Premium Essay

Cockroach Repellent

In: People

Submitted By itsmeyvettekc
Words 1100
Pages 5
Food web
A food web (or food cycle) is the natural interconnection of food chains and generally a graphical representation (usually an image) of what-eats-what in an ecological community. Another name for food web is a consumer-resource system. Ecologists can broadly lump all life forms into one of two categories called trophic levels: 1) the autotrophs, and 2) the heterotrophs. To maintain their bodies, grow, develop, and to reproduce, autotrophs produce organic matter from inorganic substances, including both minerals and gases such as carbon dioxide. These chemical reactions require energy, which mainly comes from the sun and largely by photosynthesis, although a very small amount comes from hydrothermal vents and hot springs. A gradient exists between trophic levels running from complete autotrophs that obtain their sole source of carbon from the atmosphere, to mixotrophs (such as carnivorous plants) that are autotrophic organisms that partially obtain organic matter from sources other than the atmosphere, and complete heterotrophs that must feed to obtain organic matter. The linkages in a food web illustrate the feeding pathways, such as where heterotrophs obtain organic matter by feeding on autotrophs and other heterotrophs. The food web is a simplified illustration of the various methods of feeding that links an ecosystem into a unified system of exchange. There are different kinds of feeding relations that can be roughly divided into herbivory, carnivory, scavenging and parasitism. Some of the organic matter eaten by heterotrophs, such as sugars, provides energy. Autotrophs and heterotrophs come in all sizes, from microscopic to many tonnes - from cyanobacteria to giant redwoods, and from viruses and bdellovibrio to blue whales.

Charles Elton pioneered the concept of food cycles, food chains, and food size in his classical 1927 book "Animal Ecology";...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Dalandan and Ginger Extracts as Housefly and Cockroach Repellent

...Abstract Houseflies and cockroaches are two of the most commonly noted pests in our households. Since these insects feed on human and pet foods, they serve as vectors for disease transmission. Chemical insecticides are usually used in many households in order to control these pests. But the high price and health problem from branded chemical insecticides gives dilemma to Filipino household. Respiratory diseases can also result from continuous use of these insecticides especially since chemical substance from the product are inhaled by a person. This study seeks the possibility of using the extracts of ginger and dalandan to repel and eliminate insects, particularly, houseflies and cockroaches. The Dalandan and Ginger extracts as an insecticidal spray can be possible by the botanical and chemical properties that can be found within the fruit and crop. Dalandan have a chemical property which is known as d-limonene that has the capacity to melt the protective wax coating of insects, affecting their respiratory system. Ginger contains gingerols and shogoals that give ginger its hot and warming qualities, responsible for their ability to suffocate the insects. In making the insect spray, the dalandan was squeezed in order to get its extract, while the extracts of ginger were juiced out by chopping the ginger into smaller pieces and squeezing it until the juices reached the measurement given. For additional d-limonene substance (orange oil) which was extracted from the...

Words: 939 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Roaces: the Apartment Pest

...| Roaches | The Apartment pest | | Timothy Osborne | 12/3/2012 | Roaches and other pest seem to be immune to most pesticides nowadays. In the past few years I have notice that regardless how much you bomb, spray or put out traps they always come back, sometimes with a vengeance. In most communities, mainly apartment complexes, management hire exterminators for preventative measures. But in most cases it’s already too late for that. In recent years there have been studies performed to see why this is and what can be done to fix this ongoing problem. Entomologists by the name of Jules Silverman and Donald N. Bieman conducted an experiment with German cockroaches that were gathered from apartments and a control group of cockroaches that were reared in a lab. Their findings were quite surprising as the insects grown in the lab had no preconceived notion that the poison/bait was dangerous the ones collected from the apartments would touch the bait with their antennas and quickly back off. The evidence gathered showed that the roaches that had been exposed to the different types of poison before were more weary and seemed to not be attracted to the glucose or sugar that had been contaminated by poison. Very few animals avoid glucose (Silverman 1993). This leads me to believe that over time insects and other pest are adapting to the use of pesticides that are normal used in apartments. The developments of other types of pesticides are being created and should......

Words: 938 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Dreaming According to the Dream Activation Synthesis Theory

...the brain. Also, we have a need to make sense of our world and even while asleep. The brain takes these chaotic memories and creates a logical story line. This theory best explains my dream which I will describe as follows. In my dream, I met giant cockroaches which were taller than I was. I felt very scared because they were very big and they tried to attack me. I ran fast but I could not escape since there were many of them. Then I woke up with a start. On another day, I dreamed that I was driving on the road skillfully and quickly. While I drove past many cars from left to right and right to left, I felt very proud of my driving skill. Therefore, I will show the relation between real life and dream. In the first case, I had seen a cockroach while taking a shower before going to bed. It ran to my leg, and I very do not like them. That represents my concerns about cockroaches and I clearly remember according to the activation synthesis theory. The second dream happened when I was young. I wanted to be a sports car driver in that time because I thought it was very smart. Also at that time, I think about them a lot. It was explain why I dreamed about sports car. The two dreams explain that dreams come from different motivation, but they come from the real world in our memory according to the activation synthesis...

Words: 314 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Pest Insect

...How to Control Pests Safely Getting Rid of Roaches and Mice A Healthy Homes Guide THE NEW YORK CITY DEPARTMENT of HEALTH and MENTAL HYGIENE Contents Why You Need This Guide How to Find Pests How to Control Pests Safely Step 1: Clean Up Step 2: Shut Pests Out Step 3: Starve Them and Parch Them How to Choose Safer Pest-Control Products For Cockroaches: dusts, gel baits, bait stations and sticky traps For Rodents: baits and traps When to Hire a Professional Why You Need This Guide Too many New Yorkers live in homes or buildings that have cockroaches, mice, or rats. Nobody wants to live with pests! Insects and rodents can contaminate food, damage homes, and make allergies and asthma worse. Chemicals people use to get rid of pests also cause problems. Pesticides can cling to carpets, furniture, and other surfaces, and many are dangerous to people and pets. The Poison Control Center takes about 1,000 reports of accidental pesticide poisonings or exposures every year – half of them to children under five. What Are People Doing Wrong? Many tenants, landlords, and pest control professionals make the same mistake: they turn to pesticides first. But chemicals kill only a small number of pests. Pests can become resistant, so the poison no longer kills them and their offspring. Pesticides – chemicals that kill pests – are often unnecessary. When they are needed, only safer products should be used. Why This Guide Works Good pest control gets to the root of...

Words: 2459 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

The Cockroach

...insects. When we read the title of the poem “The cockroach” we immediately have negative opinions. However, Kevin Halligan sees through the revolt and instead, relates to the cockroach throughout the poem. Halligan crafted the poem carefully to convey a message to the readers that we never stop wanting more. He also managed to relate a nasty insect we often despise to a human being that embraces much more respect. So how he uses a cockroach to convey his message? Right at the beginning of the poem in the first sentence, Halligan quotes that the cockroach is “giant” which forces us to think why such a useless insect is said to be “giant.” This word hints to us that in this context the cockroach is more than what we’d usually imagine and the cockroach is elevated to a higher status. This idea is sustained when the cockroach is given an pronoun “he.” A cockroach is usually called an “it” whereas Halligan presents him at a higher level. The verbs “jog” and “climb” also help to mirror actions of a human fortifying that the cockroach was supposed to represent a human. At the end of the poem it is proven to us that the cockroach represents him shown by the quote “I thought I recognized myself.” This leads us to a new idea as to why Halligan uses a cockroach to characterize a human. The cockroach is liable to repetition and routine shown in the quote “circling the rusty table leg and back.” The quote signifies that the cockroach has got no intentions and is going nowhere......

Words: 488 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Comparative Study on the Prevalence of Cockroaches Between Rural and Urban Households in Kwara State Nigeira

...Background of the Study 1 2. Objective of the Study 2 3. Scope of the Study 3 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 5 1. Biology Of Cockroaches 5 2.2 Cockroaches in Rural and Urban Communities of Kwara State 10 2.3 Predisposing Factors for Cockroach Infestation 17 2.4 Public Health Implications of Cockroach Infestations 17 2.5 Controlling Cockroaches 18 CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS 1. The Study Area 21 2. The Study Populations 22 3. Method Of Sample Collection 23 4. Method Of Sample Preservation 25 5. Data Collection Technique 25 6. Data Analysis Technique 26 CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Introduction 27 4.2 Results 28 4.3 Discussion of Results 44 CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 47 5.1 Conclusions 47 5.2 Recommendations 48 References 49 ABSTRACT The study is a comparative study that examine the population distribution of cockroaches in two separate communities mainly the Rural and the Urban community in Kwara State. It vividly examined some of the predisposing factors that exposes a particular location to cockroach...

Words: 5914 - Pages: 24

Free Essay

The Effectiveness of Paper Charcoal as Fuel Source

...HOMEMADE INSECT REPELLENT Introduction: ABSTRACT Insect repellents are important tools for prevention of insect-borne diseases as well as painful or uncomfortable insect bites. And one of natural insect repellent is the lemon grass and the garlic. Determining the effectiveness of lemon grass and the garlic as insect repellent is the main goal of the study. The study has found out that lemon grass and the garlic mixing with olive oil and the eucalyptus oil are effective and alternative natural insect repellent. The result of the present study would provide knowledge and information about lemon grass and garlic mixing with olive oil and eucalyptus oil as insect repellent. Additionally, this study will produced significant and relevant information for future studies regarding to insect repellent. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Objectives Insect repellent are important public health tools for prevention of vector-borne infectious diseases. Actions to reduce vector-borne diseases can result in major health gains and relieve an important constraint on development in poor regions. And this insect repellents help to prevent and control the outbreaks of insect-borne. Technically, an insect repellent is any chemical or natural, that causes insect to make directed, oriented movements away from the source of repellent. And lemon grass and garlic mixing with olive oil and eucalyptus oil can use as natural insect......

Words: 1459 - Pages: 6

Free Essay


...environments. They spend the daylight hours in dark, secluded sites under refrigerators, stoves, false bottoms in kitchen cabinets, in the backs of cabinets and in crevices between baseboards and floors or cabinets and walls. They may also be found behind pictures or within electronic equipment. A number of these openings will ultimately lead to voids in the stud walls. The insects leave these sites at night to forage for food and water. The presence of cockroaches during the day may indicate a large population. There are about 3,000 species of cockroaches in the world and about 50 occur in the United States. Of these 50 species, the three most common in the Northeast are the German cockroach, the American cockroach and the brownbanded cockroach. German Cockroach: Blattella germanica The German cockroach is 12 to 17 mm (1/2 to 5/8 inch) long, tan to light brown, and has two dark brown stripes on the body region (pronotal shield) just behind the head. Females will produce four to eight egg capsules during their lifetime, with each capsule containing approximately 40 eggs. The egg capsule is retained by the female until the eggs are ready to hatch, usually in 28 to 30 days. |   German cockroaches are widespread and can be found in homes, restaurants, hospitals, nursing homes or apartments. Within these areas, the cockroaches prefer sites close to...

Words: 1178 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Classic Knitwear Case Study

...Sudhakaran This Document analyses the Long Term Marketing strategy and Financial impact of the Classic Knitwear’s decision to launch a new line of insect repellent clothes in collaboration with Guardian Company. 5C analysis: 1. Company:    Classic Knitwear, a publicly traded company operates in the $24.5 billion category of non-fashion casual knit wear. 2005 Classic revenues- $550 million, gross margin 18%, compared to average gross margin of leading branded product manufacturers- 30-40% Revenue break-up: o Sale to wholesalers who in turn supplied to screen print channels consisted 75% of Classic’s revenues, #2 player in this market with 16.5% share, B&B was #1 player with 23.6% share o 25% of Classic’s sales came from mass-retail channels which constituted only about 1% of private-label segment.  Currently enjoys moderate cost advantage through economies of scale & high volume-low SKU production runs. Product innovation paramount to show superior performance to stake holders. 2. Competitor:   Branded Side Competitors: JamesBrands ($4.5 bn revenue), Flower Knit ($1.25 bn revenue), TopTops Division ($630 mn revenue), Unbranded Side Competitor: B&B Activewear ($590 mn revenue), 3. Collaborator:  Guardian is an established manufacturer of insect repellents. Recently developed patented insect repellent clothing lasting through 70 washes. Awareness of Guardian was 50% among target group. 95% of buyers had positive perceptions about brand. 4. Context: ......

Words: 1019 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Ck Case

...Current Situation: There is a growing number or people in North America who live very active lifestyles and are heavily engaged in outdoor activities. This expanding market of people has grown increasingly concerned to insert-born diseases and illnesses, but only have a limited choice of repellents to choose from in terms of form. Recognizing this need, Classic has teamed up with Guardian in order to create a new product that combines Classic Knitwear shirts with Guardian’s new repellent technology that binds to fabrics. After being in the unbranded clothing market for quite some time, Classic Knitwear is looking to differentiate and enter into the market of branded clothing in order to create a competitive position for long term success in that area. They have teamed with Guardian do to their expertise in insect repellents as well as their strong reputation and familiarity amongst the market. This new product line will be targeted at male consumers over age 18, which represents over 100 million people. Primary Problem: Classic Knitwear is in the business of manufacturing and distributing unbranded, casual clothing to wholesalers and retailers who use a private-label brand name. To this point, the company has had tremendous success in this casual clothing industry and has a large percentage of the market. However, because their clothing is unbranded, they have almost no brand recognition with everyday consumers. Management within Classic Knitwear believes......

Words: 745 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Combined Solution of Garlic (Allium Sativum) and Lemongrass (Cymbopogon Citratus) as Mosquito Killer

...The study is entitled Combined solution of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus). Specifically, it sought to find out how these two solutions (lemongrass and garlic) can effectively kill mosquitoes. It aimed at looking for an organic and safe measure in treating the abundance of mosquito. Ideally, the researcher’s study promotes a tandem between science and creation’s conservation. The materials composing the solution were 40 mL of the combined solution of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) and Garlic (Allium sativum). The set up was composed of experimental and control group. The experimental group was being sprayed using a specific commercial pesticide. On the other hand, the control group was being sprayed using the organic mosquito killer. Data were collected to gather relevant information. In the light of the findings of the study, it was found out that the solution composing of 40 mL solution of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) extract can kill mosquitoes in a short span of time compared with the commercial one. It took only _________before the mosquitoes died. II CHAPTER I Mosquitoes are vector agents that carry disease causing viruses and parasites that lead to life-threatening diseases from one person to person without catching the......

Words: 1748 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Off! Scented Marketing Strategy

...2011 MKT 309 Contents Executive Summary 2 Company Background and Mission 3 Company Description 4 Industry Analysis 6 SWOT 7 Identification of Competition 12 Competitive Advantage 14 Target Market (Segmentation) 16 Position 18 Financial Goals 19 Non-financial Goals 20 Product 21 Pricing Strategy 23 Place 26 Promotion 27 B2B 30 References 31 Executive Summary We are proposing a new addition to the OFF! brand for SC Johnson. The product is a skin-safe, spray-on insect repellent that incorporates a new, specially formulated fragrance that will not attract insects called OFF! Scented. OFF! Scented will take a position within two current OFF! product lines, the Family Care and Active lines. Through our marketing plan, OFF! Scented will be positioned in the consumer’s mind as a fun, comfortable, edgy alternative to traditional insect repellents. OFF! Scented will be perceived as a more wearable, but equally effective repellent that will keep people safe from insect threats while enhancing social interaction with the pleasing aroma in the product. OFF! Scented will initially be targeted to a segment of the U.S. market. The segment is defined by geography by focusing on the Midwest and southern states. Demographically, the focus is on both genders age 18-34 singles, or couples without children and having incomes of $25,000 and up. Various lifestyles are considered part of the target segment as well. OFF! Scented will be......

Words: 8628 - Pages: 35

Premium Essay

Classic Harvard Case

...MKTG 489 Harvard Case Study Classic Knitwear, Inc. Gross margin is defined by as “margin of profit: the ratio gross profits divided by net sales.” In order for a company to increase marginal profit, more units need to be sold. Situation Analysis Classic Knitwear, Inc. (Classic) is a publicly traded company that was established in 1995 as a manufacturer/distributor of unbranded casual knit apparel. In 2005 Classic reported revenues of $550 million in it’s U.S. domestic sales, however in September 2006 Chief Marketing Officer Brandon Miller released Classic’s plan to introduce a new line of insect repellent clothing in order to increase gross margins. After conducting a SWOT analysis with the information provided, some of the following strengths of Classic’s were identified; - Classic is identified as the #2 player in casual knitwear sector w/ 16.5% market share. - Low production cost w/ offshore production - Moderate cost advantage over U.S. w/ high volume low-SKU production *more strengths listed in the appendix. Having such a strong and stable stance in the knitwear market is a huge benefit for Classic, and will only increase the chances for success when introducing their new line of insect repellant clothing. Although Classic has many strengths, one of the companies weaknesses is that CEO Robert Ortiz “perceived too much risk in foreign markets. “ pg 1. This fear of expanding the company may prove detrimental to the launch and success of...

Words: 722 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...Chapter I Background of the Study Introduction Cases of Dengue caused by insects especially mosquitoes are increasing year by year. Dengue is a disease caused by any 1 of 4 related dengue viruses. The viruses are transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito. There are 2 types of dengue, with dengue hemorrhagic fever being the more severe, and sometimes fatal, though much less common form of the infection. Dengue is endemic in at least 100 countries such as Asia, the Pacific. Dengue cannot be spread directly from person to person, so you can’t catch it from shaking hands, a sneeze, a doorknob or a toilet seat. Dengue is spread from person to person by the bite of an infected mosquito. The mosquito becomes infected with dengue virus when it bites a person who already has the dengue virus in their blood, typically in the time frame just before the infected person starts to have symptoms of the disease. About one week after biting an infected person, the mosquito can transmit the virus while biting a healthy person. A single infected mosquito can infect multiple people, who in turn can infect multiple mosquitoes — and the cycle continues. A bite from a female carrier mosquito can cause you fever, often as high as 104 - 105 degrees Fahrenheit, fatigue, headache, and swollen nymph nodes and might lead to death if it was not treated immediately. A total of 54,659 dengue cases were reported nationwide from January 1 to August 14, 2010, much higher than the......

Words: 815 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Suchomel Chemical Company

...Chemical company is an old-line chemical company that manufactured chemicals used in and around their consumers homes. Suchomel not only managed to maintain but had also increased its market share in several of its key lines in the past years in spite of increased competition from the major national brands. Suchomel discovered that it was better to keep their most popular products relatively the same just change minor things such as a new bottle design or label. The company agreed to stick to the things it new best, rather than try to be all things, (products), to all people, which was believed to spread their resources too thin because of their regional nature. One innovation they were considering was a new scent for their insect repellent spray. The new scent went under sever tests and trials to discover that the new scent repelled not only mosquitos, but common household bugs as well. It outperformed more than two national leading brands. The household insecticide market has been in a decline for the past several years due to new innovations in exterminations, such companies with large chemical tanks that can spay the household twice a year and repel insects. With the companies past experience they believed that the name of their new spray was particularly important in its success. The idea was to have the name of the new product associate and appeal with not only the buyer but the end user as well. Suchomel decided to do some market research in the forms of......

Words: 465 - Pages: 2