Free Essay

Colonialism in Australia

In: Historical Events

Submitted By Kierankierank
Words 858
Pages 4
In the second half of the 20th century, after two centuries of colonial oppression and assimilation policies in Australian history, political and social break thoughts of aboriginal people in to the dominant European culture was bought to an end, thus enabling Aboriginal Artists to have the freedom to express their traditions, culture and identity. According to Oxford Art Online, the Simultaneous explosions of the Australian art market in the 1990s, gained international recognition for Aboriginal Art that emerged into the contemporary Aboriginal art that appealed to White Australia's conflicting a desire for cultural reconciliation.

The recognition of artistic production in Aboriginal communities across Australia enabled artists to explore themes of cultural alienation. The first wave of contemporary Aboriginal painters including Clifford Possum, Rover Thomas, Paddy Bedford and Emily Kame Kngwarreye, utilized repertoires of dots, blocks of color, with stimulating negative spaces or gestural brushstrokes to evoke the sense of a sacred, collective 'knowledge'. Collectors and museums began to actively collect contemporary Aboriginal works, whose conceptual paintings reinterpreted Australian colonial history.

Our Guarantee To You
No Quibble Money Back Guarantee!
We are so confident in our ability to produce top level academic work that we are prepared to back it with a "No Quibble, Money Back" guarantee!

Guarantee Information
Essay Writing Service

Today Aboriginal Australians are producing art in the remote regions where artists continue to explore their connections with their ancestral land and traditions of ground designs, body art, painted canvases, and bark paintings using contemporary materials. The practice of art is seen differently by indigenous art-makers than their contemporary artist counterparts; the works themselves often have a lot in common with much contemporary artwork, particularly with conceptual, installation and issues-based art. However, in early times, art had a different function than the modern ideas of self-expression or decoration; created with spiritual and hunting/survival purposes in mind. The identity of the individual artist/maker of cave paintings, masks and other traditional art forms was not as significant as it is today. Still, the traditional art objects perceived today also as a work of art, and valued for its aesthetic qualities. In addition, they are exploring contemporary art forms such as photography, film, multimedia, theatre, sculpture, printmaking, and installation.

Artists such as Tracey Moffat, (b.1960), Fiona Foley, (b.1964), and Gordon Bennett (b.1955), whom consider indigenous art as a way to express political and social issues in new forms of contemporary media, reflects unique perspectives of a distinctive experiences. Whilst their art proclaims aboriginal identity, it often acts as a medium for cultural renewal, operating beyond the classical idioms, conforming to the inspiration from aboriginal practices and European, and other visual language and techniques.

As, written in Wally Caruana's book, Aboriginal Art, chapter 6, Artists in the Town and City:

"In the second half of the twentieth century, as the movements for the recognition of aboriginal rights gained momentum, urban and rural artists found compelling reasons to produce art. Aboriginal people required imagery and symbols with which to express their ideals and inspirations. These issues of dispossession, broken families, racism-the secret history of Australia- and an intensifying of the sense of cultural identity provided strong motivation, and these themes are all apart of the repertoire of artists.

For instance, works by aboriginal instillation and mixed media artist Fiona Foley, from Harvey Bay, Frazer Island, engages with the history, ideas, family tradition from her cultural heritage from the Wondunna clan of Badtjala tribe from her mother's side, and her work reflects the remembrance of colonial oppression, the colonized vision of Australia and her ancestors.

Foleys work deals with the issues of displacement and dispossession of land, the people and some of her work is highly political, committing herself to the history of Aboriginal people and represents racism and violence and identity, and raises issues from a historic and contemporary cultural view. (, (Morphy, Illus 260, 273).

'Annihilation of the blacks' (1986), is a frightening sculptural installation which is a part of the permanent collection of the Australian National Gallery (Caruana, 1993).The work represents the massacre of the disturbing treatment of Aboriginal people by the colonizers; the work consists of a white figure standing in front of 9 hanging black figures. The upright forked posts and cross poles are a powerful symbolic medium in traditionally-oriented Aboriginal communities for shelters and homes (Reser, 1977b).

It is also a sacred complex and symbol for the first residence of the Wagilak in Arnhem Land, which represents the Kunapipi ceremony (Berndt, 1951). Also within the young Aboriginal boys waiting to be born again, as young men, are viewed metaphorically as flying foxes, hanging from the beam, it is said that the flying fox ancestral spirits brought circumcision to the central Arnhem Land clans and because the flying fox is a central totemic species to clans in this region.

Fiona Foley often draws inspiration from traditional Aboriginal culture and life, while making powerful and contemporary political statements. All of this gives the sculpture a very strong traditional as well as contemporary symbolic quality, with multiple and intertwined meanings and messages

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Early Colonization

...Early Colonization Ethnic and cultural diversity is an internationally shared social experience. In today’s society several countries possess “natives” of different ethnicity. Many ethnicity who are believed to be original natives of their country are usually descendants of colonists or a race made up of a mixture of ethnicity from a particular region. Early colonialism is one cause for such diversity. Colonization is the establishment of a colony through the organized migration to an outside territory. From the 1600’s to 1800’s Western Europeans were the colonized groups dominating many parts of the world for a variety of reasons. Many conquest to other countries were to discover natural resources like, spices, gold and other trade-able material unique to its region. Some expedition set out to explore for other reasons like proving a theory or to follow up on stories told by their fellow explorers. Once reaching their destination, other factors made them stay such as the discovery of monetary gain, religious freedom and political powers. While some countries like China, were unable to become colonized, others were dominated to the extent of their people eventually becoming a minority in their own land. Imperialistic ambition was a major element in the colonization of many third world countries. As immigrants settled on foreign soil, they believed they were legitimately entitled to occupy the land. They eventually impose their economic, religion, and social systems onto......

Words: 2076 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay


...Define Colonialism (Western) Colonialism: A political-economic phenomenon whereby various European nations explored, conquered, settled, and exploited large areas of the world. The purposes of colonialism included economic exploitation of the colony's natural resources, creation of new markets for the colonizer, and extension of the colonizer's way of life beyond its national borders. In the years 1500 – 1900 Europe colonized all of North and South America and Australia, most of Africa, and much of Asia by sending settlers to populate the land or by taking control of governments. The first colonies were established in the Western Hemisphere by the Spanish and Portuguese in the 15th – 16th centuries. The Dutch colonized Indonesia in the 16th century, and Britain colonized North America and India in the 17th – 18th centuries. Later, British settlers colonized Australia and New Zealand. Colonization of Africa only began in earnest in the 1880s, but by 1900 virtually the entire continent was controlled by Europe. The colonial era ended gradually after World War II; the only territories still governed as colonies today are small islands. Colonialism is the establishment, maintenance, acquisition and expansion of colonies in one territory by people from another territory. It is a process whereby the metropole claims sovereignty over the colony, and the social structure...

Words: 2538 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay


...Typology of Colonialism Nancy Shoemaker, October 2015 In the past several years, settler colonial theory has taken over my field, Native American studies. Comparative indigenous histories focused especially on British-descended “settler colonies”—Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and the United States—have proliferated. And settler colonial theory is now dogma. At my last two conference presentations, a fellow panelist was astonished that I didn’t deploy it. My research on native New England whaling history made me more globally comparative, but it also forced a reckoning that many places experienced colonialism without an influx of foreign settlers. As scholars parse settler colonialism into its multiple manifestations, colonialism itself remains undifferentiated. One of settler colonialism’s leading theorists, Lorenzo Veracini, juxtaposes the two completely. “Colonialism and settler colonialism are not merely different, they are in some ways antithetical formations,” he wrote in the 2011 founding issue of the journal Settler Colonial Studies. For Veracini, “colonialism” apparently refers to the late 19th-century European scrambles for Africa and Asia—in popular imagery, plantation colonies where members of a white ruling class dressed in white linen lounge on the edge of a cricket field, sipping cocktails served up by dark-skinned natives. Indeed, most of the literature on colonialism explores the history of the plantation colonies of that era. Instead of casting......

Words: 1587 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

The Name of Two People

...Ironically, much early postcolonial theory, with its emphasis on overt rejection of imposed Western norms, was tied to Marxist theory, which also originated in Europe. Contemporary studies focus more on the effects of postcolonial globalization and the development of indigenous solutions to local needs. INTRODUCTION (Enote) By definition, postcolonialism is a period of time after colonialism, and postcolonial literature is typically characterized by its opposition to the colonial. However, some critics have argued that any literature that expresses an opposition to colonialism, even if it is produced during a colonial period, may be defined as postcolonial, primarily due to its oppositional nature. Postcolonial literature often focuses on race relations and the effects of racism and usually indicts white and/or colonial societies. Despite a basic consensus on the general themes of postcolonial writing, however, there is ongoing debate regarding the meaning of postcolonialism. Many critics now propose that the term should be expanded to include the literatures of Canada, the United States, and Australia. In his essay discussing the nature and boundaries of postcolonialism, Simon During argues for a more inclusive definition, calling it “the need, in nations, or groups which have been victims of...

Words: 859 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Legacy Of Imperialism

...Proponents of imperialism and colonialism sparked from the idea that it would improve the economic, political, and social portions of an environment. The design of European imperialism elicited political and diplomatic responses, and soon after it provoked military resistance. Both methods of so-called improvement kept nations from doing what could possibly help them thrive; cooperating to achieve shared goals. Without cooperation, places cannot improve and prosper on aspects that need refinement. Colonialism does not help the native populations because it overall divides previous peaceful co-existing portions of a society. Purposefully, colonization aimed to control land, labor, natural resources, and markets. Settlers need to occupy a country,...

Words: 1055 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Indigenous Culture: Multiculturalism In Australia

...At the time of extension the colonisers’ colonial power, cultural colonialism happens at the same time. Cultural colonialism practices as an influence of one culture over another, which brings cultural injustice to the colonial society (Ballantyne 2010). In the history, when European invaders arrived in North America, the number of Indian aborigines dwindled drastically. The aggression made most of the natives to be killed, the people who survived were forced to disregard their traditional cultural practices, values and beliefs and accept the whites’ culture. To achieve the ‘peace’ of the settlement, the whites moved many tributes to the abandoned land and what the Indian leaves were destroyed. The behaviour devastated the tribes’ culture...

Words: 1079 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Aboriginal Social Justice Issues

...universal: every human, regardless of any particular qualities, is entitled to them in full - human rights must be upheld regardless of the prevailing political, religious, economic or cultural systems Social justice principles enable the fulfilment of and help to protect universal human rights. These include access, equity, rights and participation. Social injustice is where one portion of society has restrictions in any of these areas due to a quality such as their gender, ethnicity, appearance, sexuality, etc.; or because of historical or current human rights threats. Examples of this include genocide and colonialism: where people of one culture entered another land in order to dominate, subdue and overpower the indigenous peoples there a massive breach of human rights occurred; and this affects the generations of descendants of those who experienced this. Colonialism is cultural imperialism and sought to destroy or eliminate other forms of knowledge, values and beliefs in order to impose its own by rule of law. In any country that this occurred in, the indigenous peoples need social justice which can only occur through firstly upholding their human rights, and then seeking to rectify past and present damages, promote healing and empowerment, and takes steps in preventing any reoccurrence of human rights...

Words: 767 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Avatar Loss Of A Community Essay

...How do shared events, past and present, define communities? All communities can be defined by shared events. It is the shared events, both past and present, that shape both a community and an individual’s values, goals and aspirations. Members of a strong and healthy community all share similar values and experiences which define how they belong within that community. These shared experiences, values, goals and aspirations, provide a basis for an individual’s self perception. Without them, communities cannot thrive as a whole, and therefore a sense of belonging, self worth and individuality cannot be achieved. This can be seen throughout history, in historical attitudes relating to colonialism, war and equal rights, where conflicting values have seen the degradation and destruction of once strong communities. James Cameron’s 2009 blockbuster film, Avatar, privileges the importance of having...

Words: 1666 - Pages: 7

Free Essay


...and Oceania. Indonesia is the largest island country in the world by the number of islands, with more than fourteen thousand islands.[8] Indonesia has an estimated population of over 255 million people and is the world's fourth most populous country and the most populous Muslim-majority country. The world's most populous island of Java contains 51% of the country's population. Indonesia's republican form of government includes an elected legislature and president. Indonesia has 34 provinces, of which five have Special Administrative status. The nation's capital city is Jakarta. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the Malaysian Borneo. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Indonesia is a founding member of ASEAN and a member of the G-20 major economies. The Indonesian economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 8th largest by GDP at PPP. The Indonesian archipelago has been an important trade region since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries CE, and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought the now-dominant Islam,[9][10] while......

Words: 455 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...opposite looking at the ideological forces that have shaped North (First World) and South (Third World) countries relations for half a century. In this essay one will be looking at the question of to what extend can the process of colonialism be blamed for the problems being experienced by developing countries today? Also matters pertaining to African migration, the spread of Islam, gold and slaves will be included in this essay as they are central to the process of colonialism. Towards the end of the last century, with a long history already behind it European colonization branched out in quite different forms according to the place and the interests of the metropolis. According to Thirlwell (1994:60) it was “a transitional period in which brutal power relations existed alongside paternalist feelings of responsibility towards natives who needed to be civilised” thus, great powers put the then dominant ideas into practice opening up the way to the so called “development” (Thirlwell, 1994). According to Rist (1997:100) “colonialism is a practice of domination, which involves the subjugation of one people to another”. The term colony comes from the Latin word colonus, meaning farmer. Thus, one believes that this root reminds us that the practice of colonialism usually involved the transfer of population to a new territory, where the arrivals lived as permanent settlers while maintaining political allegiance to their country of origin. I tend to agree with Rist (1997:105)......

Words: 2499 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Worl War I

...old and new, caused this flurry of colonial activity in the period after the 1870s? What is the connection between this new imperialism and Social Darwinism? What can we learn about the process and success of imperialism in Africa and Asia from Conrad’s story? Answer The European colonialism brought different changes to the domestic level in Africa and Asian regions. The period after 1870s brought imperialistic aggression in African and Asian countries alongside the diplomatic pressures, colonial conquest and military invasion especially in the regions of Africa. The domestic people faced the foreign domination and attempt of colonization. During the 1870s the Europeans succeed to under control only 10% of the African region and it was the period when Europe started to grab the African land by the 1914, around 90 percent of the African continent was under control of Europeans (The Creation, 2011). In Africa the Berlin conference played vital role in regulating colonization alongside the trade in the African regions. Similarly in the Asian region in subcontinent, the European Colonialism was established ant later on the imperialism was started in 1857 after the freedom war. The European colonialism gradually extend its control over the political powers that later on let the European regions to take control over the African and Asian Regions. After the 1870s, the European started to explore Africa with the industrial revolution that lend the European new ways to enter and......

Words: 1820 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Origin of English Language

... INTRODUCTION What is English? English is a Germanic language of the Indo- European family (a group of hundreds of related languages and dialects including most current languages of Europe, Iranian plateau and south Asia). It is the second most spoken languages in the world. A rough estimate says that there are 300 million native speakers of English and 300 million people who speak English as a second language and 100 million speak English as a foreign language. Below is a description of countries that use English as an official language and as a second language and as a foreign language. ENGLISH AS A NATIVE LANGUAGE | ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE | ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE | Australia | Pakistan | Spain | Nigeria | Malaysia | Portugal | New Zealand | Philippines | Angola | Ghana | Papua New Guinea | France | USA | United Arab Emirates | Italy | Canada | Israel | Ukraine | Guyana | Kenya | Russia | Grenada | Tanzania | Poland | Trinidad and Tobago | Botswana | Greece | England | Uganda | China | Scotland | Mexico | Japan | Ireland | India | Hungary | Wales | Brunei | Vatican City | Sierra Leone | Cameroon | Cyprus | Liberia | Samoa | Brazil | Jamaica | Qatar | Argentina | South Africa | Malawi | Colombia | St Vincent | Malta | Venezuela | St Lucia | Mauritius | Egypt | St Christopher and Nevis | Thailand | Morocco | Barbados | Indonesia | Cote D’ Ivorie | Bahamas | Puerto......

Words: 1432 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Anth 202

...Interview one: Dr. Deborah Gewertz and Frederick Errington English literature, one undergrad anthropology course. Blew her out of the water, 1960. He taught her ways people lived in an engaging manner. Intellectual home. Subject matter was to live differently and freely than she had ever done before. Or to analyze the way other people live. Graduate degree city university New York. Went to mackny the same as Fred, a different place away from New York City, the last unknown away from the city. It was the thing to do at the time, to leave. She does not think it is acceptable to do field work far away from home. Share their tribal secrets with them, singular terms of humanity, write them in an ethornogophy. Fred dads was a scientist, did well in biology. Expanding your own experience, adventures, see things that most people wouldn’t see other perspectives. Let’s listen to  Dr. Regna Darnell tell us more about linguistic anthropology Began with Boaz who taught himself linguistics when he wanted to study languages that had not been written before he had done fieldwork with them. First eskimo, later various north west coast languages. Do it yourself linguistic in terms of field work. Out of all his students, Saphir was the only one who came out as a professional’s linguist. But in the late 19 century there was no professional linguist so up until 1925 founding society of The Linguistic Society of America (LSA). The linguist were in language departments, mostly german or......

Words: 815 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...| | [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] |Scholarship Positions Newsletter | 80 Scholarships are available undergraduate and postgraduate students to study at the University of Cambridge. International postgraduate applicants should apply by 2 December 2015, and home/EU postgraduate applicants by 6 January 2016. Never Miss a Scholarship: Apply on Time Cambridge International Scholarship Scheme (CISS) in UK, 2016-2017 Provided by: The University of Cambridge, via the Cambridge Trusts Courses: Research Program leading to the PhD Subjects: Multiple Subjects Eligible Students: International Students Application Deadline 2 December 2015 Apply Now Tags: 2016, Cambridge, Featured, International, PhD, Scholarship, September Week 1 (i), UK University of London Free Online Course On Brand Management Provided by: University of London & Coursera Application Deadline Course starts Oct 7, 2015 Tags: 2015, Coursera, Management, University MOOC JSPS Invitation Fellowships for International Applicants in Japan, 2016 Provided by: Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Japan Courses: Research Programme Subjects: Humanities, Social Sciences and Natural Sciences Eligible Students: International Applicants Application Deadline September 4,......

Words: 2151 - Pages: 9

Free Essay


...“ Abstract I will use two maps of a country or geographic region illustrating changes brought about by an era of Australian colonialism. I will then compare the contrasts of the two maps, explaining how the colonial period affected the cultural-language, ethnic, and religious-patterns of the selected country or area. This paper will represent my findings, descriptions, and comparisons using the following headings: What the area or country was like prior to European colonization. The reasons it was colonized. Its development and struggles since the colonization era.   In 1786 a British decision was made to send a colonization party to newly “discovered” lands mapped and named New Holland. (Otherwise known as Australia) The native people of that land had no idea of other lands or peoples other than myths handed down. The peoples of this land have been there an estimated 10 thousand years. There are hundreds of different dialects. As well as long established art. (Figure 1) Figure 1 Figure 2 There was an entire undiscovered nation of peaceful human beings with all the same attributes as any other race on the planet. It seems the difference was the greed. They were a nomadic people used bone and wood to make weapons to hunt with. They hunted birds and kangaroo. Lizards and fish were eaten as well as plants in the area. When they had depleted the resources in that area, they moved on. And this method of survival lasted for thousands......

Words: 789 - Pages: 4