Premium Essay

Communicable Disease Paper - Hepatitis a

In: Social Issues

Submitted By glbelluso
Words 1140
Pages 5
Communicable Disease Paper - Hepatitis A Hepatitis A is a communicable viral liver disease. A recent outbreak of Hepatitis A has recently occurred across five states. For this reason this paper will describe the disease, its treatment and prevention; the factors that contribute to its spread; how personal lifestyles, including that of socioeconomic status influence the disease and the control of the disease. If there are gaps and resources available to fill these gaps will be discussed along with alternatives and recommendations for prevention and/or reduction in the spread of Hepatitis A. Within this document the goal will be to include data supporting the findings and plans to ensure continuation of quality of health and quality of life.
Description
Hepatitis A is an extremely contagious viral disease that attacks the liver and can cause mild to severe illness. The infection will cause the liver to decline in its functional use. Hepatitis A is “most likely to (be) contract(ed) from contaminated food or water or from close contact with someone who’s already infected” (Mayo Clinic, 2013). Contaminated food and/or water usually has had contact with human fecal matter via ingestion or contact with a contaminated object or person.
Many who have contacted Hepatitis A may not even realize they have contracted the disease. The symptoms range from mild to severe and can include any of the following: jaundice, fatigue, stomach pain, nausea, diarrhea, and fever. These symptoms will come and go over a course of a six to nine month period. While most cases tend to be mild in manner there are those that can turn to severe infectious Hepatitis A, which will cause acute liver failure. The disease tends to affect more adults than children and usually will not affect (cause illness) to those under the age of six, however, those children can spread the disease...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Hepatitis B

...Running head: EPIDEMIOLOGY PAPER - HEPATITIS B 1 Epidemiology Paper - Hepatitis B Concepts in Community and Public Health NRS-427V-0102 EPIDEMIOLOGY PAPER - HEPATITIS B Epidemiology Paper - Hepatitis B 2 ―Communicable disease‖ means an illness caused by an infectious agent or its toxins that occurs through the direct or indirect transmission of the infectious agent or its products from an infected individual or via an animal, vector or the inanimate environment to a susceptible animal or human host‖ ("CDC," 2010, p. 1). Hepatitis B is one of the communicable diseases which are a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). CAUSES ―Exposure may occur:  After a needle stick or sharps injury - Hepatitis B is a concern for health care workers and anyone else who comes in contact with human blood    If any blood or other body fluid touches your skin, eyes or mouth People who may be at risk of hepatitis B are those who: Unprotected sex with an infected partner – one may become infected having unprotected sexual contact with an infected partner whose blood, saliva, semen or vaginal secretions enter your body.      Receive blood transfusions (not common in the United States) Have contact with blood at work (such as health care workers) Have been on long-term kidney dialysis Get a tattoo or acupuncture with unclean needles Share needles during drug use - HBV is easily transmitted through needles and syringes......

Words: 3278 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Heppatits B: an Epidemic

...Hepatitis B: An Epidemic The World Health Organization defines epidemiology as “the study of the distribution and determinants of health- related states or events, and the application of the study to the control of diseases and other health problems” (CDC, 2014). Determinates of health are “the circumstances in which people are born, live, work and age as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness”. The communicable disease chain is a model beneficial to integrating the many concepts of communicable diseases (Maurer & Smith, 2009). A nurse has a significant role in preventing and controlling infectious disease. A vital factor in preparing for clinical nursing practice is having an understanding of the infection process and techniques on how to prevent it. This paper focuses on a prevalent communicable disease, Hepatitis B. This writer will give a description of the disease, the demographic affected by the disease, what determinates contribute to the development of Hepatitis B, she will discuss the epidemiology triangle of the disease, explain the role of the community health nurse in this community, and explain various agencies and resources patients diagnosed with this disease can access. Hepatitis B is a serious liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. Two types exist: the acute illness and the chronic illness. In the acute illness, the immune system is able to rid the body of the virus and a complete recovery may occur in a few months. Chronic......

Words: 1580 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Hepatitis B

...Hepatitis B Candace Tiley GCU RN-BSN Concepts in Community and Public Health NRS-427V Colleen Darrow September 12, 2013 Hepatitis B TRANSMISSION: Hepatitis B is a communicable disease that affects the liver via the hepatitis virus (HBV). Hepatitis B is the most common liver infection in the world. The virus is transmitted via blood and infected bodily fluids. This can occur through activities that involve percutaneous punctures through the skin, or mucosal contact with infectious blood or body fluids. Examples of ways that an individual could contract Hepatitis B might include: Sex with an infected partner; Birth to an infected mother; Coming in contact with the blood or sores of someone infected with Hepatitis B; (exposure to infected blood via a blood transfusion) Needle sticks with a dirty or contaminated needle or sharp instrument; Sharing items with an infected person such as toothbrushes or razors; RISK FACTORS: -Transfusion of unscreened blood; -Sexual promiscuity; - Sharing of or re-using of syringes between injection drug users; -Tattooing; -Working or residing in a health-care facility; -Living in a correctional facility; -Renal dialysis -long-term household or intimate non-sexual contact with and HBs Ab-positive individual. HBV is not spread through food or water, sharing common objects such as kitchen utensils, via hugging or kissing, casual contact or by being exposed to someone with HBV who may cough or sneeze. This virus......

Words: 5072 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Hepatitis B

...HEPATITIS B August 25, 2014 The definition of hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver. The liver is the largest organ in the body and functions to digest food, store energy and remove toxins. Hepatitis is caused by a variety of factors such as toxins, certain drugs, heavy alcohol use and bacterial or viral infections. The three most common types of viral infections that affect the liver are Hepatitis A, B and C. (CDC). This paper will focus on hepatitis B. Hepatitis B is a highly contagious infection of the liver caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). Infection can be acute or chronic. Acute Hepatitis B is short term and occurs within the first 6 months after exposure. Chronic Hepatitis is long term and the virus remains in a person’s body. (CDC) Hepatitis B is spread through contact with an infected person’s blood, semen or body fluids via activities that involve skin puncture or mucosal tissue contact. Examples of such activities include sex, exposure to sharp objects, needle sticks, sharing razors, toothbrushes with an infected person, intravenous drug use etc. A mother can also pass the disease on to her child during delivery. (Caple) The average incubation period of the virus in adults is about 3 months, after which symptoms begin to appear and may last several weeks to months. Symptoms of acute hepatitis include jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, loss of appetite, dark urine and joint pain. Complications......

Words: 1321 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Hepatitis B

...Hepatitis B Candace Tiley GCU RN-BSN Concepts in Community and Public Health NRS-427V Colleen Darrow September 12, 2013 Hepatitis B TRANSMISSION: Hepatitis B is a communicable disease that affects the liver via the hepatitis virus (HBV). Hepatitis B is the most common liver infection in the world. The virus is transmitted via blood and infected bodily fluids. This can occur through activities that involve percutaneous punctures through the skin, or mucosal contact with infectious blood or body fluids. Examples of ways that an individual could contract Hepatitis B might include: Sex with an infected partner; Birth to an infected mother; Coming in contact with the blood or sores of someone infected with Hepatitis B; (exposure to infected blood via a blood transfusion) Needle sticks with a dirty or contaminated needle or sharp instrument; Sharing items with an infected person such as toothbrushes or razors; RISK FACTORS: -Transfusion of unscreened blood; -Sexual promiscuity; - Sharing of or re-using of syringes between injection drug users; -Tattooing; -Working or residing in a health-care facility; -Living in a correctional facility; -Renal dialysis -long-term household or intimate non-sexual contact with and HBs Ab-positive individual. HBV is not spread through food or water, sharing common objects such as kitchen utensils, via hugging or kissing, casual contact or by being exposed to someone with HBV who may cough or sneeze. This virus......

Words: 5072 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Communicable Disease Paper

...Communicable Disease Paper Maria G. Sanchez HCS/457 June 29, 2015 Charlotte A. Ferrell Communicable Disease Paper One of the many highly communicable diseases is chickenpox. This communicable disease is caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV) which has a resemblance with the herpes virus. It can be transmitted in two ways, one through direct contact with the fluids from the blisters, mucus, or saliva and second through air where the virus is disseminated by coughing or sneezing. A person who has chickenpox can spread the virus even before he or she has any symptoms. Chickenpox is regarded as highly communicable for individuals who are exposed to the disease for the first time nor have been vaccinated against it. They have an 80% risk of acquiring the disease through close contact of an infected individual. As claimed by the Pub Med Health, “most children with chickenpox exhibit symptoms like fever, headache, stomach ache, sore throat, loss of appetite, or presence of small, fluid-filled, itchy, red spots over the skin.” Chickenpox causes a red, itchy skin rash that usually appears first on the abdomen or back and face, and then spreads to almost everywhere else on the body, including the scalp, mouth, arms, legs, and genitals. At the time when the chickenpox blisters has dried and formed scabs is the point where the individual isn’t contagious. Chickenpox is normally a mild disease. Each and every individual is at risk of being infected by chickenpox – no exception. It is......

Words: 1514 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Epidemiology Hepatitis B

...Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Hepatitis B is a disease that affects many people worldwide and can cause serious and potentially fatal complications. This paper will provide an overview of this disease, including demographic information, while discussing contributing determinants of health, the implications of the epidemiological triangle as it relates to the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), the role of the community health nurse, as well as identify a national organization that addresses the disease and how it contributes to reducing the impact on society. Overview Hepatitis B is an infection caused by the Hepatitis B virus that multiplies in the liver, causing inflammation that can involve other organs of the body such as the kidneys and vasculature. Symptoms are varied and highly dependent on the severity of the illness and organ involvement. Roughly two thirds of cases are asymptomatic (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2011). The Communicable Disease Chain identifies the infected individual as the host or reservoir, whose portal of exit includes cuts, needles and mucus membranes. The mode of transmission is through direct contact with the portal of entry, which is identified as blood or bodily fluids of the infected individual, into the susceptible host, thereby creating a new reservoir to further spread the disease (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2012). Once infected, the virus multiplies in the liver causing severe inflammation which may resolve naturally, in acute cases...

Words: 1653 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Communicable Diseases

...Communicable Disease HCS 457 Communicable Disease Chickenpox is one of the many highly communicable diseases. This communicable disease is cause by a virus called varicella-zoster which has a resemblance with the herpes virus. It can be transmitted through close contact with the fluids from the blisters or through air wherein the virus is disseminated by coughing or sneezing. Chickenpox is regarded as highly communicable for individuals who are exposed to the disease for the first time has an 80% risk of acquiring the disease through close contact of an infected individual. As claimed by the Pub Med Health, “most children with chickenpox exhibit symptoms like fever, headache, stomach ache, loss of appetite, or presence of small, fluid-filled, itchy, red spots over the skin.” At the time when the chickenpox blisters has dried and formed scabs is the point where the individual isn’t contagious. Each and every individual is at risk of being infected by chickenpox – no exception. It is known to have life threatening effects. As the Directors of Health Promotion and Education states, “in the United States, 4,000 to 9,000 individuals are hospitalized annually with chickenpox, with approximately a hundred casualties. Those at highest risk for complications are newborns, individuals with compromised immune system, and adults.” As chickenpox is caused by a virus, it has no cure and the virus would remain in our system for a lifetime even after we’ve done exhibiting the......

Words: 1392 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Chronic and Infectious Diseases

...Chronic and Infectious Diseases Chronic and infectious diseases are diseases life threatening. A chronic diseases are non-communicable illnesses prolonged in duration, do not resolve spontaneously, and are rarely cured completely such as heart disease, cancer, stroke, diabetes, and arthritis (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009). However, an infectious disease or communicable disease is contagious and caused by a biological agent, such as a virus, bacterium, or parasite also known as pathogens (The Metro Health System, 2002-2012). There are some diseases, such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Characteristics of a chronic disease, examining the relationship between a healthy nutritional diet, and cardiovascular disease, the effects of chronic, and infectious diseases, how exercise affects the immune system, and consumer awareness are the focus of this paper. Characteristics of a Chronic Disease Chronic diseases are often hard to detect because the disease spread slowly. According to UCLA Center for Neurovisceral Sciences and Women's Health (n.d.), “chronic illnesses also have multiple causes varying over time, including heredity, lifestyle factors, exposure to environmental factors and physiological factors” (Chronic Illness). Individuals who smoke cigarettes put him or her at risk of several types of chronic illnesses. “Cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for lower......

Words: 1000 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Communicable Disase

...Communicable Disease Paper: Influenza John Doe HCS/457 Professor Monica Vargas September 13, 2015 Communicable Disease Paper: Influenza Malaria, Hepatitis, Polio, Tuberculosis, Pertusus, Ebola, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Influenza. These are just a number of communicable diseases that people are faced with. “Communicable diseases spread from one person to another or from an animal to a person. The spread often happens via airborne viruses or bacteria, but also through blood or other bodily fluid. The terms infectious and contagious are also used to describe communicable disease” (Global Health, 2015). One of the most common known communicable disease is Influenza, commonly known as the flu. According to the American Journal for Microbiology, Influenza can send more than 200,000 people to the hospital a year, while having death as an end result from the flu or from flu-related complications (JVI, 2015). There are various environmental factors that are related to the flu, while having an influence by lifestyles, socioeconomic statuses as well as disease management. From all of this the public health department is trying to not only reduce the threats that are caused by influenza, but the data and evidence-based interventions are a start to a plan in ensuring quality health. Influenza and Efforts to Control it Influenza or the Flu, is a contagious illness that affects the respiratory system. It comes in forms of mild to severe, with the unfortunate......

Words: 1016 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Hepatitis B

...Hepatitis B is a global health problem, it is a liver infection that can cause serious complications and is potentially life threatening arising from the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). This paper will provide an overview of hepatitis B, including demographic information, determinants of health, the epidemiological triangle, the role of the community health nurse and a national organization that addresses the communicable disease. Hepatitis B is an infection of the liver caused by HBV; the infection can be classified as acute or chronic (Daniel, 2014). An individual with acute hepatitis infection may not exhibit symptoms and are unaware they may be carrying the HBV. During this time, individuals infected with the virus may pass the virus on to others, symptoms do not persist longer than two to three weeks, it is considered short term. Normal liver function returns in four to six months. Symptoms include loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, low-grade fever, tenderness to right upper quadrant, jaundice, fatigue, muscle and joint aches and pain (Daniel, 2014). Tests performed will be positive for the hepatitis B virus, which are HBsAg+, HBc-IgM and HBe-antigen. The HBV is transmitted when the virus enters the bloodstream through breaks in the skin, the mouth and genitalia areas. Examples include unprotected sex, exposure to needle sticks, skin punctures (skin piercing, tattoos, acupuncture) and sharing personal items that are contaminated (www.cdc.gov). Healthy adults with...

Words: 1399 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Aids

...Aids a Communicable Disease Aids a Communicable Disease Communicable disease is an illness due to a specific infectious agent or its toxic products that arises through transmission of that agent or its products from an infected person, animal or inanimate reservoir to a susceptible host; either directly or indirectly through an intermediate plant or animal host, vector or the inanimate environment (UCLA, 2011). Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a communicable disease that has become a global epidemic. This paper will give the reader a description of the disease, demographic of interest, describe the determinants of health, the epidemiologic triangle as it relates to AIDS. This paper will also discuss the role of community health nurse and organizations that have made an impact on AIDS education and research. The first report of AIDS in medical literature was in 1981 at this time AIDS was known as a disease associated with being gay, this quickly changed when further research revealed a transfusion recipient had been diagnosed as well as an infant in 1982 (UCSF, 2003). The cause of AIDS comes from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which destroys CD4 cells this weakens the bodies immune system, a patient could have HIV for many years before it progresses to AIDS. A person is considered to be infected with AIDS when their CD4 count falls below 200 or they show any of the following symptoms: * Tuberculosis * Cryptosporidiosis * Pneumocystis......

Words: 1487 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Drugs

...Drugs For many African Americans living in rural and urban areas of the United States, the use of drugs and its life changing effects on the users and people that live with or around the users are heartfelt. Drugs are a wreaking havoc among African Americans urban areas causing crime, increase of poverty, and diseases. Drugs can be helpful or harmful, depending on its use and how it’s taken. Drugs can be categorized as and substance or chemical which alters the way a person think, act, or feel. For the purpose of my paper I will persuade you to understand how man-made drugs affect the mind and body. There are many man-made drugs available, however the most popular used drugs are crack/cocaine, marijuana, and methamphetamine. Crack is a form of cocaine that can be smoke, unlike cocaine that is mainly used for snorting or injected intravenously. Crack was initially introduced around the 1980’s. Marijuana unlike crack cocaine was introduced in the 1920’s. Marijuana is a green or brown leafy substance that is taken from a plant. Marijuana often referred to as weed, pot, or grass is also a mind altering drug. Marijuana is used by rolling the leafy substance in paper and smoking it, the same form as smoking a cigarette. Unlike of man-made drugs, marijuana has numerous uses. Marijuana can be used to treat medical disorders, HIV patients, pain, nausea, and severe weight loss to name a few. Methamphetamines are drugs which speeds up a person’s body and brain, commonly......

Words: 488 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Epidemiology and Vulnerable Populations

...of optimum well-being, a human right and a social goal. The public health mission is to provide and assure conditions that promote health in the community. Public health, epidemiology and nursing practice share the same goal of disease prevention and control. By definition, epidemiology is the study of population in order to monitor the health of the population, understand the determinants of health and disease in the community, and investigate and evaluate interventions to prevent disease and maintain health. (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2012). Epidemiology today is considered to be the core science of public health and is described as a constellation of disciplines with a common mission: optimal health for the whole community (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2008). Epidemiology has reformed public health and continues to strive for disease prevention and health promotion in communities across the world. The population and disease that will be discussed in relation to epidemiology in this paper with be of HIV in the homeless population. This paper will focus on the homeless population in regards to their vulnerability and susceptibility to HIV, along with the epidemiology and levels of prevention. This paper will also discuss the definition and purpose of epidemiology, epidemiological methods, the...

Words: 1966 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Epidemiology Papaer

...Epidemiology Paper –HIV Human immunodeficiency virus is a retrovirus attack the cells of the immune system, and leads to the loss of immune function, results in the development of Acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS]. The human retrovirus contains two copies of a 9,749- base ribonucleic add [RNA] molecule as its genetic material. There is an enzyme called reverse transcriptase carried by the virus transform the RNA genome into a DNA copy upon infection and this DNA copy integrates into human chromosome and is maintained in a form called provirus and once the provirus is integrated the infection is not reversible .Human immune viruses falls into the subgroup known as lent viruses or slow viruses that do not cause the state of disease for many years after the infection. The period of time between the between the HIV infection and the development of disease takes between five and ten years in an untreated person. This person can be infectious during this period. Human immunodeficiency virus transmits only through the body fluids including semen vaginal fluid and also human milk .That is why the primary mode of transmission is sexual transmission, repeated use of dirty needles by the intravenous drug users, needles used for tattoos and body piercing, and also the transmission is through the HIV contaminated breast milk or from a HIV positive mother to the newborn during child birth. In the early days of AIDS epidemic the blood and blood product transfusions were......

Words: 1533 - Pages: 7