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Cocktails

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Cocktails

Een cocktail is mengsel van twee of meer (alcoholische) dranken. Verschillende smaken worden bij elkaar gebracht op een speciale manier, bijvoorbeeld door ze in een shaker te schudden of in een blender te mixen.

Het gamma aan cocktails en mixdrankjes is enorm, ze bestaan in alle kleuren, met of zonder alcohol, met ijsblokjes, met vers fruit, met honing.

Veel gebruikte dranken zijn onder andere gin, wodka, rum, bourbon, apricot brandy, Cointreau, Pisang Ambon, amaretto, cachaça, curaçao, citroen- en sinaasappelsap, sodawater en grenadine.

Geschiedenis

Een cocktail is een drankje dat er spectaculair uitziet en dito smaakt. Ooit heeft iemand eens bedacht om twee verschillende dranken met elkaar te mixen, waarvan één drankje in ieder geval een alcoholische drank. Wie en wanneer dat exact is geweest, weet niemand precies. Er wordt wel veel naar gespeculeerd.

De eerste cocktails zullen waarschijnlijk in de tweede helft van de 19e eeuw zijn verzonnen door likeurstokers en distillateurs. De ingewikkelde drankjes waren een welkome nieuwigheid bij de welgestelde burgerij. Het ging goed met de economie en men liet zich graag zien in de betere horecagelegenheden. In de jaren ’20, toen Amerika werd drooggelegd (alcohol werd verboden), werd de cocktail erg populair, ook bij de gewone man. De illegaal gestookte jenever smaakte op zichzelf in de meeste gevallen naar bocht, tenzij je de drank vermengde met sap of frisdrank.

Hoe de gemengde dranken aan de naam cocktail zijn gekomen, is nog zo eenvoudig niet te achterhalen. Men zegt dat de cocktail in de 18e eeuw is vernoemd naar de niet zuivere raspaarden, omdat het drankje ook gezien kon worden als een niet zuiver, gemengd drankje. Er zijn ook andere theorieën. Een daarvan is het verhaal dat de naam “cocktail”is afgeleid van het Franse “Coquetel”, een drankje dat graag gedronken werd door Franse officieren tijdens de Amerikaanse Onafhankelijkheidsoorlog van 1775 tot 1783. Als je het woord “cocktail” letterlijk vertaalt, kom je op de samenstelling “haan” en “staart”. Dit zou de volgende theorie kunnen bevestigen. Een Ierse kroegbazin, Betsy Flanagan zou graag jurken gemaakt van de gekleurde veren van vechthanen gedragen hebben. Ze schonk een Franse klant een lekker drankje in. De klant was zo onder de indruk van het drankje (of de kroegbazin), dat hij het glas hief en riep: “Vive le cocktail!”.

Voorbeelden

Enkele klassieke cocktails met hun belangrijkste ingrediënten zijn: • Bloody Mary (wodka, tomatensap, worcestersaus, peterseliezout, tabasco) • Long Island Iced Tea (wodka, rum, tequila en gin) • Caipirinha (cachaça, limoen, suiker) • Martini (vermout met gin of wodka) • Daiquiri (rum) • Gin Fizz (gin) • Tom Collins (gin) • Manhattan (whisky) • Margarita (tequila) • Mojito (rum, munt, rietsuiker) • Mai Tai (kersensap) • Singapore Sling (gin, kersenlikeur) • B-52 (Kahlúa, Baileys en Grand Marnier)

Bereidingswijzen
Sinds jaar en dag worden er vier bereidingswijzen voor cocktails onderscheiden, in het Engels build, stir, shake en blend: 1 Bij builden (schenken) wordt de cocktail direct in het drinkglas bereid omdat mengen niet noodzakelijk is, of juist voor een bepaald (kleur)effect, bijvoorbeeld bij een Pousse-café. Een variant hierop is het gebruik (of de noodzaak) dat de consument er zelf nog iets mee doet alvorens het op te drinken: Zie Tequila Slammer 2 Voor het stirren (roeren) worden de ingrediënten in een mengglas met een barlepel geroerd en daarna overgegoten in het glas. Hierbij is het noodzakelijk dat de dranken zich makkelijk vermengen. 3 Bij shaken (schudden) worden de dranken in een cocktailshaker met ijsblokjes geschud en daarna door een (ingebouwde) zeef in het glas geschonken. Door het schudden wordt de inhoud goed gemengd en bovendien snel gekoeld zonder al te zeer verdund te raken. 4 Door te blenden (mengen) in een blender of keukenmachine worden ijs en/of stukjes fruit vermalen en door de overige ingrediënten gemengd. Gebruik van een zeef is daarbij niet wenselijk.

Enige begrippen
Een paar vaak gebruikte begrippen zijn: • On the rocks: geserveerd met enkele blokjes ijs • Strainen: De ingrediënten splitsen van het ijs en eventueel overgebleven fruit via een zeef • Dubbel strainen: De kleine overgebleven fruit en ijs stukjes verwijderen met een fijne zeef • Cobblers: cocktails met fruit en wijn of likeur (bijvoorbeeld sangria) • Flairbartending: Het entertainen van gasten door het jongleren met flessen, shakers en glazen achter de bar. De bartenders die dit doen heten flairtenders. In Nederland is het bereiden van cocktails met flair in de jaren negentig van de twintigste eeuw populair geworden, onder andere in de cocktail catering branche. Hierbij worden professionele bartenders ingehuurd op locatie, waar zij cocktails ter plekke bereiden.

Attributen
De volgende attributen worden vaak gebruikt bij het bereiden van een cocktail: • Maatlepel of barlepel, om mee te roeren. Kan ook als maatlepel gebruikt worden: zelfde maat als een theelepel • Jigger of barmaatje • Blender • Boston shaker • Cocktailshaker • IJsemmer en ijstang of schep • Strainer (barzeef) • Snijplank en mes, bijvoorbeeld een tomatenmes, om ingrediënten en/of garneringen mee te bewerken • Muddler (voor het fijnstampen van ingrediënten, bijvoorbeeld de muntblaadjes in een mojito) • Drinkglas om de cocktail in te serveren

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