Premium Essay

Commerce in the Post-Renaissance World

In: Social Issues

Submitted By gmlacour
Words 1021
Pages 5
24 July 2010
Essay Exam

Commerce in the post-Renaissance World

Commerce, throughout the post-renaissance era has become increasingly more important. In the seventeenth century, the idea of Technological Project (control of nature for human benefit) was introduced by Bacon and Descartes. This was very important because at the time, many people thought in terms of conformity to nature, not in terms of transforming nature for human benefit. Thinking in terms of conformity constrains individual freedom as far as innovation, which is the opposite of what TP is trying to accomplish. Inner-directed individuals are required for TP in order to produce innovative ideas that are both scientific and technical, in order to understand and control natural processes. Such individuals are considered to be autonomous thinkers. Free market economy is essential to the idea of TP. Free market society is a system in which goods and services are exchanged, and privately owned. The reason this is essential is because free market society creates and involves competition. Having a free market society, that is competitive, leads to innovation. Competition is in my mind, the basis for innovation. People would not be driven to innovate or think in such creative ways if they were not being challenged, or competing against others is such an economy. Innovation (which is derived from free market economy and its competition) is very important in terms of TP. In the Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith argued that a free market economy encouraged innovation. He believed that innovation was derived from the specialization of labor. The free market economy leads to division of labor which therefore leads to specialization. Innovation derived from specialization includes such ideas as labor saving devices (such as the cotton gin), which then also leads to an increase in productivity.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

How the Renaissance, Reformation and Nation-States Contributed to the Concept of European Identity?

...MERVE DENİZ 13735009 How the Renaissance, Reformation and Nation-States Contributed to the Concept of European Identity? 1. Introduction I would like to study the connection between the material culture that sprang to life after the Reformation in Europe and the urbanization that came with the Industrial Revolution in order to see if or if not it had any effects on constituting the European Identity. Starting first with analyzing the material culture of which the Italian Renaissance movement and then the Reformation planted its seeds, I want to follow the dynamics of social changes that slowly transformed the life in Europe from peasantry with only the Christian identity to nation-state citizenship with a European notion. In order to understand how the Industrial Revolution that started in the 19th century and spreaded across the continent affected Europe, it is first required to analyze the changes in the mentality of people that lived in Europe and the transformation the societies went through as a result of the Protestant Reformation that took place in the 16th century. Although the Industrial Revolution had basically been a drastic economic upheaval, it cannot be considered without its social causes and social results. How the humanist mindset that came up with the Renaissance had affected the daily lives of people and how this effect helped people to search for improvements in working and production have been widely......

Words: 1984 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Tourism

...UNIT# 2: TOURISM THROUGH THE AGES Introduction; Great Empires; The Middle Ages; The Renaissance; The Industrial Revolution and Tourism Today. Objectives of this unit: Recognize the antiquity of human travel over vast distances on both sea and land; Understand how these journeys have evolved from trips that were difficult and often dangerous, to mass travel for millions today. Introduction: People have always traveled, in search of food or animal skins for clothing, or for territorial expansion. Travel in these early days was time-consuming and dangerous. Indeed, our word travel comes from the French word TRAVAIL, which means work, and that is what it was, hard work. Most early travel was on foot, but later donkeys begun to be used. Waterways and seaways also frequently become paths for trade and commerce. 1. EARLY BEGINNINGS (THE GREAT EMPIRES): Organized travel in the West probably began during the great empires of Persians, Assyrians, Greeks, Egyptians, and Romans. This period began several millennia B.C. and continued to several hundred years A.D.1 (or C.E./Common Era). During the empire period, travel developed for military, trade, and government reasons, as well as for communication from the central government to its distant territories. (i) Travel Methods: For overland travel, ordinary people used donkeys or camels, but for military and government purposes, horses were used, along with wagons and chariots. Goods also had to be transported. In Persia between 500 and 400...

Words: 3594 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

African Ascope

...spoken in Africa. Most are of African origin, though some are of European or Asian origin. Africa is the most multilingual continent in the world, and it is not rare for individuals to fluently speak not only multiple African languages, but one or more European ones as well. Following the end of colonialism, nearly all African countries adopted official languages that originated outside the continent, although several countries also granted legal recognition to indigenous languages (such as Swahili, Yoruba, Igbo and Hausa). In numerous countries, English and French (see African French) are used for communication in the public sphere such as government, commerce, education and the media. Arabic, Portuguese, Afrikaans and Spanish are examples of languages that trace their origin to outside of Africa, and that are used by millions of Africans today, both in the public and private spheres. Italian is spoken by some in former Italian colonies in Africa. German is spoken in Namibia, as it was a former German protectorate. Some aspects of traditional African cultures have become less practiced in recent years as a result of years of neglect and suppression by colonial and post-colonial regimes. There is now a resurgence in the attempts to rediscover and revalourise African traditional cultures, under such movements as the African Renaissance, led by Thabo Mbeki, Afrocentrism, led by a group of scholars, including Molefi Asante, as well as the increasing recognition of......

Words: 659 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Us History

... The Treaty reestablished many boundaries and borders. Colonies, namely Germany's, were split among the Allied nations. Germany was disarmed since they were considered to be a threat by the rest of the world. Germany was also forced to take full responsibility for WWI, and were charged billions of dollars, which destroyed their economy. In the long run, the Treaty did more harm than good. Due to all the problems the Treaty caused for Germany, the country was left in a bad mood and was definitely looking at the rest of the world with a vengeful eye. In a way, it could be said that the Treaty of Versailles indirectly led to WWII. ● Explain the policy of Imperialism: - Simply put, imperialism is the quest for colonial empires. Countries go to other places in the world and claim them as their own. Countries imperialized for many reasons. Some countries wanted to establish military bases. An example of this is Hawaii, which the United States took over and used as a naval base. Other reasons countries imperialized were to gain global prestige, as well as to expand their territory. ● President Wilson's rules for peace after WWI: - After the war, President Woodrow Wilson sought to repair the ill feelings after WWI. Therefore, he developed a program for world peace which were referred to as the "Fourteen Points." Nine of these points dealt with the issue of self determination (democracy, or the right of people to govern themselves). Other points were aimed......

Words: 2664 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Rise and Falls 1500-1800

...The Age of Exploration A Resource to Accompany History Alive! The United States Through Industrialism Brings Learning Alive! Teachers’ Curriculum Institute 1 Introduction I n this reading, you will learn about the Age of Exploration. This period of discovery lasted from about 1418 to 1620. During this time, European explorers made many daring voyages that changed world history. A major reason for these voyages was the desire to find sea routes to east Asia, which Europeans called the Indies. When Christopher Columbus sailed west across the Atlantic Ocean, he was looking for such a route. Instead, he landed in the Americas. Columbus thought he had reached the Indies. In time, Europeans would realize that he had found what they called the ”New World.” European nations soon rushed to claim lands in the Americas for themselves. Early explorers often suffered terrible hardships. In 1520, Ferdinand Magellan set out with three ships to cross the Pacific Ocean from South America. He had guessed, correctly, that the Indies lay on the other side of the Pacific. But Magellan had no idea how vast the ocean really was. He thought his crew would be sailing for a few weeks at most. Instead, the crossing took three months. While the ships were still at sea, the crew ran out of food. One sailor wrote about this terrible time. “We ate biscuit… swarming with worms…. We drank yellow water that had been putrid [rotten] for days... and often we ate sawdust from boards.” Why did......

Words: 6286 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay

Ibu 653- Global Business and Strategic Planning

...initially targeted for Europe (the first to open in Budapest, Hungary) and the Middle East (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia). The following month saw the opening in Newport News, Virginia, of the first TownePlace Suites by Marriott, which provided moderately priced lodging for the extended stay traveler. Later in March 1997, Marriott International acquired Renaissance Hotel Group N.V. for $916 million in cash and the assumption of $54 million in debt, the largest acquisition in Marriott history. The addition of Renaissance doubled Marriott International's overseas operations, bringing with it the Renaissance brand of full-service, luxury hotels located throughout the world; high-quality, full-service New World hotels located in the Asia-Pacific region; and Ramada International mid-priced hotels located outside the United States and Canada. At the time of the purchase, Renaissance operated or franchised 150 hotels in 38 countries. Marriott International neared the turn of the century with an impressive, and growing, array of hotel brands ranging from economy Fairfield Inns and Suites to the upscale Marriott, Ritz-Carlton, Renaissance, and New World brands. The company's continuing focus on managing rather than owning lodging properties was clearly paying dividends. With the hospitality industry predicted to grow healthily well into the 21st century, Marriott International was poised for further growth. Current Marriott Vision NEW VISION CURRENT SWOT ANALYSIS *......

Words: 4567 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Tourism Management

...people • to destinations outside the place where they normally live and work • includes the activities they indulge in at the destination • as well as all facilities and services specially created to meet their needs. • Tourism does not only mean travelling to a particular destination but also includes all activities undertaken during the stay. • It includes excursions. 11. 11. Domestic Tourism • It involves residents of a country travelling within the borders of that country. 12. 12. International Tourism • It involves people travelling from one country to another country, crossing national borders – International tourist may be inbound or outbound 13. 13. Domestic and international tourism 14. 14. Tourism Regions of the World 15. 15. Constituents of the tourism industry Main constituents Transport industry Hospitality industry Entertainment industry Travel agents and tour operators Guides and escorts Tourism organizations Secondary constituents Shops and state emporiums Arts and crafts Local transport Banks Insurance companies Communication services- Media Performing artists Publishers Advertisers Hawkers and coolies Agents and brokers 16. 16. Tourist Motivation and Behaviour 16 17. 17. Tourist motivations and typologies • Why do people go on holiday? • What factors influence their choices? • An understanding of the above can be used to create tourist typologies helps in tourism marketing, planning and development Macleod, 2010 17 18.......

Words: 3114 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Brief History of Indian Monetary System

...A Brief History of the International Monetary System Kenneth N. Matziorinis 1. Introduction The international monetary system is the structure of financial payments, settlements, practices, institutions and relations that govern international trade and investment around the world. To understand the international monetary system, we can start by looking at how a domestic monetary system is structured. The Canadian financial system, for instance, is composed of a) a currency; b) a central bank which issues that currency; c) financial deposit-taking and lending institutions such as commercial banks and d) the Canadian Payments Association. The currency used in Canada is the Canadian dollar. It is the means of payment, store of value and unit of account for all transactions conducted within Canada. It is the currency in which all assets and liabilities are measured. As such, exchange rates are not an issue in our domestic transactions. The country’s central bank, is the Bank of Canada. Its role is to issue the currency of the land, the Canadian dollar, to manage the supply of money to ensure that there is neither too much of it that could cause inflation, nor too little that could cause recession and to oversee the financial system, acting as a lender of last resort when the need arises. Commercial banks and other non-bank financial institutions are the main players in the financial system. They engage in the process of financial intermediation, which is the taking of......

Words: 12586 - Pages: 51

Premium Essay

Nnj Srhwl Lksdjlk

...architects, engineers, and laborers. Approximately 3,000 permanent jobs would be created for work in the park itself. Existing as well as new businesses would further provide job opportunity. The project, involving the participation of historians, would be a significant educational contribution to the American public. In response to environmentalists’ concerns, Disney called attention to the environmental compliance record of its operations in California, a state in which has some of the most stringent air quality standards in the nation. State and Local Government Virginia Governor George F. Allen (R) was an enthusiastic supporter of the Disney’s Prince William Co. project, hailing it as an important part of the state’s "economic renaissance." Benefits to the local community would include 19,000 new jobs and $47 million per year in new taxes, thus justifying the taxpayer burden of the project’s construction. The Governor also emphasized the need for road construction and improvement of existing highways. Within the state legislature, support and opposition for the project was bipartisan. Debate among the House, Senate, and Governor largely focused on financial matters, including how budget resources were to be allocated for road construction. The Governor developed an incentive package for the project and approved $160 million in bonds for road construction. Opponents Those in opposition focused mainly on Disney’s choice of the Manassas site, and not......

Words: 1840 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Abraham Lincoln Gay?

...Name: ____________________ Period: _____ APWH WORKBOOK Unit Four: 1450 to 1750 CE “The Early Modern Period” Due Date: _________ Score: ____/30 [pic] This packet will guide you through the fourth unit in AP World History and prepare you for the reading quizzes, vocabulary quizzes, essays, and the unit test on January ___, 2010 You must complete ALL of the pages in the workbook by yourself to get credit; incomplete or incorrect work will result in a zero for the whole packet. Unit 4 Vocabulary Terms Quiz #1 1. Scientific Revolution (p. 410) 2. heliocentrism (p. 410) 3. sacrament (p. 396) 4. Renaissance (p. 405) 5. bourgeoisie (p. 413) 6. republic (p. 422) 7. Protestant Reformation (p. 406) 8. Jesuit (p. 409) 9. joint-stock companies (p. 415) 10. mercantilism (p. 468) Quiz #2 1. caravel (p. 384) 2. conquistadors (p. 394) 3. Columbian Exchange (p. 431) 4. maritime (p. 402) 5. manumission . (p.467) 6. coerced labor systems (p.475) 7. plantation cash crop (p.470) 8. tariffs (p.469) 9. indigenous (p.393) 10. encomiendas (p. 439) 11. serfs (p.529) 12. mestizo (pp. 442 – 45) Historical Thinking Skills: Periodization, Causation, Contextualization Timeline Exercise: Annotate the timeline with two facts about the important effects of each event Unit 3: 1450–1750 (Early Modern) 1453 Ottomans captured Constantinople;...

Words: 8917 - Pages: 36

Premium Essay

Mussolini

...and acted as a common denominator for various political groups and social classes in the Fascist party and Italian society. Through massive organized rallies, early teachings with revised textbooks in elementary schools, and various forms of media propaganda, the “Cult of the Duce” was created, and presented Fascism with a model of centralized power and authority that solely revolved around the mythical and spectacular authority of one man, Il Duce. The emergence of the “Cult of the Duce” was to create an idealized, heroic, and at times god-like public image of the Italian dictator. The focus of this operation was to prove Mussolini as the sole Fascist savior of Italy and to gain the support and loyalty of the Italian people. Declining post war conditions helped develop a need for the “Cult of the Duce”; “The parliamentary paralysis, social disorder, and economic difficulties of the first years after the Great War greatly enhanced the popular appeal of a youthful and energetic politician like Mussolini who projected the image of a “strong man” capable of rescuing the nation, restoring stability, and leading the Italian people into a glorious new era”(Cardoza, 75). The Fascist “Cult of the Deuce” demanded that Mussolini embodied both the physical presence and the virtues of the New Italian by becoming a poster boy for his people. “His propagandists ceaselessly touted his qualities of strength, discipline, courage, virility, and stamina, pointing to his tireless work habits,...

Words: 1924 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Geopolitics

...environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic development and prosperity, and on human physical well-being in societies around the world. : all those processes by which the peoples of the world are incorporated into a single world society. : Globalization can thus be defined as the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa. For eg. Recession US eg The International Monetary Fund (IMF) identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions, capital and investment movements, migration and movement of people and the dissemination of knowledge. Further, environmental challenges such as climate change, cross-boundary water, air pollution, and over-fishing of the ocean are linked with globalization. Globalizing processes affect and are affected by business and work organization, economics, socio-cultural resources, and the natural environment. Globalization is deeply controversial, however. Proponents of globalization argue that it allows poor countries and their citizens to develop economically and raise their standards of living, while opponents of globalization claim that the creation of an unfettered international free market has benefited multinational corporations in the Western world at the expense of local enterprises, local cultures, and common people. Resistance to globalization has therefore taken shape both......

Words: 2545 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Intellectual Property Rights

...|ISSN :0976 – 2183 |Ms.Beulah Viji Chrisitiana | | | | | | |Pg 55-61 | | |3. |Indian Journal Of |IT based knowledge | | |November 2010 |Dr.V.Mahalakshmi | | |science and Technology|management in Indian | | |ISSN:0974-6846 |& D.Chitra | | | |Higher education system | | |Pg37 | | |4 |Indian Journal Of |Intellectual renaissance | | |November 2010 |Dr.V.Mahalakshmi | | |science and Technology|–Capital ICT as a stress | | |ISSN:0974-6846 |& | | | |free driver in developing | | |Pg32-35 |Ms.Beulah Viji Chrisitiana | | | |countries | | | | | |5 |Indian Journal Of |ICT driven education In | | |November 2010 |Dr.V.Mahalakshmi | | ......

Words: 3300 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

History - Short Assignments

...incomes and urban transportation Enabled people to enjoy new cultural recreation Now urban in outlook and demeanor Similarities between farms and cities are weaker Assignment 4: Development of the Spanish-American War "Remember the Maine, and to hell with Spain" In the summer of 1898, the United States fought Spain in one of the shortest and most pathetically one-sided wars in modern history. The war represented a powerful resurgence of the same doctrine of Manifest Destiny that had led the United States to expand westward by defeating Mexico in 1846-48. This impulse toward imperialism took place as major European nations were establishing colonies throughout Africa. As a result of the Spanish-American War, the United States became a world power that controlled an empire stretching from the Caribbean Sea to the Far East. The Conflict In the summer of 1898, the United States fought Spain in one of the shortest and most one-sided wars in modern history. The war originated in the Cuban struggle for independence from Spain that began in 1895. The extraordinary brutality of the Spanish forces on the island of Cuba was played up in American newspapers and aroused a great deal of sympathy across the United States. In addition the United States had a genuine economic interest in seeing Cuba become independent. Business investments on the island were estimated at 50 million dollars, and trade with Cuban ports was valued at 100 million dollars yearly. President Grover......

Words: 5444 - Pages: 22

Free Essay

American Art and Modernity

...life (black/white, men/women)  Exciting, instability, city new visual experience • Lone Tenement (George Bellows) o Wanted to facec the ugly in city as well as beautiful o Worked against Whistler (avoided aesheticism) • Rawness of city, depicted vaudeville (which is like mixture of acts such as burlesque, comedians, music, etc) o Liked to show economic conditions of urban poor • Ash Can painting style: thick and messy, meant to look like it was applied slap-dash manner, jittery o Ash can artists started as illustrationalists o Borrowed from manet but were more interested in giving subjects agency • Called insufficiently modern • Whistler’s work is about distancing us, Bellows is about confronting the difficult world, the real world, gritty grimy The Stieglitz Circle & Transatlantic Modernism General: Cubism, Italian Futurists, Fauvism, abstraction, NY Dada • Six O’Clock, Winter, John Sloane, 1912 o Display Discontinuity of urban life o Rawness • Rush Hour, Max Weber o Also shows the discontinuities of urban life o Took thrusted lines of train in motion and applied it to paintings • Battle of lights, Joseph Stella o Again shows possibilities of electricity, Italian immigrant, Italian futurist style • One of which was Giacomo Balla (Dynamism of Dog on a Leash) o Captured electric spectacles • Brooklyn Bridge, Joseph Stella o Wanted to express dynamism (express its force of nature) New attitude coming from back and forth between the......

Words: 3722 - Pages: 15