Premium Essay

Common Sense Primary Source Critique

In: Historical Events

Submitted By timmybergman86
Words 890
Pages 4
Primary Source Critique: Jacobs, Harriet Ann (“Linda Brent”), Common Sense
Due: November 10, 2013

Common Sense, by Thomas Paine, is a pamphlet that was written in 1775-76. Paine’s purpose for this writing was to be an encouragement to the general people of the thirteen colonies to seek declaration of their independence from Great Britain. Paine’s desire to connect with the common people is evident in his plain and easy to understand writing style; he wrote in an educated, but straight-forward manner. Dubbed a “political quack” by Loyalist, James Chalmers of Maryland in the Plain Truth (New), and accused of producing a “crapulous mass” by none other than John Adams, we see just two examples of the many attacks on Paine, who prevailed to claim such titles as, The Father of the American Revolution (“Thomas Paine's Achievements”). According to, some scholars say that by the end of 1776 at least half of American colonists had read or been aware of the arguments that Paine presented in Common Sense (“Primary Source of the Month”). Because Paine’s belief in the importance of “the Doctrine Itself, not the Man,” he wished for the publication to remain anonymous for as long as possible to keep a focus on the ideas presented instead of him (Paine, n.pag.). Being so widely popular and rumored, Paine’s name appeared on the second edition.
In the Introduction, Paine does exactly that, he introduces a basic overview of his grounds for the right to question “a long and violent abuse of power” (Paine, n.pag.), which he details in four main sections.
In Section I, Of the Origin and Design of Government in general, with concise Remarks on the English Constitution, he describes government as a “necessary evil” (Paine, n.pag.), and discusses the relationship between government and society, and talks of a “state of natural liberty” (Paine, n.pag.) by painting a...

Similar Documents

Free Essay


...Philosophy for International Business: examination issues / questions 1. Define the difference between philosophy and common sense 2. Define the difference between philosophy and humanities/science 3. Define the difference between philosophy and ideology 4. What are the three general branches of philosophy/what are the basic philosophical questions? 5. Explain the meaning and significance of “the arché question” 6. The being and becoming dilemma in early Greek philosophy 7. Explain Zeno’s paradoxes 8. Is total flux chaotic? Explain the nature of change in the system of Heraclitus 9. Define dialectic 10. Virtue in Greek philosophy. Explain the meaning of knowledge in Socrates’s ethics 11. Explain “Eutyfro dilemma” 12. Plato’s theory of ideas: ideas and sensual objects – differences and similarities 13. Plato’s theory of ideas: the conception of participation 14. Plato’s theory of ideas: the allegory of the cave 15. Plato’s theory of ideas: the ideal state 16. Aristotle: syllogisms 17.Hylomorphism: substance and its components 18. Aristotle: the four causes: what is the sense of final cause? 19. Aristotle: the theory of virtue (Golden Mean) 20. Aristotle: what does it mean to be a political animal? 21. The existence of God: ontological argument as formulated by St. Anselm 22. The existence of God: ontological argument as formulated by Descartes (deceitful demon and......

Words: 348 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Analytical Jurisprudence

...ANALYTICAL JURISPRUDENCE (LEGAL POSITIVISM) Synopsis: (i) Socio-economic and historical context on which it arose. (ii) Positivism in Philosophy – the important founder Augustine Cômte. (iii) Its expression in Law – Analytical Legal Positivism. (a) Different aspects of Legal Positivism (b) John Austin (c) Neo-Positivist Trends (aa) Hart’s Concept (bb) Linguistic Trend (iv) Kelsen’s Pure Theory of Law (v) General Appraisal and Critique (1) Socio-economic and historical context Just before 1848 Revolution, Marx says in the development of Bourgeois class there are 2 phases to distinguish: (i) One which constitutes support Absolute Monarchy (ii) The one which constitutes itself as class, overthrows Feudalism and it establishes its own political rule (Bourgeois Rule) The 1st phase lasted for 3 centuries from 16th C – 18th C The 2nd phase roughly from 1780’s to 1840’s. Actually 1789-1848 is called the Ag of Revolution. During the 1st phase, when it is still constituting itself – their philosophical spokesmen are found in NL school – i.e. Hobbes, Locke etc. – Notion of Justice and equality show the core they argue for change against status quo. The philosophy is metaphysical but revolutionary because it is fighting for change against the status quo. 2nd Phase: The triumph/victory of the Bourgeoisie. In this phase – consolidation of the Bourgeoisie clan at the political level - this found expression in the French Revolution 1789...

Words: 4510 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Business Finance

...rules. • There are laws of science, which are basis formulas and set standards to be applied in the field of different sciences. • There is also the layman’s idea of what law is. He will have a rough idea of where the law came from - the politicians (which are his description of parliament) and the judges. He knows that if he steals and he is caught he will be punished. He also knows that if a drunk driver knocks him down and injures him, he will have the law on his side. However, he will know nothing of the branches of law (law of tort and criminal law) which gives him a remedy in law. He will normally obey law because of the punishment that accompanies disobedience. Normally, he will obey laws because they will appear to him to be common sense. • There is also the definition given to the word law by different scholars and by different schools of thought i.e. jurisprudence. This is the science of the theory of law it is the study of the principles of...

Words: 1853 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Social Disorganization Theory

...the Chicago Police Department (CPD) has already reported 21 murders. Although it shows 9% decrease compared to 23 murders in 2012, it reflects 50% increase compared to the 14 murders in 2011 for the same time period. Is the situation in Chicago indicative of a socially disorganized community? It is noteworthy that majority or at least 70% of said homicide incidence involved Black victims and offenders. Walker, Spohn, and Delone (2012) argue that the high involvement of Black people in the criminal justice system can be explained by discrimination and structural inequalities in the American society. The community structural factors and other social factors as they relate to crime serve as the common theme in the readings subject of this critique. Most specifically, this critique examines Sampson and Groves’ (1989) research testing Shaw and McKay’s Social Disorganization Theory (SDT); Ellen and O’regan’s (2009) study on the patterns and implications of crime in the U.S. cities; Walker, Spohn, and Delone’s (2012) discussion on race, ethnicity, social structure and crime; and Reiman and Leighton’s (2013) review of crime control in America. Further, the analysis of said readings is applied in the...

Words: 1555 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Sholarly vs. Popular Media Article Review

...attitude, values and skills concerning sexuality. It is apparent that the fight against HIV and AIDS calls for the involved parties to adequately have enough knowledge to tackle it. Thus it is of significance to ensure that people are well equipped with the desired knowledge. The article sought after providing evidence that is needed for development of a better sex education program to be used beyond high school, an examination of sexual knowledge, attitude as well as behaviors of young men recruited in the military. Similarly, the research sought to determine if there were differences in socio-demographic characteristics between men who did, or didn't have sexual experience. The research was done by use of both secondary and primary sources of data. The desired data was collected from a group of military members in southern Taiwan between the periods of January and July 2009. The target sample was aged 18-29 years. To aid in data collection, survey questionnaires were distributed to 1230 recruits. From the study, the authors established that close to 43% of those recruits participating in the study had penetrative vaginal intercourse at least once, about 34% had heterosexual oral sex, and about 7.0% engaged in homosexual intercourse. Close to 7.5% experienced homosexual oral sex within the last one year. It was also...

Words: 1744 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Immanuel Kant and Hume, David

...Search the SEP • Advanced Search • Tools • Random Entry Table of Contents • What's New • Archives • Projected Contents Editorial Information • About the SEP • Editorial Board • How to Cite the SEP • Special Characters Support the SEP • PDFs for SEP Friends • Make a Donation • SEPIA for Libraries Contact the SEP SEP logo © Metaphysics Research Lab, CSLI, Stanford University Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Open access to the SEP is made possible by a world-wide funding initiative. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free Author & Citation Info | Friends PDF Preview | InPho Search | PhilPapers Bibliography Kant and Hume on Morality First published Wed Mar 26, 2008; substantive revision Sun Aug 12, 2012 The ethics of Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) is often contrasted with that of David Hume (1711–1776). Hume's method of moral philosophy is experimental and empirical; Kant emphasizes the necessity of grounding morality in a priori principles. Hume says that reason is properly a “slave to the passions,” while Kant bases morality in his conception of a reason that is practical in itself. Hume identifies such feelings as benevolence and generosity as proper moral motivations; Kant sees the motive of duty—a motive that Hume usually views as a second best or fall back motive—as uniquely expressing an agent's commitment to morality and thus as conveying a special moral worth to actions. Although there are many points at which Kant's and Hume's......

Words: 24372 - Pages: 98

Free Essay

The Politics of Pop Art

...Do you agree that Pop art is a critique of the values of post-War urban culture in the United States or is there some validity in the arguments that suggest that Pop art is another representation of profit-based propaganda? Select works from two or three artists to examine this question. Pop art was born out of the needs of Post-war America and its capitalist driven economy, where consumption was key and everything was a commodity that had to be readily available. The diversity within the movement arose from how the Pop artists approached this culture of post-war America, whether it was through parody, fetishization, or just pure replication; as well as what aspects of the culture they chose to reflect on. The sheer diversity of themes and styles covered by the various pop artists means that one cannot be too reductive when analysing this art movement. It is therefore with this in mind that this essay will examine just two Pop artists, Andy Warhol and Tom Wesselmann, to examine both artists’ use of commercial methods teamed with images borrowed from popular culture and how they established their own unique technique and style to reflect on the capitalist culture rising in America. Post-war America was a time of great growth and development, as America moved into a position of political and economic leadership, newfound pride in the American way of life and American culture flourished. The economic boom meant newfound freedom for Americans, as having money and freely......

Words: 3298 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Frames of Reference in Conflict Management

...resolution. The frames mentioned above are listed as: i. Unitarist and Unitarism ii. Pluralist and Pluralism iii. Marxist or Radical Unitarist and Unitarism This frame of reference reveres the organization as harmonious and in agreement. This accord approach thus leaves little or no room for conflict. This frame of reference views conflict as ‘bad’ and detrimental to the augmentation of the organization. It views conflict as a psychological problem, a failure of coordination and failure by the management. This is because holders to this frame-set assume that managers can permanently change and manipulate the behaviour of the employees in conflict. Managers who subscribe to this frame of reference create a sense of...

Words: 810 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Accounting Theory Is Useful

...understanding changes. Whereas before I was more about practice and ‘getting it done’, it has become apparent that theory generally is an intrinsic element in advancing our understanding of our environment, culminating in improvements in practice. It is not a means of simply explaining or predicting behaviour, nor is it there only to serve as a framework for further inquiry (although these are important benefits of theory). Theory has a much more significant and elegant role to play in accounting than simply to reason and articulate the current status quo. Theory’s importance, relevance and effects have been eloquently summarised by Jonathan Culler (1997) when he writes: Theory is often a pugnacious critique of common-sense notions, an attempt to show that what we take for granted as 'common sense' is in fact a historical exploration of...

Words: 3910 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Research Summary and Ethical Considerations

...Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a dangerous and common occurrence within the healthcare setting. The methods to prevent the spread of MRSA infection are well known such as: covering wounds, cleaning hands, not sharing of personal items and maintaining a clean environment are well established (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2010). This, however, can subject patients to decreased contact with medical staff, treatment times, and use to facilities and equipment for rehabilitation. Patients in isolation often develop feelings of seclusion and depression. Nursing staff faced with increasing time constraints and responsibilities may also find donning of personal protective equipment (PPE), each time when entering a patients room, unreasonable and frustrating. While the current methods of isolation have proven effective and best practice, it is imperative to acknowledge and be mindful to the potentially adverse effects that accompany the isolating patients with MRSA. Examination of the study, “Patient experience of source isolation: Lessons for clinical practice”, will reveal the issues, methods, implications and ethical concerns familiar with patients isolated due to MRSA. Research Summary The mounting rates of MRSA infections reported worldwide have prompted the healthcare community to use multiple avenues to its break chain of transmission. One mode is to place those with MRSA positive cultures on source isolation and contact precautions. As fewer......

Words: 1193 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...MAJOR ERAS OF ORGANIZATIONAL (COMMUNICATION) THEORY IN THE 20TH CENTURY COMMUNICATION 4170: APPLIED ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION DR. KAREN L. ASHCRAFT I. CLASSICAL PERSPECTIVES (1900-1930) • • • • Some general assumptions: A “science” of organization will lead to greater efficiency and production. Organization owners should strive to control all organization resources. Individuals who follow orders and work hard can improve themselves. Workers respond to rational-economic motivation. One “best way” to complete any task Select personnel scientifically Compensate by production, not position Managers plan; workers implement the plan Example #1: Scientific Management (Frederick Taylor) → → → → Example #2: Bureaucracy (Max Weber) → → → → → → • • • • Clear, hierarchical system of authority Division of labor according to specialization Complete, “universal” system of rules re: personnel rights & responsibilities Exhaustive procedures for work performance Selection and promotion based on technical competence Impersonal member relations Status of communication: Viewed as a managerial tool to command and control workers Function: Emphasis on production & maintenance Structure: Formal, hierarchical, & downward Informal, horizontal, & social communication = obstacles that should be squelched II. HUMAN RELATIONS & RESOURCES (1930-1965) Some general assumptions of the Human RELATIONS movement: • • • “A happy worker is a productive worker” (shift from objective...

Words: 1706 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Justice, Equality, and Rights

...egalitarian doctrines that mandate the large-scale redistribution of wealth and other goods. But there is a prior, conceptual question: is there an illuminating sense in which these disagreements are aptly described as concerned with justice? Alternatively put, is there a concept of justice of which these rival accounts can be interpreted as offering different conceptions? (Rawls 1971/1999: 5-6). If not, the dispiriting conclusion looms that these disputes are „verbal‟ rather than genuine, like a debate about the nature of „banks‟ in which one party has in mind financial institutions and the other party the sloping bits of land at the sides of rivers. One answer is that the concept of justice marks out the entire domain of moral evaluation, or at least the whole of inter-personal morality, excluding only moral concerns relating purely to oneself or to non-persons, such as animals. This expansive reading of justice – as (inter-personal) moral rightness or virtue – has a venerable pedigree. The Greek word for justice, dikaiosyne, can mean acting rightly or as one ought (although there is a real question about the extent to a specific category of the „moral‟ comes into focus within ancient Greek ethical thought). This is a meaning „justice‟ bears when Plato and Aristotle claim that all of virtue is contained in justice. 2 The wide sense is also found in modern writers such as Hugo...

Words: 13621 - Pages: 55

Free Essay


...Received May 2002 Revised September 2002 Accepted October 2002 Keywords Decision making, Ethics, Violence, Schools, Discipline, Legislation Abstract “Zero tolerance” has become the international “buzz word” of the secondary building administrator. As school violence has increased so have the legislative and regulatory policymaking mandates c a l l i n g for increased disciplinary consequences for inappropriate stud ent behavior. Ethical problem-solving and decision-making have taken a back seat to reactive discipline by school officials. Media publicity has forced proactive principals to become reactive impulsive decision-makers. In this article, Starratt’s three-part model for ethical school administration – encompassing the ethics of critique, justice, and care – is applied to a fictional scenario and the ethical dilemma that evolves. Recommendations for practice are offered in a proposed resolution of the dilemma within the context of a central conclusion: if the school administrator of the twenty- first century is to build and maintain an ethical educational setting where all students can learn, zero tolerance cannot dictate the only outcomes for inappropriate student behavior. Journal of Educational Administration Vol. 41 No. 1, 2003 pp. 24-36 q MCB UP Limited 0957-8234 DOI 10.1108/09578230310457411 Introduction Safety and accountability have become the educational “buzz” words of the new m i l l e...

Words: 6330 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay


...downfall. They need the right people to make them work, and not just any people. The effectiveness of an employee – particularly individuals in leadership positions – determines how the organisational ‘machine’ will perform. Employees need some guidance, some suggestions about where to go and how to get there. Ethological studies also suggest that people have an actual need for leadership. The Anglo-Saxon root of the words lead, leader, and leadership is laed, which means ‘path’ or ‘road’. The verb laeden means ‘to travel’. Thus a leader is one who shows fellow travellers the way by walking ahead. Leadership is the most important means of direction. To lead is to guide, direct, integrate and energize the efforts of people towards a common goal. A leader is one who influences the attitudes and behaviour of others in an organised activity. Leadership is an art and as such it must be felt, experienced and created. Recognising diversity in corporate life helps us to connect the great variety of talents that people bring to work and service of the organisation. Diversity allows each of us to contribute in a special way, to make our special talent an...

Words: 7964 - Pages: 32

Premium Essay

Chapter 1 Notes

...Terms: Pluralism- existence of different groups within society: the existence of groups with different ethnic, religious, or political backgrounds within one society SOCIOLOGY social policy and theory: the policy or theory that minority groups within a society should maintain cultural differences, but share overall political and economic power Tyranny- A government in which a single ruler is vested with absolute power. arbitrary or unrestrained exercise of power; despotic abuse of authority. Absolutism – political system: a political system in which the power of a ruler is unchecked and absolute theory of objective values: a philosophical theory in which values such as truth or morality are absolute and not conditional upon human perception something absolute: a standard, principle, or theory that is absolute Utilitarianism: ethical doctrine of greatest good: the ethical doctrine that the greatest happiness of the greatest number should be the criterion of the virtue of action doctrine based on value of usefulness: the doctrine that the value of an action or an object lies in usefulness utilitarian quality: the quality of being designed primarily for practical use rather than beauty Libertarianism: advocate of individual responsibility: somebody who believes in the doctrine of free will advocate of individual freedom: somebody who believes in the principle that people should have complete freedom of thought and action Categorical Imperative:......

Words: 2706 - Pages: 11