Premium Essay

Colonization of New Zealand

In: Historical Events

Submitted By brookelynnbrags
Words 797
Pages 4
Brooke Bragenzer
Period 2
New Zealand Colonization
The history of New Zealand dates back at least 700 years to when it was discovered and settled by Polynesians, who developed a distinct Māori culture centered on kinship links and land. The first European explorer to sight New Zealand was Abel Janszoon Tasman on 13 December 1642. Captain James Cook, who reached New Zealand in October 1769 on the first of his three voyages, was the first European explorer to circumnavigate and map New Zealand

Polynesian Settlement
Aotearoa (the Maori name for New Zealand, which translates as 'Land of the Long White Cloud') was first settled by Maori between 950 and 1130 AD. Highly sophisticated ocean navigators, Maori journeyed south through the Pacific from their original homeland, Hawaiiki (believed to be near Tahiti), to their new home of Aotearoa.
Aotearoa possessed a more temperate climate than their original Pacific Island home, with no indigenous mammals (aside from the native bat) to hunt for food. Bird and marine life was plentiful however, and Maori also began to cultivate kumara, taro and yam.
Isolated from other Polynesian peoples by thousands of miles of ocean, Maori developed a unique and vibrant culture of their own, reflecting their natural environment and affinity with the land. Maori, the tangata whenua (people of the land) were the only inhabitants of New Zealand for over 600 years, until the arrival of European explorers in the mid 1600s.

European Exploration
In 1642 the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman “discovered” Aotearoa. Tasman did not venture ashore but named his discovery Nieuw Zeeland (after a province in Holland). Over 100 years later, in 1769, Captain James Cook was the first European to extensively map and explore New Zealand, making two scientific expeditions to the islands and claiming them for Britain.
From the 1790s onwards European…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Maori Health

...This essay analyzes Hauora issues of Maori people in New Zealand, providing the most fundamental and crucial elements and moments of its continuous effects from the colonial era until now. In this essay I mainly discuss about the issues of the Maori health before colonization, during colonization, and after colonization. I had used the different methods of research to analyze the data for the issues of Maori health. The research methods used are complete online research method text, course resources and reading and analyzing data from different books as literary review. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to locate relevant information on Maori health. The review formed the body of work on which this essay was based. The literature search was limited to work published between 1900 and 2010 in six subject areas: Maori health in early 1900 till present day, Maori concepts and models, Maori health models, Maori and disability, Treaty of Waitangi and Maori health. The databases searched included all of the New Zealand university library catalogues, the City Library and Google Scholar. Sources that appeared to be relevant were entered into the Reference. In 1769 James Cook concluded that Maori were healthy race .Prior to settlement by Europeans, Maori had been protected from many illnesses because of New Zealand’s Isolation from the large population centers of the world. Now a day’s Maori are recognized as being over represented statistically in poor health......

Words: 3505 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

People of the South Pacific

...way”, and some will bring their whole family across the ocean with them over time. All this migration introduced a new concept to the world, which is the idea of a transnational family. Cathy Small describes them as “families whose resources, kinship ties, and loyalties cut across national borders” (Small, 9). Polynesian communities are connected strong bonds formed by culture, history, and nationalism. These bonds are not easily broken, even when stretched across oceans. Excellent. Well-said. Sometimes cultures have to move and change to gain a foothold in a new world that is trying to push them out of their homes and native lands. Yes When imperialists show up in island nations of the South Pacific with canons and guns claiming the land for their respective monarch, Polynesian islanders are caught in the middle with primitive weapons and strategies. The Maori peoples of New Zealand had contact with many different European powers starting with the Dutch and the massacre at Murderer’s Bay (Thompson, 4-5). The Maori fared well in fending off the first of the European invaders but as time went on more colonizers came, eventually the Maori were faced with the choice to adapt or die. This situation was to play out across Polynesia as European explorers flooded the area looking for new lands to conquer. The only way for Polynesian culture to survive was to adapt to this new modern world. One of the major factors in this period of adaptation was the introduction of land ownership......

Words: 1447 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Once Were Warriors Report

...Once Were Warriors Report by Sean Collier Once Were Warriors had a different reception internationally towards the didactic message of the violence in the film. Once Were Warriors directed by Lee Tamahori grossed over $6 million in New Zealand passing Jurassic Park on the New Zealand Box Office. New Zealanders praised the film with most reviews receiving a high rating. When opened internationally it grossed over $2 million with reviews also achieving a high rating. Although most international reviews fail to see the message from the violence compared to local reviews, they seem to view the violence as nauseating and unnecessary while New Zealand sees it as strong message to the public. Strong examples of this are Mark Tierney, Lizzie Francke and David Stratton from New Zealand, and Kenneth Turan from America who had a strong opinion on the movie’s brutal violence leading him to give it a bad review therefore missing the didactic message of the film. Once Were Warriors is a film based from the novel of the same name, about a Maori family living in Auckland after moving away from tribal elders over a disagreement over their marriage. The main settings are the Heke’s house and the local bar both housing drunken violence. Beth Heke (Rena Owen) is the victim of domestic abuse from her husband Jake Heke (Temurea Morrison) leading her to question the relationship and stand up to Jake while also trying to sort family relations. There are many sub-plots in the film which affect......

Words: 1258 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Plant Evolution

...meaning that it was possible for living things to venture onto the land (The University of the West Indies. Department of Biological and Chemical Sciences 2003-2012). The seashore would have been enormously important in the colonization of land. In this zone algae would have been exposed to fresh water running off the land (and would have colonized the freshwater habitat before making the move to terrestrial existence). They would also be exposed to an alternating wet and desiccating environment. Adaptations to survive drying out would have had strong survival value, and it is important to note that seaweeds are poikilohydric and able to withstand periods of desiccation (The University of the West Indies. Department of Biological and Chemical Sciences 2003-2012). The earliest evidence for the appearance of land plants, in the form of fossilized spores, comes from the Ordovician period (510 - 439 million years ago), a time when the global climate was mild and extensive shallow seas surrounded the low-lying continental masses. These spores were probably produced by submerged plants that raised their sporangia above the water - wind dispersal would offer a means of colonizing other bodies of water. However, DNA-derived dates suggest an even earlier colonization of the land, around 700 million years ago (The University of the West Indies. Department of Biological and Chemical Sciences 2003-2012). Plants are very important to us all in so many ways. If it was not for plants......

Words: 1547 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Brief: the Wine Industry

...industry rapidly developed with the help of the Catholic churches in The Middle Ages. In seventeenth century, new techniques and innovations were turned up to improve the wine to satisfy the globalization and colonization. Now the geographic scope of competition ranges from Old World, which are European countries, to the New World, which are North America, South America and South Africa. In this industry, buyers and suppliers are from all over the world and the substitute includes water, coffee and tea. As the reading material emphasized that competition should include five forces, which are profits, customers, suppliers, potential entrants and substitute products. The basis of competitive advantage is the quality of wine. And it has become a global industry. French firms dominated this industry in the past for several reasons: * In the time of Roman Empire, the viticulture and wine production were introduced to Provence and moved further to the inland. * After The Middle Ages, the wine trade in Bordeaux region became prosperous because of the large shipments of wine exported to Great Britain. * In the 1600s, French producer applied new techniques to plant vine and he mastered art of maturing and improving wine. Also, the replacement of glass wine bottles sealed with cork made wine taste much better. The reasons that French dominance now being threatened by new world producers: To the France itself: * The epidemic of phylloxera in the 1860s, which was......

Words: 396 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Final Paper Ant 101

...The Maori Kinship of New Zealand Jeramie Simpson Introduction to Cultural Anthrology 101 Justine Lemos December 26, 2011   The Maori Kinship of New Zealand In today’s world, tight-knit groups of people can be hard to come by. Many families and friends can be split up by quarrels, divorces, politics or governmental laws. However, the Maori of New Zealand are an exception to this statement. The Maori of New Zealand are a close-knit kinship that still have an impact on the New Zealand society and the country today. Over 700 years ago, people for Eastern Polynesia and Hawaii settled the land of New Zealand, many of the same groups that settled centuries ago, are there today, this includes the Maori of New Zealand. (Walter, Smith, & Jacomb, p 2006). It is thought and taught throughout the lands that the Maori came by canoe from European countries. This is a great argument among scholars, is this true or was this a fabrication from ancestors long ago? Scholars have researched and have yet to prove or disprove the group coming to their new land by canoes. (Hanson, 1989) After their settlement in their new lands, seven centuries ago, the Maori began as a small community that had several different villages and communities that were made up of extended family members consisting of a few dozen or more people. This group of people were known as a sub-tribe or “hapu..” ( Walter, Smith, &Jacomb, 2006) The Maorian kinship and its numbers would often vary; this was...

Words: 2079 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Why Nations Fails

...information outburst as Nye (2013) often chooses to call. In fact, the authors did not mention the term ‘information revolution’ in the book; they simply state that Egyptians are on the street not because they are poor, as many scholars and political analysts suggest, but because power has resided in the hands of a few elites, and these elites have used political power to amass personal wealth at the expense of the bigger mass. But why the Egyptian revolution took place at this particular time, instead of a decade ago, for example? As far as I understand political theories, the answer lies behind globalization and information revolution which opened a new gate to information. That is, since billions of people around the globe are capable of reaching the internet (about 1.7 million according to Nye), many are able to read online news, or even watch them live as they are being broadcasted. Thus, it is possible to associate the Egyptian revolution or the Arab Spring to globalization and information revolution. Acemoglu et al, (2012) also indicate that Egypt’s ex-president, Hosni Mubarak gathered a huge amount of Egyptian wealth (about $70 billion), and this greediness might explain why a generation of the information revolution—one that does not tolerate unaccountability in public sectors—took its anger to the Tahrir Square. The central argument of the authors of the book is that nations become poor predominantly because their leaders are absolute, and thus are not......

Words: 1702 - Pages: 7

Free Essay


...obstruction with common symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Asthma is thought to be caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors that affect people throughout the world and in the United States. Diagnoses for the individual having asthma doesn’t know they have asthma till the symptoms of wheezing and shortness of breath arises. Newborns that have asthma when they are born are because it’s a genetic cause but young children that develop asthma are usually because of the environmental issues such as pollution. Also, delivery via caesarean section is associated with an increased risk (estimated at 20–80%) of asthma—this increased risk is attributed to the lack of healthy bacterial colonization that the newborn would have acquired from passage through the birth canal. Many environmental factors have been associated with asthma’s development including allergens, air pollution, and other environmental chemicals. Low air quality from factors such as traffic pollution or high ozone levels have been associated with the development of asthma. Women that smoke while they are pregnant or after the delivery of their child have an associated risk of asthma like symptoms for their child. Asthma is the single most prevalent cause of child disability in the United States. Childhood asthma has skyrocketed in the inner cities disproportionately striking the poor who are at least 50 percent more likely to have a disease than those not......

Words: 885 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...A Typology of Colonialism Nancy Shoemaker, October 2015 In the past several years, settler colonial theory has taken over my field, Native American studies. Comparative indigenous histories focused especially on British-descended “settler colonies”—Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and the United States—have proliferated. And settler colonial theory is now dogma. At my last two conference presentations, a fellow panelist was astonished that I didn’t deploy it. My research on native New England whaling history made me more globally comparative, but it also forced a reckoning that many places experienced colonialism without an influx of foreign settlers. As scholars parse settler colonialism into its multiple manifestations, colonialism itself remains undifferentiated. One of settler colonialism’s leading theorists, Lorenzo Veracini, juxtaposes the two completely. “Colonialism and settler colonialism are not merely different, they are in some ways antithetical formations,” he wrote in the 2011 founding issue of the journal Settler Colonial Studies. For Veracini, “colonialism” apparently refers to the late 19th-century European scrambles for Africa and Asia—in popular imagery, plantation colonies where members of a white ruling class dressed in white linen lounge on the edge of a cricket field, sipping cocktails served up by dark-skinned natives. Indeed, most of the literature on colonialism explores the history of the plantation colonies of that era. Instead of casting......

Words: 1587 - Pages: 7

Free Essay


...our societies “narratives of origin” (Moscovici, 1988). A fundamental representation of our nation’s origin and aspirations are influenced by the changing circumstances, which guides modern society’s response to new challenges. Change in civilizations is sparked from societal wrongs that cause a civil up-roar. Court cases provide the best historical evidence of how the past can redefine present culture. Since the civil war, African Americans role within the nation has changed drastically from a slave to the President of the United States. Monumental cases like Dred Scott v. Sanford, Plessy v. Ferguson, Brown v. Board of Education, along with mass protests across the United States; all influenced the civil rights of African Americans. Another case that shaped our civilization was from the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire. Due to negligence of the factory owners, Max Blanck and Isaac Harris, one hundred and forty-five people died in a factory fire because of inaccessibility to fire escapes. This devastation sparked outrage among civilians, and the government of the United States was forced to respond. In October, 1911, in the aftermath of the fire, New York State passed the Sullivan-Hoey Fire Prevention Law, requiring that factory owners install sprinkler systems….New York also set up the Factory Investigating Commission… and overhauled or enacted around three dozen laws dealing with factory safety. (Richard, 2011) The fire changed government and business relations by......

Words: 1207 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Art Criticism

...sketches. In 1854, Guérard married Louise Arnz of Dusseldorf. For 16 years Eugene travelled throughout Australia and New Zealand before returning to Dusseldorf where Guérard died. When Eugene went to Dusseldorf he studied at the Dusseldorf Academy of Art one of the leading art schools in Europe. Johann Wilhelm Schirmer, a landscape artist, taught Guérard at the Academy. Schirmer encouraged his student’s to paint directly from nature; this is what sparked many of Eugene’s artworks. The Romantic movement arised during the 19th century, the emotions that overpowered order influences literature and art; including Guérard’s paintings. Eugene had a profound interest for the grandeur mystery of art and nature. Eugene followed the works of Alexander von Humboldt, a geographer and explorer who altered the way Eugene fabricated his art through Humboldt’s theories of nature. During Eugene’s time in Australia, he explored the vast landscapes and mining fields in hope to find gold. Many painting and sketches that are now in museums are based on his experiences in Australia. One of his most famous paintings is Sydney Heads, composed in 1865 of oil paints. It is a combination of minor migration and pure, untouched vegetation consisting of rich greenery, soft mountains and boats at bay. In the 1800’s Australia was experiencing a large-scale colonization meaning that new ideas, cultures, politics, religion and art would over-rule the current society. Sydney Heads interprets the......

Words: 996 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...or Easter Island villages. Jared Diamond tells the story of the Viking explorer Erik the Red, who discovered Greeland and Vinland (Terranova, in Canada). Another character is captain Olafsson, a norse sailor who wrote the last news about Greenland in 1410. Another main character is Christopher Columbus, who arrived at Hispaniola in 1492, but now this island is two countries, the Dominican Republic and the Haiti. Diamond studied the politics of two presidents. the dominican Rafael Trujillo, who protected the enviroment and the dictator François, Papa Doc, Duvalier, who decided on politics of deforestatation of his country, Haiti. The author considered the bad politics of another main character, king George II, who was interested in sending merinosheeps from Spain to Australia, an idea which was succesful from 1820 to 1950 but then the farmers understood their lands lost fertility. Another main character is Tokuwaga Jeayasu, a shogun of Japan in 1600, who prohibited Christianity in 1600 and protected his country againt deforestation.  The book takes us to a lot of places around the globe: Mayan cities, Rwanda, Viking colonies of Vinland or Greenland, Haiti and Dominican Republic, Easter Island and Polynesian colonies in Pacific, and the Chaco villages in New Mexico (United States). The time period was from 800 AC, when collapsed Mayan cities to 2005. Other locations are the Viking ships, isolated churches in Greenland, ghostly stone heads in Easter Island, sheep farms in......

Words: 22095 - Pages: 89

Premium Essay


...Define Colonialism (Western) Colonialism: A political-economic phenomenon whereby various European nations explored, conquered, settled, and exploited large areas of the world. The purposes of colonialism included economic exploitation of the colony's natural resources, creation of new markets for the colonizer, and extension of the colonizer's way of life beyond its national borders. In the years 1500 – 1900 Europe colonized all of North and South America and Australia, most of Africa, and much of Asia by sending settlers to populate the land or by taking control of governments. The first colonies were established in the Western Hemisphere by the Spanish and Portuguese in the 15th – 16th centuries. The Dutch colonized Indonesia in the 16th century, and Britain colonized North America and India in the 17th – 18th centuries. Later, British settlers colonized Australia and New Zealand. Colonization of Africa only began in earnest in the 1880s, but by 1900 virtually the entire continent was controlled by Europe. The colonial era ended gradually after World War II; the only territories still governed as colonies today are small islands. Colonialism is the establishment, maintenance, acquisition and expansion of colonies in one territory by people from another territory. It is a process whereby the metropole claims sovereignty over the colony, and the social structure...

Words: 2538 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Missionary Roots of Liberal Democracy by Robert D. Woodberry

...Many of the major historical and statistical arguments about the rise and spread of democracy collapse when we account for religious factors in a historically sensitive way. More broadly, this article challenges many aspects of traditional modernization theory (i.e., that liberal democracy and other social transformations traditionally associated with “modernity” developed primarily as the result of secular rationality, economic development, urbanization, industrialization, the expansion of the state, and the development of new class structures). Although all these elements may matter, they are not the only causes. Moreover, those “causes” must be explained. I argue that Western modernity, in its current form, is profoundly shaped by religious factors, and although many aspects of this “modernity” have been replicated in countries around the world, religion shaped what spread, where it spread, how it spread, and how it adapted to new contexts. In particular, conversionary Protestants (CPs)1 were a crucial catalyst initiating the development and spread of religious liberty,2 mass education, mass printing, 1 Conversionary Protestants (1) actively attempt to persuade others of their beliefs, (2) emphasize lay vernacular Bible reading, and (3) believe that grace/faith/choice saves people, not group membership or sacraments. CPs are not necessarily orthodox or conservative. The threat of conversion motivated non-CPs to copy CP innovations. Because CP......

Words: 26573 - Pages: 107

Premium Essay


...mode……………………………………………………………….... 10 References………………………………………………………………….…. 11 Appendices………………………………………………………………….… 14 1.0 Company background Established in Singapore, TWG Tea is an internationally recognized luxury tea brand, selling over 800 blends of tea through their retail stores and traditional teahouses (TWG Tea, 2010). Their tea is sourced from all over the world, including Persia, Bangladesh, Turkey, Brazil, Mozambique, and Georgia (Your Singapore, 2010). TWG Tea is known for selling the world’s most expensive tea blend, harvested from one mountain in the world on just one particular day of the year (Lap of Luxury, 2009). TWG Tea capitalizes on the strong history of tea in Singapore, largely influenced by Chinese culture and British colonization. TWG Tea has expanded into Japan, the UK and USA and will soon introduce an online boutique store (TWG Tea, 2010). 2.0 Marketing mix 2.1 Positioning TWG Tea is positioned as a luxury tea brand, which is reflected in all elements of the marketing mix (refer section 2.3). 2.2 Target market TWG Tea is targeted toward affluent consumers or people who aspire to be a part of this market segment. Its European décor and ambience appeal to locals and tourists alike. However, in general, their product offerings and teahouses appeal to women aged 24 years and older. 2.3 Marketing mix Product Over 800 tea blends are sold, as well as a variety of tea accessories and sweet pastries. All items are available......

Words: 2373 - Pages: 10