Premium Essay

Command Theory

In: Other Topics

Submitted By FalonJ
Words 1383
Pages 6
Austin’s Command Theory...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Divine Command Theory

...The Divine Command Theory is a clear theory on how to relate God to morality. The theory states that God commands what is right and what is wrong. Though God does not press his rules upon us, it is said that “if we live as we should, then we must follow God’s laws.” (Rachels, pg. 51) Though someone might believe in the existence of God, it is possible they can reject the Divine Command Theory. With examples such as the Euthyphro question, the Arbitrariness objection, and God’s authority, it makes it possible to reject this theory. One positive outlook to the Divine Command Theory is that people don’t need to reason about what is right or wrong and they do not need to reply on emotions because what they need to do is follow God’s commands. For example, God has commanded to be kind to thy neighbor, so with that command, why listen to instincts when we can listen to the words of God? If God had commanded us to do one good deed per day, that’s what we must listen to, not our own basic instincts on the matter. One problem with the Divine Command Theory is made evident by the famous quote: “Is an act holy because the gods command it, or do the gods command an act because it is holy?” This question is known as the Euthyphro question. Socrates’s question is about “whether God makes the moral truths true or whether he merely recognizes that they’re true.” (Rachels, pg. 52) As you can see, each of the dilemma’s horns presents a problem for the Divine Command Theory. If what is......

Words: 855 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Divine Command Theory

...Mr. Fairlie’s Final Journey by August Derleth As a child, August Derleth was a big fan of the Sherlock Holmes series written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. In 1926 he heard that Sherlock Holmes was no longer going to be written. Derleth wrote Doyle asking permission to keep alive the spirit and style of Doyle’s work. Derleth wanted to do a pastiche of Sherlock Holmes called the Solar Pons series. Derleth got the go ahead to write the Solar Pons series using the same characters with different names, a plot location one block away, and the same writing style as Doyle’s. Sherlock Holmes’ character is named Solar Pons in Derleth’s work. The Solar Pons mysteries are among the closest imitations of Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes stories. The series has enjoyed critical and popular success. Mirroring Doyle’s style, Derleth uses dialect, flashback, and foreshadowing to interact and entertain the reader with the Solar Pons character in Mr. Fairlie’s Final Journey to solve the case. The book concerns the investigation into the death of Jonas Fairlie, who was murdered on a train while on his way to consult Solar Pons. To solve the mystery, Solar Pons and his companion, Dr. Lyndon Parker, travel to Fairlie's home town of Frome, Somerset and from there to Scotland, Cheltenham in Gloucestershire and finally to a remote area on the coast of Wales. Pons and Parker work together to retrace the last days of Jonas Fairlie’s life to solve the murder case. The first method that Derleth uses to show......

Words: 1491 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Philosophical Essay Part 1

...Philosophical Essay Part 1 5. Socrates asks Euthyphro, “Are morally good acts willed by God because they are morally good, or are they morally good because they are willed by God?” (1) How does this question relate to the Divine Command Theory of morality? (2) What are the philosophical implications associated with each option here? Divine command theory is widely held to be refuted by an argument known as “the Euthyphro dilemma”. This argument is named after Plato’s Euthyphro dialogue, which contains the inspiration for the argument, though not, as is sometimes thought, the argument itself. The Euthyphro dilemma rests on a modernised version of the question asked by Socrates in the Euthyphro: “Are morally good acts willed by God because they are morally good, or are they morally good because they are willed by God?” Each of these two possibilities, the argument runs, leads to consequences that the divine command theorist cannot accept. Whichever way the divine command theorist answers this question, then, it seems that his theory will be refuted. This argument might be formalised as follows: The Euthyphro Dilemma (1) If divine command theory is true then either (i) morally good acts are willed by God because they are morally good, or (ii) morally good acts are morally good because they are willed by God. (2) If (i) morally good acts are willed by God because they are morally good, then they are morally good independent of God’s will. (3) It is not the case......

Words: 1239 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Moral Acts

...good, or are they morally good because they are willed by God? This question was first raised by Socrates to Euthyphro in Plato’s dialogue in 380 B.C. In this essay, I will explain how this question relates to the Divine Command Theory of Morality and attempt to explain how it poses a dilemma within philosophy by contradicting how the logical thinking process works by creating a false dichotomy. To begin, The Divine Command Theory has been a main stay in philosophy since ancient times and has created numerous arguments throughout the ages, some of which are heavily debated till this day. The Divine Command Theory states that actions are considered morally good because they are commanded by God, or more simply phrased by Dale Tuggy in his writing, “to be right is to be commanded by God, and to be wrong is to be forbidden by God” (Tuggy, 53). Since God created the heavens and Earth, according to various religions past and present, God must have created the good will and moral acts. This seems legitimate in all aspects of thinking, especially for the believers in God, but what about the people around the world that do not believe in God or a God? Are they subject to the same way of thinking that the religious people are? After all, the Divine Command Theory is clear and concise about what constitutes a good, moral act and where it came from. Tuggy goes on to simplify this dilemma by phrasing the question in more lamen terms. He writes that an act is right or wrong only if......

Words: 1265 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

The Goodness of God

...ARIIKE FAGBURE L6CG RELIGIOUS STUDIES (Philosophy of Religion) A. Explain what is meant in the Bible by the phrase “God is good” The goodness of God is first revealed in his actions as a Creator. Genesis chapters 1-3 contain the Creation story. God created the world out of nothing – “creation ex nihilo”. Each act of creation is seen to be good. "And he saw that it was good" (Genesis 1: 10). The end result of God's creation is the Earth and mankind. Everything created was made for man to take control of. God is the image of goodness and as mankind was created in the image of God. (Genesis 1:27, "God created man in his own image.") This tells humans that they are required to be good, as good as God.  Exodus 20 describes the Ten Commandments given to the Hebrews by God. Moses received the commandments by revelation from God on the peak of Mount Sinai. They were guidelines given for God’s people to live by. The underlying principle is that humans are to be good and being good means following the Ten Commandments. God's goodness demands that mankind worship only one God and nothing or nobody else "You shall have no other gods before me and you shall not make for yourself an idol." (Exodus 20: 3-4). These commandments show that God is the primary source governing how people should lead their lives because God is entirely good. The Ten Commandments show man how to be good by giving strict guidelines. (Thou shalt not murder; thou shalt not commit adultery; thou shalt not......

Words: 1393 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Divine Command

...Phil 1C: Paper 1 Instructions Due: Tuesday September 8, 2015 You will write a 1500 word argumentative essay on the topic of Ethics and Religion or Value Theory. Only your own writing counts towards the 1500 word min. Quotes should be used sparingly, and will not be factored into your word-count. You will submit a copy to Turnitin (via Blackboard) as well as a hard copy to me in class or in my mailbox. Assignments turned in after the start of class on Tuesday September 8 will have 5% deducted, and will not be accepted after the start of class Thursday September 10 (hard copy and Turnitin by the beginning of class). Please choose from the following topics: 1. What is the Divine Command Theory? How does Plato’s argument in the Euthyphro cast doubt on this theory? Can Divine Command Theory overcome Plato’s (and others’) criticisms? Why or why not? (Your answer to the third question will be your thesis statement/conclusion, which you will support throughout your paper.) 2. What objections does Robert Nozick raise to the theory that happiness is the only thing desirable for its own sake? Nozick claims that “Plugging into the machine is a kind of suicide.” What does he mean be this? Do you think he is right? (Your answer to the last question will be your thesis statement/conclusion, which you will support throughout your paper.) 3. How does J.J.C. Smart argue for Extreme Utilitarianism? Do you agree......

Words: 655 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...Ethic is a knowledge each individual should have embedded in them. To know right from wrong makes me as an individual at peace. I hate the feeling of trying to cheat someone, more or so con them. Living life the right way will make life flow through with simplicity. Yes, at times cheating can be beneficial but can it last and can it bring happiness? One day last month, I was at the laundry mat; I had decided to check my bank account. Come to find out a transaction in the amount of $311.44 was charged on my card for a payment to a Sam Clubs credit card. I was absurd, mad, angry, furious, and frighten. I knew it wasn’t me who done the transaction, I don’t even have a Sam’s Club credit card, only a membership with them! So not knowing what was going on, I called my bank immediately and ask to speak to their frauds department. I explained to them the transaction listed for that amount and that date was not authorized by me. They were really polite and assisted me with great customer service. The female representative who handled my situation told me that if in ten days, they still have not yet resolved the unauthorized transaction then I will automatically receive the full amount that was charged on my account. At this point my account was completely closed; I didn’t want any activity going in or out of the account. A couple of days after reporting the incident to my bank, I spoke to my sister who lives in Minnesota, who I regularly speak with. After our conversations of asking......

Words: 593 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

M-1 Sfc Sharp

...Apply the Ethical Decision Making Method at Small Unit Level 158-C-1230 FM-1 FM 6-22 AR 600-100. Performance Steps: 1. Clearly define the ethical problem. SFC Sharp failed to shred secret documents that he personally marked as shredded. SGT Day is trying to cover for SFC Sharp and is encouraging me to look the other way. 2. Employ applicable laws and regulations. The unit commander and the unit’s standard operating procedure will determine if the documents were mishandled. SFC Sharp recorded the destruction of the book theses pages were from but the commander and proper personnel can determine if misconduct occurred. My responsibility is to report any questionable or unsafe acts. 3. Reflect on the ethical values and their ramifications. FM 1-60 States: “The Army is a values-based organization (Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity, Personal courage). It upholds principles that are grounded in the Constitution and inspire guiding values and standards for its members.” FM 1-61 builds on the value based ethics by stating: “The Army Values are the basic building blocks of a Soldier's......

Words: 565 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...Discipline is the glue that holds a combat team together. Without it there is no unit cohesion, no espirit de corps, no coordination. However, discipline is a complex product of training, leadership, and respect. It is respect which creates devotion to the team, and the important part is that that respect flows both up and down the chain of command. A leader respects the skills, strengths, and sacrifices of the people who work for him, and by giving that respect, in time and with effort, his troops come to respect him as well. That respect grows into devotion: the devotion of the leader to his troops, to do his best to see them through tough times and bring them home to their families, and the devotion of the troops to accomplishing the tasks of their unit under the vision of their leadership. Disrespect, however, has exactly the opposite effect. If a leader disrespects his troops, he fails to earn their respect and therefore fails to create devotion to the team. His attitude will be noticed and will become detrimental to morale, which in turn will hurt the combat effectiveness of each troop as well as the whole. Because he cannot respect his troops, he will also fail to recognize their true strengths and employ his forces to the best of their respective abilities. If, on the other hand, a troop fails to form respect for ANY leader, no matter how good that leader is at their job, then that troop forms a sort of uprising point... a point of discontention that saps......

Words: 508 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

I Donthave Anything to Upload

...1b) to what extent are things only good because God commands them? (10) To find out the extent to which things are only good because of God commanding them you would first have to decide whether an action or thing becomes good because of God commanding it or if it is good before. Other questions which should be examined include whether the things God has commanded you to do are actually ‘good’ and if the things God has said are wrong and immoral really are. Personally I believe that many things can be good even if God has not declared it to be so and this point has become increasingly obvious throughout time; one of the most renowned and obviously ridiculous examples of things that God has informed us is not ‘good’ is homosexuality. In my opinion this is the best example of why the answer to our question is a ‘very small extent’; God, Christianity and many other religions are absolutely against homosexuality with no exceptions at all taking a strictly deontological view on the matter. Despite the act you would think, not hurting anyone Leviticus 18:22 clearly states that this is an abomination and those who practice homosexuality should be put to death, yet the entire religion of Christianity is based upon love, love of oneself, love of your neighbour, and most importantly love of God. But why should the love of another man be considered evil? God has clearly commanded that humans should not be gay and that the act is wrong, evil, and most poignantly not ‘good’ but then......

Words: 901 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Principles of Management

...Introduction Fayol’s 14 principles derive from the circumstance that Fayol felt that management was not well defined. In his striving to change this circumstance he suggested “some generalized teaching of management” to be a main part of every curriculum at places of higher education and even beginning in “primary schools” . Fayol’s dedication to this idea is demonstrated by the fact that after retirement he went on to not just write books about management ideas, but more importantly, he found the Centre For Administrative Studies (CAS) in 1917 in Paris . The CAS mainly functioned as a centre of discussion between professionals from a large variety of professions, in order to further the knowledge and understanding of management principles. Discussion is what Fayol had in mind, when he presented his 14 principles . In Fayol’s own words: “Are they [the principles] to have a place in the management code which is to be built up? General discussion will show”. In the following I will discuss each of his principles under the aspect of a comparison with examples, historic or modern, and in relation to other theoreticians of management, in order to examine how Fayol’s principles hold up as “management code” today. Principle 1: Division of work The idea of division of work, or as Adam Smith called it “division of labour”, in 1776 probably goes back to the beginning of work itself. Fayol recognizes this in considering specialization as part of “the natural order” comparing...

Words: 4716 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

Orignizational Behavior

...The Effect of Employees on Organizational Goals The Effect of Employees on Organizational Goals No organization can function without a work force. While the size of the work force can vary, all organizations can either prosper or fail due to the employees that make up that work force. The police department is no different than any other organization when it comes to the necessity of its work force to work together in order to produce results. The police department I work for has five different divisions that field most of the work force. These divisions are as follows: Field Operations Division, Administrative Division, Detective Division, Special Operations Division, and the Internal Affairs Division. Each of these divisions has a specific responsibility. The responsibilities set before them organize what each division is responsible for so that they do not overlap and do each other’s work. The mission statement for the Raleigh Police Department is “In the spirit of service, the Raleigh Police Department exists to preserve and improve the quality of life, instill peace, and protect property through unwavering attention to our duties in partnership with the community.” Field Operations has the largest number of employees and the greatest effect on organizational goals. The Field Operations Division within the Raleigh police Department is broken into six districts covering different parts of the city; Northwest, North,......

Words: 1883 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Special Effecr

...their center. Useful. Option key (Alt) - point on a path between any two points while pressing option. Path will be stretch as you move the pointer. Sometimes useful. Option key (Alt) - when pressed, you can select any object in the group. Very useful. To edit a text block in a group you don't have to use Option, just insert text cursor and edit. Option key (Alt) - when pressed, you can click on any object and drag it to create a copy of this object. You can't however, copy groups this way. Option key (Alt) - when in text-editing mode, you can position cursor between any two letters, press Option and right-arrow or left-arrow keys to increase or decrease tracking. Note: you can combine Shift, Control and Option in many cases. Command key - when pressed, arrow for selection appears. When depressed returns to the last selected tool. Useful when you forget to select a point or an object. Space bar - when pressed, little hand appears, allowing you to move...

Words: 385 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...------------------------------------------------- Superior orders From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Redirected from Superior Orders) Superior orders, often known as the Nuremberg defense, lawful orders or by the German phrase "Befehl ist Befehl" ("orders are orders"), is a plea in a court of law that a person, whether a member of the armed forces or a civilian, not be held guilty for actions which were ordered by a superior officer or a public official.[1] The superior orders plea is often regarded as the complement to command responsibility.[2] One of the most noted uses of this plea, or "defense," was by the accused in the 1945–46 Nuremberg Trials, such that it is also called the "Nuremberg defense". The Nuremberg Trials were a series of military tribunals, held by the main victorious Allied forces after World War II, most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, and economic leadership of the defeated Nazi Germany. It was during these trials, under the London Charter of the International Military Tribunal which set them up, that the defense of superior orders was no longer considered enough to escape punishment; but merely enough to lessen punishment.[3] Historically, the plea of superior orders has been used both before and after the Nuremberg Trials, with a notable lack of consistency in various rulings. Apart from the specific plea of Superior Orders, discussions about how the general concept of superior orders ought to...

Words: 2164 - Pages: 9

Free Essay


...Paradox Therapy Paradoxes gure prominantly in this book, but most of them are purely intellectual. Paradoxical statements are apparent impossibilities that seem well supported by apparently good arguments. Interestingly, there are paradoxical commands as well as paradoxical statements. A very simple example is the command \don't follow this command!" Whatever you choose to do seems to violate the command. In order to obey it you must disobey it, but in disobeying it, you seem to obey it. Now, at rst it might seem that such a command is rather silly and easy to ignore. But suppose you are in the army and the command is given by a superior ocer, or you're a child and the command is given by a parent, or you're in love and the command is given by your lover. In short, imagine that the command occurs in a markedly unequal relationship. Second, suppose that you can't step outside the situation to point out the absurdity of the command. There is no judge that you can appeal to. Then you would be in a major bind indeed. You would be in what psychologists call a \double bind": Anything you do can and will be used against you. Thus we see the three ingredients of a paradoxical command or double bind: (1) a strong complementary or asymmetrical relationship (ocer-subordinate) (2) that can't simply be terminated (because of society, laws, and so on) and (3) an apparently meaningful but logically contradictory order. A realistic example of a double bind is......

Words: 910 - Pages: 4