Combined Gas Law

In: Science

Submitted By honyrose
Words 611
Pages 3
COMBINED GAS LAW SUMMARY
The combined gas law is a gas law which combines Charles's law, Boyle's law, and Gay-Lussac's law.
This law states: “The ratio between the pressure-volume product divided by the temperature of a system remains constant.”
This can be stated mathematically as:

Where: p is the pressure, V is the volume, T is the temperature measured in kelvins, and k is a constant (with units of energy divided by temperature).
Reminder: 1atm= 760 torr = 101.3 kPa & Celsius to Kelvin= add 273 and Kelvin to Celsius= subtract 273
For comparing the same substance under two different sets of conditions, the law can be written as:

If the problem does not state which unit to give the result in, then make sure that temperature is converted into Kelvin and for the Pressure and Volume just make sure you stay constant and use the same unit on both sides of the equation.
Combination of 3 Laws:
Boyle's Law states that the pressure-volume product is constant:
 In other words as external pressure on a gas increases the volume decreases, and vice versa.
Charles's Law shows that the volume is proportional to absolute temperature:
 In other words as temperature increases the volume increases, and vice versa.
Gay-Lussac's Law says that the pressure is proportional to the absolute temperature:
 In other words as temperature increases the pressure increases, and vice versa.
Where P is the pressure, V the volume and T the absolute temperature and of an ideal gas.
By combining (1) and either of (2) or (3) we can gain a new equation with P, V and T. Equation (2) is used in this example, and the subscript on the constant is dropped so that k = k2.
 We get the Combined Gas Law! (No specific scientist invented this law; rather three laws were just combined mathematically to come up with this law)
The combined gas law can be used to explain the mechanics…...

Similar Documents

Combined Gas Law

...COMBINED GAS LAW SUMMARY The combined gas law is a gas law which combines Charles's law, Boyle's law, and Gay-Lussac's law. This law states: “The ratio between the pressure-volume product divided by the temperature of a system remains constant.” This can be stated mathematically as:  Where: p is the pressure, V is the volume, T is the temperature measured in kelvins, and k is a constant (with units of energy divided by temperature). Reminder: 1atm= 760 torr = 101.3 kPa & Celsius to Kelvin= add 273 and Kelvin to Celsius= subtract 273 For comparing the same substance under two different sets of conditions, the law can be written as:  If the problem does not state which unit to give the result in, then make sure that temperature is converted into Kelvin and for the Pressure and Volume just make sure you stay constant and use the same unit on both sides of the equation. Combination of 3 Laws: Boyle's Law states that the pressure-volume product is constant:  In other words as external pressure on a gas increases the volume decreases, and vice versa. Charles's Law shows that the volume is proportional to absolute temperature:  In other words as temperature increases the volume increases, and vice versa. Gay-Lussac's Law says that the pressure is proportional to the absolute temperature:  In other words as temperature increases the pressure increases, and vice versa. Where P is the pressure, V the volume and T the absolute temperature and of an ideal gas...

Words: 611 - Pages: 3

The Combined Effect of Organic Manure (Cow Dung) and Inorganic Fertilizer (Npk15:15:15) on the Growth of Amaranthus Hybridus.

... (Tindall, 1985). The study therefore, attempt to investigate the effect of organic manure (cow dung) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK15:15:15). 1.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. Assess the effect of organic manure (cow dung) on the growth and yield of amaranthus hybridus. 2. To evaluate the effect of inorganic fertilizer (NPK15:15:15) on the growth and yield of amaranthus hybridus 3. To examine the combined effect of organic manure (cow dung) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK15:15:15) on the growth of amaranthus hybridus. 1.2 JUSTIFICATION Most farmers in Nigeria are financially depressed and find it quite impossible to purchase the mineral fertilizer at high prices while the rich constantly face the problem of unavailability of fertilizers However, the application of cow dung to the soil on the other hand is highly advantageous to the soil once it has under gone partial or total decomposition in the soil. Apart from the fixation of nitrogen into the soil, a rich source of potassium is muriate of potash (Potassium chloride), which is generally ground up and treated with chemicals. Amaranthus hybridus is a well known herb widely grown in Nigeria and some other tropical countries. It is majorly consumed as a delicacy and used for highly medicinal in nature. The project therefore attempt to meet the protein needs of the society and improve farmers condition....

Words: 709 - Pages: 3

Nid Using Ga

...International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology Vol. 29, April, 2011 A Mutual Construction for IDS Using GA S. Selvakani Kandeeban Professor and Head, MCA Department, Francis Xavier Engineering College, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India sselvakani@hotmail.com R. S. Rajesh Reader, Department of CSE, Manonmanium Sundaranar University,, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India rs_rajesh@yahoo.co.in Abstract A variety of intrusion prevention techniques, such as user authentication using passwords, avoidance of programming errors and information protection, has been used to protect computer systems. However information prevention alone is not sufficient to protect our systems as those systems become even more complex with the rapid growth and expansion of Internet technology and local network systems. Moreover, programming errors, firewall configuration errors and ambiguous or undefined security policies add to the system’s complexity. An Intrusion Detection system (IDS) is therefore needed as another layer to protect computer systems. The IDS is one of the most important techniques of information dynamic security technology. It is defined as a process of monitoring the events occurring in a computer system or network and analyzing them to differentiate between normal activities of the system and behaviors that can be classified as suspicious or intrusive. Current Intrusion Detection Systems have several known shortcomings, such as low accuracy (registering high False Positives and...

Words: 2519 - Pages: 11

Combined Forms of Therapy

...Integrative Therapy Djnj1102 Behavioral science research is a large, multifaceted field, encompassing a wide array of disciplines. The field makes use of a variety of mechanical approaches including: surveys and questionnaires, interviews, randomized clinical trials, direct observation, and field experiments. In spite of the techniques used in the research related to behavioral science, it is not restricted to a set of disciplines or mechanical approaches. Instead, the field is defined by substantive areas of research that go beyond disciplinary and practical boundaries. In addition, several key cross-cutting themes characterize behavioral sciences research. These include: an emphasis on theory-driven research; the search for general principles of behavioral and social functioning; the importance ascribed to developmental, lifespan perspective; an emphasis on individual distinction, and distinction across socio-demographic categories such as gender, age, and socio-cultural status; and a focus on both the social and biological contexts of behavior.  With the information that is gained from research one can select a therapeutic approach that would seem to be most helpful. While all therapeutic systems have some common goals, they each have differences in the route that is used to achieve them. Some therapies insist on direct and active part of the counselor, while others place value on the client being the one who is active. Some therapies place their attention on what the...

Words: 1043 - Pages: 5

International Law

... basis that Valdez' trial counsel lacked sufficient funds to properly investigate Valdez' past and that counsel believed no additional funds were available due to his [*pg 530] inexperience.235 Therefore, the court found an exception to section 1089 when inexperienced and ineffective trial counsel fails to discover a factual basis which prejudices the accused.236     Ultimately, the court granted relief on the combined grounds of ineffective assistance of counsel and the resulting miscarriage of justice.237 It should be noted that Valdez had raised an ineffective assistance of counsel defense on prior appeals as well.238 The court distinguished this prior claim of ineffective assistance by reasoning that it had not been specifically presented with the claim that trial counsel failed to present evidence of Valdez' background.239 In the final analysis, the court decided the case based on a questionable reading of section 1089 and then granted relief on an already adjudicated claim based on the court's subjective power to rule that a “miscarriage of justice” had occurred.240 VIII. Possible Future Alternatives     Assuming that Breard does not preclude reliance on LaGrand, Oklahoma has great discretion in determining whether and how to apply the ICJ ruling. Several possibilities exist, and none requires consideration of whether LaGrand is binding. Thus, states can incorporate LaGrand into their legal structure as part of their respective state law rather than......

Words: 13325 - Pages: 54

Law Is the Law

...Ohio V. Robinette Presented By: Ricky Mendez December 1, 2011 Outline I. The Case Ohio V. Robinette II. Trial Court Out Come III. Appeals Court’s Decision The Case Ohio V. Robinette In Ohio v. Robinette, 519 U.S. 33 (1996), the U.S. Supreme court held that the Fourth Amendment does not require police officers to inform a motorist at the end of a traffic stop that they are free to go before seeking permission to search the motorist’s car (Wikipedia 2011). In the case, respondent Robert D. Robinette was stopped for speeding by Deputy Roger Newsome of the Montgomery County Sheriff Office, since he had no prior violation; the officer gave him a verbal warning and returned his driver’s license(Cornell University Law School 1996). Shortly After, the deputy asked Robinette, before he gets going whether he was carrying any illegal contraband, weapons, drug’s, or such things in his car. That’s when Robinette answered that he did not have any of those things in his car. Then the deputy asked him if he would let him search the car for such things and Robinette gave consent to a search of the car. At the same time Robinette, felt like he had to let the officer search the car because he did not know that he could have simply said no and been free to go. Robinette, along with many other citizens feel that they do not have a choice in denying a request by a police officer. They are not familiar with the laws and rights that they have, especially during a routine...

Words: 1750 - Pages: 7

Ga and Multiple Sclerosis

...The extension study experience confirms that daily glatiramer acetate injections are well tolerated. Injection site reactions rarely led to early termina- tion of dosing, and the self-limited, transient sys- temic reactions were rare and did not lead to permanent or life-threatening sequelae. There were no laboratory abnormalities considered to be associ- ated with glatiramer acetate, a finding previously reported in trials of glatiramer a ~ e t a t eT. ~he adverse events profile for glatiramer acetate is distinctly bet- ter than the experience observed with the beta inter- ferons when used in similar patient ~opulations.'~J~ The role of neutralizing antibodies in limiting the effectiveness of long-term therapies used to modify MS is still unclear. There is preliminary evidence that the beta interferons lose effectiveness once neu- tralizing antibodies to them develop16; however, these finding are still being investigated. Patients chronically injected with glatiramer ace- tate commonly develop binding antibodies that peak at 3 to 6 months and then decline. However, inde- pendent studies have failed to demonstrate that an- tibodies neutralize either experimental or clinical effects of the drug treatment.17-19The continued clin- ical benefit, observed in regard to both the MS re- lapse rate and on neurologic disability when this study was extended, suggests that the modifying ef- fect of glatiramer acetate on MS was not compro- mised by appearance of neutralizing antibodies...

Words: 440 - Pages: 2

Ga Health Info

... Center (CHC) is a preferred provider for out-patient services. Deductibles are excluded at CHC. New Mexico State University Campus Health Center is located on the corner of Breland Drive and Stewart Street on campus, just south of Zuhl Library. The facility is open for outpatient health care services Monday-Friday from 7:30 am - 4:30 pm. You may contact the CHC at 575-646-1512 during normal business hours or you can visit their website at http://wellness.nmsu.edu/shc/index.html Continued on next page. The benefits payable are as defined in and subject to all provisions of the policy and any endorsements thereto. Benefits are calculated on a Policy Year basis unless otherwise specifically stated. When benefit limits apply, benefits will be paid up to the maximum benefit for each service as scheduled below. All benefit maximums are combined Preferred Provider and Out-of-Network unless otherwise specifically stated. PA = Preferred Allowance U&C = Usual & Customary Charges |Service |Preferred Provider |Out of Network Provider | |In-Patient | | | |Hospital Expense |90% of PA |60% of U&C...

Words: 555 - Pages: 3

Law 421

...LAW 421 Weekly Reflection During last week’s session multiple types of laws were introduced and their differences were discussed. One of the types of laws that were discussed were civil laws. Civil laws were created to “compensate parties and businesses for losses as a result of another’s conduct” (Melvin, 2011). This means that these laws were created for certain types of conduct against another party to be handled civilly between them. For any type of offense that is handled civilly, the defendant will need to repay the plaintiff for any loss suffered. Another type of law is criminal law. Criminal laws “are a protection of society and the violation of criminal laws results in penalties to the violator such as fines or imprisonment” (Melvin, 2011). This means that these laws were created to protect all of society against criminals that disrupt the peace of others. Another type of law that we focused on was “Common Law”. Common law, also known as “Case Law”, is a basic system to ensure that cases with similar commonalities are treated fairly and consistently. For example, imagine that you are the victim of a reckless driver who side swipes your car, and the judge is now responsible for deciding whether the defendant is liable for the damages in question. The judge will listen to the statements in court and refer to common law in other cases to ensure that the party is fairly dismissed or prosecuted, depending on the verdict. The type of law that many people have...

Words: 482 - Pages: 2

Helen, Ga vs Sowo

... Helen did not like it. Most of the citizens of Helen found the noise of the engines obnoxious and loud. This in turn made the citizens call the police and this started the war between the enthusiast and the local police department. What a lot of people fail to realize is when SoWo started out on 22 may of 2007 there wasn’t as many cars at the event. There might have been fifty cars and one hundred people at the event, but as word got out over the years and the event grew to what it is today over five hundred cars and two thousand enthusiast from around the world. As the event grew the Helen Police Department didn’t, which cause problems in the Town. Volkswagen enthusiast became unruly and began doing “burnouts” and would speed through the Town as if the law did not matter and this would happen year after year. So to combat this issue the Town of Helen enlisted the help of the State Patrol. The State Patrol was a lot different from the Helen Police department unadmitted liked watching a lot of the events themselves. The townsfolk of Helen started complaining and petitioning to the mayor of Helen as a matter of fact if you go to the Ciy if helen website (http://www.helenga.org/) and click on events that happen annually you will find that there is no mentions of Southern Worthesee. Why is that? SoWo has been bringing revenue to their little city either through purchasing food, clothing, or souvenirs to selling out hotels and restaurants since 2007. I know that seven years of......

Words: 899 - Pages: 4

Business Law

...Common Law Traditions and Sources of Law I want to thank all the staff for attending this meeting about legal matters. It is important that the company explains law and legal concepts to all employees. As your new manager I will ensure all information will be answered in a timely fashion. Many of our departments are cross-functional and we must discuss certain legal terms are and how they should be handled. First, lets talk about common law. Common law is “ the body of law developed from custom or judicial decisions in English U.S. Court, not attributable to legislature” (Jentz-Miller, pg.7, 2012). Common law is the basis of varies cases will be given the same judicial review. Judges like to keep the same biases, when need be, they will make decisions bases on cases handled before. The common law helps to keep decisions to a minimal with the same stature, which remains throughout each case. As a manager I will treat each member with a fair decision through common law. The managers will use a legal term called “ precedent”. We will base our decisions on same or similar facts that may help in determining a decision in the case. The same policies and procedures must follow. When making a determination in the case a set of law or principles called the Stare Diesis. This “ common law doctrine-to stand on decided cases” (Jentz-Miller, pg.8, 2012). This has 2 parts. The first decision stands and if the second decisions wants to overrule the first...

Words: 966 - Pages: 4

Law-California Law Review

... which the survivor acquires a controlling amount of the transferor's 450. Cf. Heimann v. American Express Co., 53 Misc. 2d 749, 279 N.Y.S.2d 867 (Sup. Ct. 1967). 451. OHIo Rov. CODE ANN. tit. 17, §§ 1701.01(R), (S), 1701.84(A), (D) (Page 1964). The voting power is measured by voting rights in the election of directors "immediately after the consummation of [the] transaction." CALIFORNIA LA W REVIEW [Vol. 57: 1 stock for cash. The cash modes resemble classical mergers and the stock modes in that the assets, and frequently the management, of the two constituents are combined. They differ in that the shareholder groups and corporate entities are not. Because of this, the cash modes are pretty clearly not de jure mergers; nor are they de facto mergers, since the results reached are not economically equivalent to de jure mergers. Whether such transactions should require shareholder approval or trigger appraisal rights is therefore a matter of common law principles or statutory reform. Most of the law and principles applicable to the cash modes have already been developed in connection with the stock modes, and this section will therefore be confined to a summary discussion. (a) Cash-Jbr-assets combinations front the transJeror'sperspective.Where substantially all of a corporation's assets are sold for cash, the transaction constitutes a radical reconstruction of the enterprise from the transferor's perspective, and approval by the transferor's......

Words: 89092 - Pages: 357

Law/531 Business Law

...Week 3 Individual Assignment Luis A. Campudoni LAW/531 Business Law Prof. Marlene Wilhite February 19, 2010 Legal Issues in Contract Fulfillment Agreements are a hot and critical topic in business agreements today. How do entities engaging in business contracts conclude in a consensus of the clauses, terms, and expectations of the project seem to fail at times due to expected and / or unexpected factors. This seems to be the case of the business contract between Span Systems and Citizen-Schwarz AG (C-S) where performance and deadline problems have emerged and is presenting a risk to the project status. Due to these factors C-S is now considering closing the contract with Span Systems terminating the project as it is. This request presents certain legal aspects that need to be considered before proceeding to minimize losses from both parties. In order to determine the proper path to follow I have provided a summarized analysis on the identification of problems, actions to avoid risks, legal principles in favor, and the recommendation of a final solution below. Situation: a) C-S is requesting Span Systems to conclude operations immediately due to poor quality on delivered project results so far and because Span Systems has not been able to stay on agreed schedule. b) Span Systems states that the approval and review process from C-S for the project was to extent because of an internal change in the project management structure from C-S’s part. As a result of...

Words: 1512 - Pages: 7

Requirements of Atlanta, Ga. Police Department

...Criminal Justice Online Activity. Atlanta Police Department 1. What are the minimum qualifications for a police officer with that agency? 21 yrs. of age, High school Diploma or G.E.D, good physical condition, good moral stature, No felonies or certain misdemeanors that involve aggressive and immoral behavior, Must be a U.S. Citizen, Valid GA. License. 2. What (if any) educational requirements or incentives are there for police officers with that agency? There is no specific educational requirements only high school diploma or G.E.D. If you come in with a higher leaning education you with come in with better rank and pay. I found no incentives for this department. 3. What are the steps in the hiring process and how long does it normally take to complete the process from start to finish? Step 1. Review basic qualifications and complete app Step 2. Interview Step 3. Background Investigation Step 4. Pre-employment medical and psychological exam Step 5. Physical Agility Exam Step 6. Final Review Step 7. Training –Police Academy 21 weeks, A.P.D. Field Training 12 weeks 4. What are the salary and benefits for police officers with that agency? Salaries Starting Top Benefits Police Recruit 34,726 n /a Overtime Compulsory time Police Officer 39,327.60 53,599.49 Premium Pay Associate’s Degree 40,704.07 55,475.47...

Words: 279 - Pages: 2

Combined Impact of Smoking

...Combined Impact of Smoking, Early Menopause on Mortality The North American Menopause Society (NAMS). (2015, August 5). Combined impact of smoking, early menopause on mortality: Current smokers who experienced early menopause expected to die 2.6 years earlier. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 25, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150805075236.htm This article takes findings from The Journal of the North American Menopause Society (NAMS). This was a Swedish study and it showed how the effects smoking on age, menopause, and even mortality. Horrible reports of younger age at menopause have been recorded, but have been since changed after taking into account new factors. The study followed women for 16 years. Recorded was a smaller median age of women at death at 40 and 60 years was 1.3 years. Cigarette smoking has proven to allow menopause to effect you at a younger age. Smoking is a not only effects menopause, but that falls into mortality effects. The smoking can cause estrogen deficiency on women. The study proved that nonsmokers had a later menopause time and also more likely to use hormone therapy. The study shows how woman can without knowing delay chances or increase chances of menopause with one single bad habit. Analyzing this article I believe it makes valid points. As a woman I want to take as many precautions as possible with my body. Smoking is proven to increase health related damages in the body. Women and probably men too want to stay......

Words: 340 - Pages: 2