA fingerprinting are tests that help to identify and analyze a person’s DNA. The term “fingerprinting” is used because finger prints, like DNA, vary from person to person and no two people have the same DNA or fingerprints. So, when scientists identify a person’s DNA, it can only be linked back to one individual and can help to obtain information about that specific individual. DNA fingerprinting can be done through many different ways. Some ways are through blood samples from a vein or heel, saliva samples, skin samples, or hair samples. The purpose of DNA fingerprinting is to help link family members together, find things that cause diseases, to help aid in crime scene investigations, and......

Words: 2310 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

English Paper

...Prof. Eric Bond EN 102 12/10/2012 LEGALIZATION OF HUMAN CLONING As years pass, more and more gadgets, machines, transportations, and foods are being improved because of the technological advancements. Even the life of humans is improved by the years, where the life expectancy is increasing because of the developed medical research, medicines, and medical equipment. However, developed biomedical methods such as cloning are controversial and in fact 93% of all Americans oppose cloning (Pynes). Cloning is a technique used by researchers and animal breeders to split a single embryo into two or more embryos that will have the exact same genetic information. Because of the controversies against this practice, the United States would not open the door to human cloning and this has led to a debate between the government, and scientists and bioethicists. Cloning is a very controversial topic since it relates to moral values of human beings. Human cloning has become a hot topic for debate as we progress one step closer to successfully cloning and developing a human being. Legislators and the general public have become more concerned about the medical, ethical, social and moral implications of this procedure. The risks involved in human cloning outweigh the benefits, for that reason, human cloning should not be legalized in the United States. Human cloning will cause serious medical issues. Technically, the human gene grows older with age. According to Gary Wickman, an author......

Words: 2213 - Pages: 9

Free Essay


...potential employees of companies were not tested on their skills or knowledge but on their physical and mental possibilities. Just because his parents decided that he would come into the world naturally instead of through gene therapy or alteration. Terms like “faith birth'; and “invalid'; were used against Anton. I think gene therapy has it promises, but when used in the fashion as it was used in the Gattaca I think its progress should be carefully monitored. Right now sheep and other animals are being cloned. Soon primates and Humans could be cloned. I think we should further investigate human cloning for research on the parenting process and other physiological experiments that can only be used now on identical twins separated at birth. These experiments when used could be used to gain insight on what our genes determine in our personalities. I also think that the achievement of us humans cloning ourselves would be a great achievement for the entire human race such as it was when we landed on the moon in 1969.       In the movie Gattaca they barely showed the moral consequences of the actions. Anton’s father showed more pride in his brother than Anton, but what about Anton making friends, was he doomed to be a social outcast in friendships also? The second rate swimmer so depressed by being second in a race almost committed suicide, what about him? The movie never revealed how poor nations around the world dealt with eventually becoming a nation of an inferior human race.......

Words: 398 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Human Cloning

...Human cloning Cloning is an asexual reproduction. Human cloning is the most controversial and hot debate topic of the modern society. Humans have made everything from high tech objects to reaching far space planets in spaceship. Human cloning is creating identical copy of a human. It could also mean to reproduce human cells and tissues. It does not refer to the natural conception and delivery of identical twins. The possibility of human cloning has raised controversies. These ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass laws regarding human cloning and its legality. There are two commonly discussed types of theoretical human cloning are: therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. Therapeutic cloning would involve cloning cells from a human for use in medicine and transplants, and is an active area of research, but is not in medical practice anywhere in the world, as of 2014. Two common methods of therapeutic cloning that are being researched are somatic-cell nuclear transfer and, more recently, pluripotent stem cell induction. On July 5, 1996, the most famous sheep in modern history was born. Ian Wilmut and a group of Scottish scientists announced that they had successfully cloned a sheep named Dolly by the process of somatic-cell nuclear transfer. Reproductive cloning would involve making an entire cloned human, instead of just specific cells or tissues. Scientists have cloned a variety of animals, including mice, sheep, pigs, cows and dogs. In 2006,......

Words: 705 - Pages: 3