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Colgate

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BALANCE OF PAYMENT
Balance of payment yaitu suatu catatan sistematik dari transaksi perdagangan internasional suatu negara untuk periode satu tahun yang merangkum seluruh transaksi penduduk termasuk pemerintah dari suatu negara ke negara lain. untuk menyusun neraca pembayaran luar negeri atau neraca pembayaran internasional, perlu dibedakan antara transaksi debit dengan transaksi kredit.
1. Transaksi Debit adalah transaksi yang menimbulkan bertambahnya kewajiban bagi penduduk negara yang mempunyai neraca pembayaran tersebut untuk mengadakan pembayaran kepada penduduk negara lain.
2. Transaksi Kredit adalah transaksi yang menimbulkan bertambahnya hak bagi penduduk negara yang mempunyai neraca pembayaran tersebut untuk menerima pembayaran dari negara lain.
Balance of payment memiliki dua komponen utama yaitu: a) Current account (neraca berjalan), terdiri dari transaksi impor dan ekspor barang dan jasa. Pada current account, ekspor dicatat sebagai kredit karena menghasilkan devisa bagi negara. Sedangkan impor dicatat sebagai debit karena “menghilangkan”/mengeluarkan devisa dari negara. Selain ekspor dan impor, transaksi lain yang termasuk dalam current account adalah pembayaran faktor (factor payment) dan unilateral transfers. b) Financial account yang mencatat transaksi aset finansial, transfer pembayaran, piutang maupun utang internasional. Ini mencakup pencatatan akan foreign pembayaran dividen, cicilan hutang, bunga atau utang, pembelian surat berharga, saham, dan lain sebagainya. Financial account mengukur devisa masuk dan keluar seperti pada current account, dimana transaksi yang menghasilkan devisa dicatat sebagai kredit (capital inflow)
Dua fitur utama financial account adalah a. Capital inflow merupakan dana/modal yang masuk ke dalam suatu negara (dicatat sebagai kredit) b. capital outflow. Ini merupakan dana/modal yang keluar dari suatu negara (dicatat sebagai debit), investasi di luar negeri, pembayaran cicilan hutang luar negeri, pembayaran bunga atas hutang luar negeri, dll. Berdasarkan Bop yang dilakukan maka diketahui bahwa neraca tersebut dibagi ke dalam beberapa transaksi ekonomi internasional. Secara garis besar transaksi ekonomi internasional suatu negara dapat dibedakan sebagai berikut: 1. Transaksi dagang (Trade account)
Transaksi dagang mencatat seluruh ekspor dan impor barang dan jasa. Apabila ini meliputi barang-barang yang berwujud atau nyata disebut sebagai transaksi dagang nyata, sebaliknya jika meliputi barang-barang yang tidak nyata atau transaksi jasa 2. Transaksi Pendapatan modal (income on investment)
Semua transaksi penerimaan hasil modal penduduk yang ditanam di luar negeri mereka, dan penerimaan pendapatan oleh penduduk negara lain yang menanam modalnya di dalam negeri kita 3. Transaksi-transaksi unilateral (Unilateral Transaction)
Transaksi unilateral, antara lain termasuk di dalamnya hadiah, bantuan, dan transfer unilateral. * Transaksi hadiah berbeda dengan transaksi lain. Transaksi ini tidak mengakibatkan timbulnya kewajiban bagi si penerima untuk membayar harga hadiah yang telah diterima tersebut. * Transaksi bantuan biasanya terjadi saat suatu negara mengalami bencana dan mendapat bantuan obat obatan makanan. * Transaksi transfer unilateral adalah pengimbang dari transaksi unilateral atau transaksi sepihak. Untuk mengimbangi transaksi sepeihak debet atau kredit, maka pos transfer akan menjadi debet dan kredit. 4. Transaksi Penanaman Modal Langsung ( Direct Investment)
Seluruh transaksi yang berhubungan dengan jual beli saham atau perusahaan antara penduduk suatu negara dengan penduduk negara lain, termasuk dalam hal ini adalah penanaman modal langsung oleh penduduk suatu negara seperti mendirikan perusahan baru di negara lain. 5. Utang-piutang jangka panjang (Long term Loan)
Meliputi kredit yang jangkanya lebih dari satu tahun. Termasuk juga di dalamnya jual beli surat obligasi antara penduduk suatu negara dengan penduduk negara lain. 6. Transaksi Utang-piutang jangka pendek (Short term capital)
Merupakan kredit yang jangka waktunya tidak lebih dari satu tahun. Umumnya terdiri dari penarikan dan pembayaran surat-surat wesel. 7. Transaksi Lalu Lintas Moneter (Monetary acomodating)
Pembayaran-pembayaran terhadap transaksi-transaksi yang tercatat dalam rekening berjalan (current account)
Dalam transaksi internasional terdapat suatu transaksi yang harus dicatat pada sisi debit dandicatat pada sisi kredit. Dan komponen komponen yang berada di debit maupun kredit seperti sebagai berikut :
Transaksi Debit 1. Neraca barang
-Impor barang dari Negara lain 2. Neraca jasa
-Pembayaran jasa ke penduduk LN
-Pembayaran biaya pariwisata ke LN 3. Neraca Hasil Modal
-Pembayaran bunga dan deviden 4. Neraca Modal
-Kredit yang diberikan ke LN dan Pembayaran cicilan utang 5. Neraca Utang Piutang jangka panjang
-Pembelian obligasi dari LN
Transaksi Kredit 1. Neraca barang
-Ekspor barang ke Negara lain 2. Neraca jasa
-Penerimaan jasa dari penduduk LN
-Peenerimaan pariwisata dari LN 3. Neraca Hasil Modal
-Penerimaan bunga dan deviden 4. Neraca Modal
-Kredit yang diproleh dari LN dan Penerimaan cicilan utang 5. Neraca Utang Piutang jangka panjang
-Penjualan obligasi ke LN
Dalam neraca pembayaran kemungkinan terjadi surplus dan kemungkinan terjadi defisit, yakni : 1) Defisit, apabila jumlah ekspor lebih kecil dari pada impor 2) Surplus, apabila jumlah ekspor lebih besar dari pada impor
Defisit atau surplus yang terjadi pada suatu negara yang mempunyai neraca pembayaran dikarenakan oleh : a) Stok Nasional, maksudnya Jika terjadi penurunan stok nasional berarti defisit, dan jika terjadi kenaikan stok nasional berarti surplus. b) Pinjaman akomodatif, maksudnya Pinjaman yang masuk karena berkaitan dengan adanya kelebihan impor berarti merupakan bagian dan defisit. Sedangkan Pinjaman yang masuk atas kemauannya sendiri (pinjaman otonam) tidak mempengaruhi defisit. c) Defisit total adalah besarnya penurunan stok nasional ditambah pinjaman akomodatif d) Surplus total adalah besarnya kenaikan stok nasional ditambah pinjaman akomodatif.
Fluktuasi neraca pembayaran disebabkan antara lain perubahan tingkat harga dalam negeri, pergeseran permintaan luar negeri, ketidakstabilan dalam negeri, keadaan struktur produksi, perubahan posisi hutang piutang dengan luar negeri dan juga becana alam. a. Perubahan Harga Barang dan Jasa dalam Negeri
Perubahan pertama: harga yang menurun akan menurunkan biaya prduksi.
Perubahan kedua: bilamana perubahan harga barang menaik dalam negeri. b. Pergeseran Pemintaan luar Negeri
Pergeseran permintaan luar negeri akan cenderung mengurangi ekspor, yang jika berlangsung terus menerus negara bersangkutan akan mengalami kekurangan cadangan devisa dan akhirnya akan menimbulkan ketidakseimbangan neraca pembayaran. c. Ketidakstabilan Ekonomi
Ketidakstabilan biasanya ditandai dengan goncangan harga dan kurs yang terus menerus. Hal ini menyebabkan pengusaha luar negeri kehilangan pegangan untuk membaca situasi ekonomi dalam negeri. d. Bencana Alam
Bencanan alam yang cukup besar seperti banjir, gempa bumi, tsunami, serangan hama, penyakit tanaman, iklim dan lain-lain. Hal ini dapat mempengaruhi neraca pembayaran terutama dalam hal produksi e. Keadaan Struktur Produksi
Dimana struktur produksinya sangat tergantung pada faktor alamiah, sehingga penawarannya kurang elastis atau malah sama sekali inelastis, oleh karena itu produksi ini sukar untuk menyesuaikan penawaran dengan perubahan permintaan luar negeri. Ekspor tidak bisa ditingkatkan dengan segera bila permintaan luar negeri meningkat, demikian juga sebaliknya jika permintaan luar negeri menurun ekspor dengan segera tidak dapat dibatasi. f. Perubahan Posisi Hutang Piutang Luar Negeri
Hutang piutang luar negeri biasanya jangka panjang. Hutang akan menambah cadangan internasional suatu negara. Sebaliknya bagi negara kreditur, pinjaman-pinjaman itu akan mengurangi cadangan internasionalnya.
Proses penyeimbangan kembali neraca pembayaran meliputi penyeimbangan melalui perubahan pendapatan nasional, tingkat harga, tingkat kurs, tingkat bunga, dan melalui sektor moneter. 1) Tingkat Harga
Neraca pembayaran yang surplus dapat menyebabkan bertambahnya uang yang beredar, sebaliknya neraca pembayaran defisit akan mengurangi jumlah uang yang beredar. 2) Tingkat Kurs
Dalam penyeimbangan melalui tingkat kurs ini adalah devaluasi untuk defisit dan revaluasi untuk surplus. Keberhasilan devaluasi untuk menghilangkan atau mengurangi ketidakseimbangan tergantung pada elastisitas permintaan dan penawaran valuta asing. 3) Sektor moneter
Pendekatan sektor moneter neraca pembayaran menganggap bahwa timbulnya ketidakseimbangan neraca pembayaran karena ketidakseimbangan portopolio yaitu saldo kas yang terjadi berbeda dengan saldo kas yang diinginkan masyarakat.

KESIMPULAN
Neraca pembayaran suatu negara adalah catatan yang sistematis tentang transaksi ekonomi internasional antara penduduk negara itu dengan penduduk negara lain dalam jangka waktu tertentu. Neraca pembayaran internasional adalah suatu catatan yang disusun secara sistematis tentang seluruh aktivitas ekonomi yang meliputi perdagangan barang/jasa, transfer keuangan dan moneter antara penduduk (resident) suatu negara dan penduduk luar negeri (rest of the world) untuk suatu periode waktu tertentu, biasanya satu tahun. Transaksi ekonomi tersebut diklasifikasikan ke dalam transaksi berjalan, transaksi modal, dan lalu lintas moneter. Transaksi berjalan terdiri atas ekspor ataupun impor barang dan jasa, sedangkan transaksi modal terdiri atas arus modal sektor pemerintah ataupun swasta, baik yang bersifat jangka pendek maupun jangka panjang. Lalu lintas moneter adalah perubahan dalam cadangan devisa. Dengan demikian, neraca pembayaran memberikan gambaran arus penerimaan dan pengeluaran devisa serta perubahan neto cadangan devisa.

DAFTAR PUSTAKA artikel pengertian pembayaran internasional | | ArtikelEkonomi.Net www.artikelekonomi.net
Neraca Pembayaran Internasional www.sulaimanilhmiana.blogspot.com
Pengertian Neraca Pembayaran Komponen Definisi Makalah | Sarjanaku.com www.sarjanaku.com

ardra.biz: Pengertian Definisi Neraca Pembayaran, Balance of Payment www.ardra.biz

BALANCE OF PAYMENT

Disusun oleh :
Gianovriyanto Rizkyta Putra (C1J010027)

UNIVERSITAS JENDERAL SOEDIRMAN
FAKULTAS EKONOMI
2012

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...2.1 consumer preference 2.1.1 CONSUMER The consumer is the one who pays to consume goods and services produced  As such,consumers play a vital role in the economic system of a nation. Without consumer demand,producers would lack one of the key motivations to produce: to sell to consumers. The consumeralso forms part of the chain of distribution. Recently in marketing instead of marketers generating broad demographic profiles and psycho-graphic profiles of market segments, marketers have started to engage in personalized marketing, permission marketing, and mass customization. * ------------------------------------------------- Law and politics The law primarily uses the notion of the consumer in relation to consumer protection laws, and the definition of consumer is often restricted to living persons (i.e. not corporations or businesses) and excludes commercial users.[3] A typical legal rationale for protecting the consumer is based on the notion of policing market failures and inefficiencies, such as inequalities of bargaining power between a consumer and a business.[4] As of all potential voters are also consumers, consumer protection takes on a clear political significance. * ------------------------------------------------- Public reaction While use of the term consumer is widespread among governmental, business and media organisations, many individuals and groups find the label objectionable because it assigns a limited and passive role to their......

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Colgate Companys

...COLGATE'S COMPANY Colgate was as a result of research made by William Dutch back in 1806, in New York City. He began with soap, a candle and a starch. Since then, Colgate has led to evolvement of many other products in the market such as, Colgate soap, perfumes, tooth brushes and toothpastes. This has also led the establishment of Colgate dental cream. Initially Colgate was one group but eventually happened to break into different companies, which includes; Colgate Palmolive company, oral and dental products, which includes both toothpaste and toothbrushes. The Palmolive Company mainly dealt with the production, supply and provision of products which included soaps, toothpaste and toothbrushes. After a business establishment, an individual finds himself in that business with an aim of making some profit and thus to the Colgate group which began as a commercial group which intended to produce products which were extremely essentials to human beings. The Colgate Company provided various services when marketing and mainly included education and health services to its people. They would also involve building services to its customers. In any business oriented company, there must have the global strategy which governs its operations. Global strategy is strategies which leads a company to its globalization as stated in its mission and vision. They are in relation to developing strategies as set up by individuals to meet their objectives. These global strategies includes,......

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