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Communications Skills Social Care Practice

In: Business and Management

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Communication Skills for Social Care Practice
Contextualised materials for Essential Skills Communication

November 2012

Published by:
Northern Ireland Social Care Council
7th Floor, Millennium House
19-25 Great Victoria Street
Belfast
BT2 7AQ
Tel: 028 9041 7600
Website: www.niscc.info
Email: info@niscc.hscni.net

This resource is free to download as a PDF file from the NISCC website www.niscc.info Material within this resource may be reproduced for training and learning purposes only. Copies can be made available in a range of different formats by contacting the Communications Team at the above address. November 2012
1

Guidance for use of this Resource
These vocationally contextualised materials are designed to support Essential Skills tutors and trainers who are delivering Essential Skills Communication to Health /
Social Care workers and students. They are not intended to be used as a set programme, rather as a resource for tutors, to support the planning and delivery of programmes suited to the needs of their own particular groups of learners. This resource should not be the sole source of task materials, since part of the ethos of essential skills is that the learner should have some choice in their materials for reading, writing and speaking/listening.
Tutors can adapt the materials to suit the specific needs of their groups. The resource is suitable for use up to Level 2 Essential Skills Communication.
Appendix 1 contains some information on how the use of these materials can generate evidence for some specific units in QCF Health and Social Care qualifications. Acknowledgements
Thanks are due to the North West Regional College and Belfast Metropolitan
College for the development of these resources and also for piloting the resources in their respective courses. They have proven to be successful with feedback from learners confirming that they developed both in skills and confidence from the experience. Thanks are also due to employers for recognising the skills need of their staff and for supporting them to increase their knowledge and skills. Both the
Northern Ireland Social Care Council and UNISON worked in collaboration with both colleges in supporting the development of this resource. This endeavour has been a response to the increasing complexity within social care work and increasing demands on written and verbal communication in carrying out the social care role.
Thanks also are due to CITBNI for pioneering this format for contextualised learning in communication.

Useful Links www.essentialskillsni.com/articles www.unison.org.uk

www.english-grammar-revolution.com

www.niscc.info

www.skillsworkshop.org www.delni.gov.uk/index/successthroughskills/skills-and-training-programmes2/essential-skills.htm 2

Table of Contents
Guidance for use of this Resource ................................................................................................ 2
Acknowledgements .......................................................................................................................... 2
READING Tasks .............................................................................................................................. 5
Reading Task 1 – Texts: Presentation Features ......................................................................... 6
Reading Task 2 - Reading and selecting relevant information: Summarising ...................... 18
Reading Task 3 - Summarising .................................................................................................... 23
Reading Task 4 - Formal and Informal Texts ............................................................................ 25
Reading Task 5 - Reading and Understanding: Skimming; Scanning and Detailed Reading
.......................................................................................................................................................... 26
Reading Task 6 - Types of Texts: Linguistic Features ............................................................. 29
Reading Task 7 - Types of Writing: Writing to Instruct ............................................................. 35
Reading Task 8 - Types of Texts: Persuasive Writing ............................................................. 38
Reading Task 9 - Analysing a Newspaper Article ..................................................................... 40
Reading Task 10 - Reading Images ............................................................................................ 43
Reading Task 11 - Practice for Desktop Task Part 1 ............................................................... 45
WRITING Tasks ............................................................................................................................ 48
Writing Task 1 - Sentences........................................................................................................... 49
Writing Task 2 - Simple, Compound and Complex Sentences ............................................... 52
Writing Task 3 - Punctuation ........................................................................................................ 54
Writing Task 4 - Apostrophes ....................................................................................................... 64
Writing Task 5 – Subject Verb Agreement ................................................................................. 72
Writing Task 6 - Tenses ................................................................................................................ 74
Writing Task 7 – Spelling Homophones...................................................................................... 75
Writing Task 8 - Paragraphs ......................................................................................................... 83
Writing Task 9 – Mind Mapping.................................................................................................... 91
Writing Task 10 – Structuring an Extended Text ....................................................................... 93
Writing Task 11 – Proof Read and Revise Writing for Accuracy and Meaning .................... 94
Writing Task 12 – Writing and Extended Text: Report on Your Organisation ...................... 96
Writing Task 13 – Writing an Essay / Article .............................................................................. 98
Writing Task 14 – Formal Letter: Letter of Complaint ............................................................. 104

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SPEAKING AND LISTENING Tasks .................................................................................. 109
Speaking and Listening Task 1 - How Well do I Listen? ........................................................ 111
Speaking and Listening Task 2 – How Well do I Speak? ...................................................... 113
Speaking and Listening Task 3 - Speaking to Others ............................................................ 115
Speaking and Listening Task 4 - Using the Telephone.......................................................... 116
Speaking and Listening Task 5 - Following Spoken Instructions ......................................... 117
Speaking and Listening Task 6 - Listening for instructions ................................................... 118
Speaking and Listening Task 7 - Team Meetings ................................................................... 120
Speaking and Listening Task 8 - Group Discussion: Sample ............................................... 122
Speaking and Listening Task 9 - Group Discussion: Rate Your Performance Checklist.. 124
Speaking and Listening Task 10 - One Minute Talks ............................................................. 125
Researching Information Using ICT ................................................................................ 127
Appendix 1 - Relevance to QCF H&SC Qualifications ............................................................... 128
Level 2 Certificate in Induction into Adult Social Care ............................................................ 129
Level 2 Diploma in Health and Social Care.............................................................................. 130

4

READING Tasks
“We read to know we are not alone.”
C. S. Lewis

5

Reading Task 1 – Texts: Presentation Features
There are many different types of texts. A text may be written to inform, instruct, describe or persuade.
Texts are presented in different ways.
Types of Texts









Adverts
Newspapers
Newspaper Article
Letters
Phone text.
Notes
Stories
Lists

How Texts are Presented
Texts are presented in different ways:
Adverts in papers, magazines or websites

6

Reading Task 1
Newspapers
Tabloid

Broadsheet

Newspaper Articles

7

Reading Task 1
Letters

Dear Mr Smith
I am writing in reply to your advertisement for a Care Worker in the
Belfast Telegraph. I have just finished my apprenticeship and I am qualified in Health and Social Care at Level 2.

Phone Texts

8

Notes

Business Cards

9

Reading Task 1
PRESENTATIONAL DEVICES are sometimes used to present information and ideas. They are written this way to have a particular effect on the reader.
Features of Presentational Devices

Device

Use

Heading

To indicate MAIN topic

Sub Heading

To show new aspect of the topic

Photographs

Illustrate something in the text in a visual way

Diagrams and graphs Show information in a visual way

Use of colour

Colour is attractive and draws the eye. It can be used to highlight or separate different aspects of the text. It can also be used to show mood. Red or bright yellow is often used to show danger

.
10

Different Print
Size

To separate out different

Different font type To separate different information and change the mood of the text

Bold print

To emphasise something

Bullet points

To create
 a list
 which Is easier to read
 than a single line

Numbering

To show order of ideas or information, for example, instructions Italics

To emphasise something

Underlining

To emphasise something

Logo

Logos are a company brand and reassure customers they are receiving a familiar product, advice or service

information and to

emphasise parts of text

11

Reading Task 1
Read the leaflet on mental health and tick how many presentational features the writer has used

Presentational
Feature

Presentational Presentational
Feature in
Feature
Leaflet

Heading
Graphs
Sub heading
Logo
Diagrams
Bold Print
Use of colour
Italics
Different size print
Bullet points
Different Font
Underlining
types
Photographs
Numbering

Presentational
Feature in
Leaflet

Now write a few sentences on how the leaflet is presented
1. How colour is being used

2. The effect of headings and sub headings

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3. Why bullet points are used?

4. Is different print size or bold print being used? What for?

5. There are logos on this leaflet. Why are the organisations‟ logos important? 6. Why are photographs and pictures being used – rather than just more words?

13

14

15

16

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Reading Task 2 - Reading and selecting relevant information:
Summarising

You will often need to select the relevant points from either written or spoken information and summarise it for the reader or listener.
What is Summarising?
A summary is a shorter description of a longer text or speech, which should be easy to read and to understand.
It contains all the relevant details of the original text/speech but includes none of the facts, opinions or descriptions that are not relevant to the overall meaning of the original information.
For example, when filling in an application form or preparing a CV
(Curriculum Vitae) for a job, you would include only the information that is relevant to the job application.
A CV is only one or two pages long and the information you provide is a summary of your educational and work history, achievements and experience. It will allow an employer to judge if you have the necessary qualifications, training and skills for the job.
(Think about the difference between a CV - education and employment history - and an autobiography - your life story - where you can write about all the various aspects of your life).
„Dos‟ and „Don‟ts‟ of Summarising a Text
Do
• Quickly skim read the original text to get the overall meaning. The title and subheadings can provide clues.
• Reread the text again thoroughly to make sure that you understand its overall meaning.
• Look out for hidden meanings (positive / negative vocabulary etc).
• Find out the meaning of any unfamiliar words.

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• Highlight or underline the main points of the text, leaving out any irrelevant information (details, descriptions or opinions). It is helpful to bullet point these main points in order to make it easier to write your summary in its proper sequence.
• Summarise by bringing the key points together in sentences and paragraphs, using proper punctuation and grammar.
• Write the summary in your own words (technical terms can be taken from the original text but do not copy out sentences or paragraphs). • Include information provided by images if relevant to the overall meaning. • Change direct speech into reported speech, e.g. “Sammy Wilson says, „I still think man-made climate change is a con” would be changed to e.g. Sammy Wilson thinks we are not responsible for climate change.
• Keep summary brief and easier to read than the original.
• READ OVER YOUR DRAFT TO MAKE SURE YOU HAVE
CAPTURED THE OVERALL MEANING OF THE ORIGINAL
TEXT.
• ACKNOWLEDGE YOUR SOURCE/S. At the beginning or end of your summary give details of the original text e.g. Source, title, author and date
Don‟t
• Do not include any unnecessary detail that does not support the overall meaning of the text. For example, when writing a report on a workplace accident, you would not include what the weather was like that day unless it directly related to the cause of the accident
e.g. slip caused by frost or ice.
• Don‟t just jot down rough notes – that is not a completed summary.
• Don‟t just copy chunks from an original text.
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• Don‟t include information descriptions or opinions that do not support the overall meaning of the text.
• DON‟T FORGET TO READ OVER YOUR DRAFT TO MAKE
SURE YOU HAVE CAPTURED THE OVERALL MEANING OF
THE ORIGINAL TEXT.
• DON‟T FORGET TO ACKNOWLEDGE YOUR SOURCE/S
At the beginning or end of your summary give details of the original text e.g.
Source:
Title:
Author:
Date:

Example
STEP 1
Below is an original text. The main points have been highlighted in yellow. Simple Steps to a healthy heart
The number of deaths from coronary heart disease (CHD) in Northern
Ireland has dropped significantly, according to recent figures. However, the Public Health Agency (PHA) is urging everyone to take steps to protect their heart and reduce their chances of developing the disease during National Heart Month. Despite the number of deaths dropping significantly in recent years, coronary heart disease is still the number one killer across the country. Over 2,200 people died in Northern Ireland from coronary heart disease in 2010 compared to just over 2,300 people in 2009 – an overall reduction of 100 province-wide. The latest figure reveals the positive downward trend is continuing – in 2008, there were
2,410 deaths, 2,493 in 2007 and 2,554 in 2006, while in 1979 there were nearly 5,000 deaths. Throughout National Heart Month in February, the
PHA is calling for people to follow a number of steps in a bid to reduce their chances of developing the disease.
155 words
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STEP 2
These are the main points selected from the original text and listed in bullet points.
Main Points of Article
• The number of deaths from coronary heart disease in Northern Ireland is dropping.
• CHD is still the number one killer across the country.
• Public Health Agency is urging everyone to take action to protect their heart and reduce the chance of developing heart disease.

STEP 3
Here is the final summary rewritten it in my own words. It is written in full sentences and any unnecessary detail has been left out.
Summary
The number of deaths from coronary heart disease in Northern Ireland is dropping but it is still the number one killer in the Province. The Public
Health Agency is urging everyone to take action to protect their heart and reduce their chances of getting the disease.
46 Words

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Reading Task 2
ACTIVITY
Alcohol Services
Figures in August 2011 show that while 3.5 million people used drugs in the last year, 8.2 million people have an alcohol disorder. Meanwhile, the government Information Centre for Health and Social Care revealed that alcohol-related illness has reached record levels. In-patient care for people with mental health or behavioural disorders resulting from alcohol misuse increased by 75 per cent from 1995 to 2005, and from 72,500 admissions to 126,300, it said. Numbers admitted to hospital with liver disease due to alcohol have more than doubled over the past ten years.
93 words
Main points of text (in bullet points)

Summary of text

_______ words
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Reading Task 3 - Summarising
BBC Panorama‟s Undercover Care: The Abuse Exposed
The BBC filmed abuse of patients with learning difficulties at
Winterbourne View residential hospital in Bristol. During five weeks spent filming undercover, BBC Panorama‟s reporter captured footage of some of the hospital‟s most vulnerable patients being repeatedly pinned down, slapped, dragged into showers while fully clothed, taunted and teased. The case has been condemned as “shocking” by the government and
Care Services Minister Paul Burstow said he was determined to strengthen safeguards for vulnerable adults. He has already ordered a thorough examination of the roles of the government regulator, the Care
Quality Commission (CQC), and the local authorities. CQC chairman
Dame Jo Williams admitted that the failure to follow up the reports of a whistleblower – a senior nurse at the home – had been an “unforgivable error of judgement”. Avon and Somerset police confirmed three men – aged 42, 30 and 25 – and a 24-year-old woman were arrested as part of their investigation into the hospital. The hospital‟s owners, Castlebeck, have apologised and suspended 13 employees. It has launched an internal investigation into its whistle-blower procedures and is reviewing the records of all 580 patients in 56 facilities. Winterbourne View can accommodate 24 patients and is taxpayer-funded, charging the state an average of £3,500 per patient per week.
213 words
Source: http://www.safeguardingmatters.co.uk/2011/06/bbc-panoramaundercover-care/

23

Summarise the above article
Main points of text (in bullet points)

Summary of text

_______ words

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Reading Task 4 - Formal and Informal Texts
Using formal or informal language depends on the audience and purpose of a text.

Formal style is usually used for:
• Official correspondence e.g. letters to or from your company.
• Official documents and books that have been published.
• Corresponding with people with whom you are not familiar.

Informal style is normally used for:
• Speaking or writing to people you know well.

Identify which of the following features is formal or informal:
Feature
Incomplete sentences
Complex sentences
Slang
Short simple sentences
Easy words
Abbreviations, for example „gr8‟

Formal or Informal?

Which style [formal or informal] is most suitable for
Letter of application
An internal company memo
Email invitation to 18th birthday party Letter of opinion to local newspaper A mobile phone text to a friend
A holiday postcard
A post it to a family member
A company report

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Reading Task 5 - Reading and Understanding: Skimming;
Scanning and Detailed Reading
We skim read, scan read or read a text in detail depending on the information we want from the text. This makes for efficient research.
Often we need to use all three skills in order to make sense of a text.
Skim Reading
Skim reading a text is where you would read over the whole text quickly to get a general idea of what it is about. For example, you might skim read a newspaper article or a story in a magazine in order to get the gist of the story.
Scanning
Scanning a text is where you would look over a text to find specific information. For example, we scan the yellow pages to find a decorator or a plumber. We would also scan dictionaries, glossaries, calendars and so on to find specific information.
Detailed Reading
Often when we read it is important that we read every word. For example, when we read a set of instructions it is important to make sure we do not leave anything out.

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Reading Task 5
ACTIVITY
1. Skim-read the following piece of writing and write in one or two sentences what the article is mainly about.

2. Scan the text to find the third item on the list of 6 areas relating to what social care workers must do – write it out below.

Read the text in detail to answer the following question. Please give your answer in complete sentences.
3. What are social care workers expected to protect?

27

Reading Task 5
NISCC Code of Practice for Social Care Workers
The Northern Ireland Social Care Council‟s Code of Practice for Social
Care Workers is a list of statements that describe the standards of professional conduct and practice required of social care workers as they go about their daily work.
The purpose of this code is to set out the conduct that is expected of social care workers and to inform service users and the public about the standards of conduct they can expect from social care workers. It forms part of the wider package of legislation, practice standards and employers‟ policies and procedures that social care workers must meet.
Social care workers are responsible for making sure that their conduct does not fall below the standards set out in this code and that no action or omission on their part harms the wellbeing of service users.
Social care workers must:
1. Protect the rights and promote the interests of service users and carers; 2. Strive to establish and maintain the trust and confidence of service users and carers;
3. Promote the independence of service users while protecting them as far as possible from danger or harm;
4. Respect the rights of service users while seeking to ensure that their behaviour does not harm themselves or other people;
5. Uphold public trust and confidence in social care services; and
6. Be accountable for the quality of their work and take responsibility for maintaining and improving their knowledge and skills. http://www.niscc.info/content/uploads/downloads/registration/codes_of_practice_colour.pdf 28

Reading Task 6 - Types of Texts: Linguistic Features
The type of text that is written depends on who it is being written for (the audience) and why the text has been written (the purpose). You will need to become familiar with the features of different types of text.
Types of Text
Information
e.g. Newspaper
Article - Leaflet

Features
Texts that provide information aim to be easy to read.
They may have:
Headings and subheadings to show clearly the topic and aspect of a topic in the paragraph
Paragraph length shorter paragraphs make the text easier to read
Bullet points show the main points
Underlining
to highlight important information
Bold print to catch the attention of the reader. Used for headings and key words/phrases
Font Size larger font size indicates more important information Italics to emphasize a point
Colour
to catch attention of the reader. It also shows difference. 29

Types of Text
Instruction Leaflet

Features
The writer speaks directly to the reader.
Instructions are in the proper order - often numbered. Written in the present tense

Descriptive text
(e.g. stories, adverts) Noun - views
Verb - lashed

Writer uses words that give orders - do / do not
Aim: Texts that describe aim for you to imagine what they are describing. They use:
Adjectives - used to describe nouns, e.g. „The views from the holiday apartment were stunning.‟
(noun)

(adjective)

Adverbs - used to describe verbs e.g. „The waves lashed furiously against the rocks.‟
(verb)

(adverb)

Comparisons - something is like something else
e.g. „The moon was like a huge silver ball in the sky,‟ Five senses - to show how something looks, sounds, feels, smells and tastes, e.g. The rain had the feel of cold metal against our faces.‟
Persuasive Texts
(e.g. advertising)

When writing to persuade the writer‟s aim is to make the reader do something or believe something. Emotive language
Sometimes a writer will use words or phrases to make the reader feel a particular emotion, e.g. sadness, anger, guilt etc.
„Cowboy builders are conning the elderly and most vulnerable in our society.‟
Facts and Statistics
When factual information is given to support a point of view, e.g.
“More than 70% of people living in the western world live in timber framed houses.”
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Types of Text
Persuasive Texts
(e.g. advertising)

Features
Opinion presented as if it was fact
When information is given to support a point of view but cannot be proved.
“Most people prefer to continue to live at home when they get older”
Repetition
Repeating a particular word, phrase or idea throughout the text emphasises the point that the writer is making.
“Building Houses, Building Community, Building
Hope”
(Habitat for Humanity poster)
Rhetorical questions
These make the reader think about what is being asked. They also aim to involve the reader, making them think that their opinion is important.
„Is it worth all the bother of moving when a roof or cellar conversion can give you the space you need?‟ List of three
When three adjectives or phrases are used to emphasise a point, e.g.
„The new care home was light, bright and airy.’
Exaggeration
Makes something appear really good or really bad.
Best Ever Sale of DIY materials in Northern
Ireland!‟
Use of supporting viewpoints
Using expert opinion or quotes from famous people to make a viewpoint appear more convincing.
Question and answer
Used to draw readers‟ attention to particular aspects of an issue.

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Persuasive Texts
(e.g. advertising)

Criticise the other person‟s point of view.
This is where the writer attacks the opposing argument to make their own argument seem better.
Alliteration
Use of the same sounds at the beginning of words catches the reader‟s attention e.g.
„Thompson‟s Temps can‟t be topped‟
Personal pronouns
Using words such as „I‟, „we‟, „you‟, „our‟, „us‟, to make the reader feel the writer is speaking directly to you.
„We can give you great advice on training for your staff.‟ 32

Reading Task 6
Identify whether the following texts are information, instruction, descriptive or persuasive:

1. Hand washing
1. Wet your hands with warm, running water and apply liquid soap or use clean bar soap. Lather well.
2. Rub your hands vigorously together for at least 15 to 20 seconds.
3. Scrub all surfaces, including the backs of your hands, wrists, between your fingers and under your fingernails.
4. Rinse well.
5. Dry your hands with a clean or disposable towel.
6. Use a towel to turn off the tap.
Type of text: _______________________________________

2. Sunshine Care is a family-owned business that provides the best possible specialist 24 hour live-in care service for those who live in their own home in the North West of Northern Ireland. Our carers, who are qualified and trained professionals, support the needs of our clients 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, allowing them the best quality of life possible. We are members of the United Kingdom Home Care
Association, (UKHCA). Our services are tried, tested and trusted. The costs to you of a live in care support worker can be as little as £64 per day for a self-employed Companion Housekeeper on our Live-in Care
Gold service; and from £73 per day for a Personal Assistant (PA) providing personal care, (including agency charges).
Type of text: __________________________________________

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Reading Task 6
Identify whether the following texts are information, instruction, descriptive or persuasive:
3. Most of us at some point in our lives may need to make use of social care services. It may be for you, for a family member or friend and could be for a variety of reasons - the result of a physical, sensory or learning disability, mental ill-health, the need for additional support with your children, the impact of an illness or getting older. Social care provides the necessary support and care to help adults, children, families, older people, and their carers deal with such situations as independently as possible. People employed in social care work closely with the people using care services and their carers as well as other professionals such as social workers, community nurses, doctors, housing officers, teachers, staff of education and local authorities, health and social services trusts and support groups. As a result the range of work carried out within the social care sector is hugely diverse and covers day centre care, residential care, supported living, care at home and projects within the community. Type of text: ______________________________________

4. The word dementia is used to describe a group of symptoms.
Although dementia is commonly thought of as memory loss, the reality is much more complex, and symptoms between the different forms of dementia can vary a great deal. Dementia symptoms can include memory loss, confusion and mood changes.
About 820,000 people in the UK have dementia. Most are over 65, but over 15,000 under-65s have dementia. Dementia in people under 65 is often called early-onset dementia.

Type of text: _________________________________________

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Reading Task 7 - Types of Writing: Writing to Instruct
Instructions
In the course of your work you will often read or write instructions.
Instructions are not just pieces of advice or suggestions about how to carry out a job. Instructions are about how a job MUST be carried out so that the end result is a job completed safely and to the proper standards.
Features of Writing to Instruct
1. Instructions must be written in the correct order. When carrying out instructions for any job you could waste time or cause annoyance or even injury to yourself or others if following instructions that are in the wrong order.
2. Only relevant information should be included. Extra information could confuse the person following the instructions.
3. Instructions should be clear and easy to follow.
4. Instructions are given in a series of clear simple commands or directions. The verbs give commands, e.g. „Stop here‟ and are often found at the beginning of a sentence. They clearly state what the person should do.
5. Instructions are written in the present or future tense as if the action is happening now. e.g. Press the button and a light will come on.
Activity 1
You‟ve agreed to do a little bit of DIY for your neighbour while he‟s on holiday. Below are two sets of instructions for the job. Which set is more effective? Give reasons for your answers. (Remember to check the list of features of instruction texts).
1. Painting Job
• Clear the room before you start.
• Place anything that needs to stay in the centre of the room.
• Use dust sheets to cover items.
35

• Fill any cracks or holes.
• Wash down with sugar soap solution. (Use protective goggles and gloves). • Prime walls.
• Paint ceiling first.
• Then paint walls
• Finally paint the woodwork.
This set of instructions is effective / ineffective because:

Activity 2
2. Painting Job
See before you start, Chris, would you check if the dog‟s bowl has water, because we‟re away from 5 o‟clock this morning and the neighbour can‟t pick him up until 10am. If I were you, I would get as much furniture out of the room as possible and anything you can‟t move sure just put it into the middle of the room with a couple of dust sheets over the top. Take a look and see if there are any cracks or holes that need fixing up before you start. You‟ll need to paint the ceiling first in case the paint drips down onto the walls and then paint the walls and then the skirting boards and doors. After you‟ve filled in the cracks or holes you‟ll need to wash the walls down with the sugar soap solution. Make sure you put the old goggles and gloves on for the sugar solution wash – the last time
I did it my eyes stung for a week!!!! And don‟t forget to prime the walls after the sugar soap solution wash has dried.

36

This set of instructions is effective / ineffective because:

Activity 3
3. Which of these sentences are instructions?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

Measure 10 grams of powder mix and add 250mls of water.
Most social care workers are employed by the independent sector.
People who suffer from dementia often have mood swings.
Make sure you follow the manufacturer‟s instructions for the hoist.
Carry out the procedure in the correct order.
Allow the client to be as independent as possible
More than 50% of moving and handling injuries in health and social care involve the handling of people
h. From 6 April 2012, the RIDDOR over-three-day reporting requirement for people injured at work will change to more than seven days.
i. Make sure you report any accidents at work.

Activity 4
4. Make out a set of instructions for the following task.
The instruction verbs below may be useful.
a. Instructions for making a cup of tea.
Put lift

fill click use

add

take make mix stir

37

Reading Task 8 - Types of Texts: Persuasive Writing
Testimonials
Writers use a range of techniques to engage the reader. Writing to persuade aims to make the reader do something or believe something.
The following testimonials express customer satisfaction with a home care business.
North West Homecare specialises in caring for people of all ages and needs in the comfort and security of their own homes throughout the
Province. A family business, North West Homecare offers a wide range of homecare services to suit all needs and budgets. We can help you recuperate at home after a stay in hospital, or be on hand to relieve a regular carer whilst they take a well-earned break. Our Nursing and
Care staff can also help with some of the day to day activities you might be finding increasingly difficult or be available for more complex care over a longer period of time.
"Thank you all so much for all you have given to our family. The team that was put together fitted in with our family so well. Everyone was so kind and eager to help and do all they could for John. With the help of
North West Homecare, John's time at home was made special and we are very grateful." The Doherty Family
"Thank you and your great team for all your hard work this week. We may need you again in future and I will certainly recommend you to any friends and family.” Linda
“I found North West Homecare to be very caring and professional. They have the ability to adapt to individual needs and be proactive. I would highly recommend them to anyone.” James

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Reading Task 8
1. Who do you think is the intended audience for these testimonials?

2. What is the purpose of the testimonials?

3. On the basis of these testimonials would you use this homecare business? 4. Why?

39

Reading Task 9 - Analysing a Newspaper Article
At Level 2 you will be closely analysing texts of 500 words or more.
You will need to identify:












The intended audience of the text.
The purpose of the text – why was the text written?
Is there more than one viewpoint presented?
The events that led the writer to produce the article.
The main idea of the article.
The arguments the writer is putting forward.
Facts / statistics / quotes from expert witnesses etc that support the writer‟s main arguments – his/her sources of information.
If the reporting is true (balanced) or biased?
Different points of view given by the writer.
Is the article balanced, persuasive, informative, convincing?
Your own feelings about the article. Do you agree with the writer‟s point/s of view?

ACTIVITY
Read the following article “Northern Ireland Health Service faces shake up” and analyse the article using the list above.
Write your answers in full sentences which are properly punctuated.
If you are using quotes from the text to back up your comments remember to enclose them in inverted commas, for example,
Mr Compton says, “Trusts will be asked to identify savings over the next year”. 40

Northern Ireland's Health Service faces shake-up
By Lisa Smyth
Friday, 1 July 2011
Some of Northern Ireland's hospitals and A&Es could shut as early as next year after the Health & Social Care Board approved a draft plan which will dramatically change the way healthcare is delivered here.
The vision includes cutting the current number of 10 acute hospitals by up to half, reducing spending on wages by £40m, which equates to
2,000 jobs, closing local hospitals, treating more patients outside of
Northern Ireland and slashing the number of care home places for the elderly. John Compton, Chief Executive of the Board, has refused to name which hospitals could close under the plans, but with four acute sites located near Belfast city centre, it is likely that at least one will be downgraded to a local hospital.
And while people in Enniskillen are looking forward to the opening of the new acute Erne Hospital, there are also concerns over the future of
Causeway and Daisy Hill hospitals.
The number of local hospitals across Northern Ireland is also likely to be reduced as the draft report recommends transferring services to acute hospitals to ensure "greater cost effectiveness".
The proposed changes in health and social care in Northern Ireland could result in:






Operations carried out on fewer sites with patients spending several days in acute settings before being transferred to a local hospital closer to home for recovery and rehabilitation.
Tattoo removal and other cosmetic procedures no longer available on the NHS.
Young people with serious mental health problems sent to specialist treatment centres outside Northern Ireland.
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Massive increase in the number of pensioners living in their own homes instead of care homes.
More neurology and cardiac services being provided outside
Northern Ireland.

However, there will be a £41m black hole in the health budget this year even with the range of controversial proposals.
Mr. Compton, Chief Executive of the Board and the man who will head up a major review of acute services in Northern Ireland, warned this could rise to as much as £60m as a result of unplanned events, such as extremely harsh winter conditions or a serious infection outbreak.
He said Trusts will be asked to identify savings over the next year which will probably lead to longer waits in some specialties, but admitted it may not be possible to plug the financial gap.
He also said the budget for dental services is likely to be as much as
£7m short with a review under way to identify possible savings, including removing treatments from the NHS.
There were angry scenes ahead of the meeting in Belfast yesterday as union members jostled to be allowed in to view proceedings at board headquarters in Linenhall Street. The proposals will now go to the Health
Minister for approval and the trusts will be asked to propose how they will deliver changes - for example, what services they will provide and which hospitals will close.
Mr. Compton said: "We are struggling to make ends meet but it would be completely inappropriate to say there will be no health service. We commit more than £10m every 24 hours to support the delivery of services to the population of Northern Ireland."
He also played down fears over the future of midwife-led delivery units in
Northern Ireland: "We are going to review this service just as we would with any service to ascertain how it is working. This will help us if we want to create more similar units."

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Reading Task 10 - Reading Images
We often use images (photographs, maps, charts, graphs, etc) to gather information or to put information across.

There are many health and safety signs used in the workplace to alert employees and customers to dangers.

Guides for various care activities can also use pictures to show instructions more clearly. In the course of your work, you may use guides like this one on moving and handling.

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Reading Task 10
PUTTING THE MESSAGE ACROSS
Here are two safety signs for personal protective equipment. The audience and purpose of both signs is the same.
Which of the signs do you think puts the message across most effectively? Why? Write about each of the signs saying why you think one is more effective than the other.

44

Reading Task 11 - Practice for Desktop Task Part 1
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
Homecare Independent Living‟s
Managing Director Mairead Mackle shares her company‟s approach to CSR and the benefits it brings to the wider community and to the company itself.
We set out to have an impact on our local community because we are a community healthcare provider. Homecare Independent Living is one of the largest private community healthcare providers in Ireland, employing over 950 staff. Our CSR activities are delivered through our dedicated charity committee (iCare), which draws its name from the company‟s five core values: • Integrity;
• Commitment;
• Accountability;
• Respect; and
• Enthusiasm.
Cross community activities of iCare mean that our staff and families can get involved in are prioritised. Its fundraising work is dedicated to tackling small but meaningful changes in our local communities. iCare‟s
Gatelodge project (www.santasgatelodge.com) is mainly directed at children‟s charities e.g. the NSPCC and the Sophia Fund for the Royal
Victoria Hospital‟s neonatal unit, SCOPE UK (Children with Cerebral
Palsy) and OVC (Orphans and Vulnerable Children).
Separately, the company also sponsors the under-18 and ladies teams at Armagh City Football Club and they in turn offer their help with our community activities. We also sponsor some primary schools‟ sports activities which involve all their young people.
Over 250 volunteers are involved in the Gatelodge project, with many coming from secondary schools in the Armagh area. We invite our local schools to involve their 17 and 18 year old students and each young person is trained in customer care. The highlight of the year is the
45

opening of the 130-year old Manor House Gatelodge in the village of
Milford for 16 days in December, which attracts thousands of visitors from across Ireland. The entire village becomes part of the experience and everyone has a part to play. The staff and students really enjoy the practical and fun elements of it. Additionally, the Milford Fun Day for
Families on the August Bank Holiday raises money to renovate the listed community hall in the village, which will ultimately benefit the whole community. Activities should be linked to the ability, skills and resources of the company. In our case, Homecare provides community services and has a large female workforce. Supporting local school activities helps to support local mothers, many of whom work for Homecare. iCare‟s other area of focus is to help reduce social isolation for older people, especially in rural areas, and we have just commenced a much needed befriending service in the Armagh area assisted by CAWT
(Cooperation and Working Together) Project. Many of our staff will offer themselves for a few hours each week to help another person and this can be very rewarding.
In my opinion, we must apply the same business skills and concepts across CSR and our core work.
Whether it‟s a fun day, a family trip to The Gatelodge or a visit from a befriender, the experience has to be good one regardless of the fact that the funds may be going to a charitable cause or it‟s delivered by a volunteer. This means using our business skills right across the board to create worthwhile services or events.
Environmental initiatives that many companies highlight as part of their
CSR activities are part and parcel of our normal business routine e.g. efficient energy and transport use, and a sustainable approach to waste management. CSR also brings tremendous internal benefits in terms of staff morale, enabling a good community spirit and helping both young and old work together. It is time-consuming and involves a huge commitment of effort but ultimately proves to be more than worthwhile.
Source: http://www.agendani.com/homecares-approach-to-csr

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Reading Task 11
Read the article on Corporate Social Responsibility and answer the questions below.
1. What Committee does Homecare Independent Living run its corporate social responsibility activities through?

2. Name two benefits to the company staff as a result of its corporate social responsibility activities

3. Name two charities that Homecare Independent Living supports through its Gatelodge Project.

4. Give an example of where the author has expressed an opinion.

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WRITING Tasks
“Words, once they are printed, have a life of their own”
Carol Burnett

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Writing Task 1 - Sentences
Sentences are groups of words that make complete sense. When writing you will need to check that your sentences are complete.
Example 1. „Moving and handling procedures are…‟ does not make a complete statement and is not a proper sentence.
Example 2. „Moving and handling procedures are important to follow.‟
This makes a complete statement and is a sentence. Every word counts.
Activity 1
Which of these groups of words is a complete sentence? Circle the incomplete sentences. Rewrite the incomplete sentences, using the beginnings or endings below, to make complete sentences.

BEGINNINGS
Infection control is….
Exercise is a great way to get out and meet people..,.
Always remember to…..
Keep walking areas clear of anything you might trip on….
Minor burns can be helped by…
Exercise reduces stress….
ENDINGS
…eat 5 portions of fruit or vegetables every day.
…holding them under running water.
….very important in a care setting.

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Writing Task 1
Are the following sentences complete or incomplete? Score out the wrong answer.
1.

Alcohol abuse is one of the biggest causes of family problems
Complete / incomplete

2.

Exercise relaxes tense muscles
Complete / incomplete

3.

Most of your energy should
Complete / incomplete

4.

Certain groups of people
Complete / incomplete

5.

Equality is a word often used in social care
Complete / incomplete

6.

Are all examples of communication
Complete / incomplete

7. Responsibility for adult learning is largely individual
Complete / incomplete

8.

Will probably not help learning
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Complete / incomplete

9.

Congratulate yourself on things you have done well
Complete / incomplete

10.

You to sleep better
Complete / incomplete

11.

Exercise reduces stress
Complete / incomplete

12.

Painkillers can be used for headaches

Complete / incomplete

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Writing Task 2 - Simple, Compound and Complex Sentences
When we write we use a variety of sentences to make our writing more interesting and engaging to the reader.
Simple Sentences
A simple sentence expresses a complete thought and contains a subject and a verb.
Jane is making the bed
(subject)

Jane is making the bed
(verb)

Compound Sentences
A compound sentence is made up of two complete simple sentences joined by a conjunction such as for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
Jane is making the bed and Ann is cleaning the windows.
(conjunction)

Complex Sentences
A complex sentence has a complete sentence with a complete thought.
It has a subject and a verb –but it adds additional information. The additional information is given in phrases that tell you more about the complete sentence. The phrases cannot stand on their own. The information in the complete sentence part is more important than the additional phrase/s.
Jane is making the bed and, although she is terrified of heights, Ann is cleaning the windows.
Subject
Additional phrase
- is not a complete thought
– less important part of sentence.

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Writing Task 2
ACTIVITY
Which of the following are simple, compound or complex sentences?
1. Margaret sets up the hoist and Jean helps the client.

2. Margaret sets up the hoist.

3. Unless a care worker is properly trained, he/she cannot move clients safely.

4. Before using a hoist, you should read the manufacturer‟s instructions. 53

Writing Task 3 - Punctuation
Punctuation is important because it helps the reader to understand what you have written.
There are four types of sentence. Sentences all begin with a capital letter but they do not all end the same way.
• Statements: The Makaton system is used to help communication with some people who have a learning disability. (Full stop)
• Questions: Does training improve practice? (Question mark)
• Exclamations: Lead poisons water! (Exclamation mark)
• Commands: Wear gloves! (Full stop or exclamation mark can be used here)

A sentence needs to make complete sense and needs to include a verb.
This is a sentence:
“The history of nursing is linked to closely war time”
(verb)

This is incomplete and does not contain a verb. It is not a sentence.
“The history of nursing”

54

Writing Task 3
Activity 1
Read the following sentences and add the correct capital letters and punctuation to each.
1. the methods for safe moving and handling have changed over the years

2. how do I improve my practice

3. exercise seems to improve the spirits and people feel happier

4. never leave medicines within the reach of children

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Writing Task 3
Activity 2
Comma ,
Commas are used to break up sentences into orderly chunks.
Commas are used to separate items in a list, e.g.
Health & Social Care Trusts manage and administer hospitals, health centres, residential homes, day centres and other care facilities.

A comma separates each item - the last two items on the list are linked by „and‟ - no commas are needed.

Commas separate out additional information that has been added into a sentence e.g.
The Health and Social Care Board, after consultation with stakeholders, may decide to reduce the number of hospitals.
(*Try reading the sentence above without the highlighted phase. You will find the sentence reads perfectly well without it!)

A comma is used to separate clauses.
A clause is a main part of a sentence and each clause must have a verb e.g.
Unless it is a replacement dwelling, building is not encouraged in the countryside. Clause with verb „is‟

Clause with verb phrase „is not‟

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Writing Task 3
Rewrite the following sentences putting commas in the correct places.
1. To improve the quality of the population‟s health the Public
Health Agency works in partnership with councils.

2. Councils aim to improve the amount of walking swimming cycling and other physical activity going on in their areas.

3. Unless levels of physical activity increase obesity levels will continue to rise.

4. If it has a good reason the Council can change the plans.

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5. The council will keep track of the use of pitches swimming pools gyms and cycling paths.

6. This is all part of the Public Health Agency‟s new strategy “A
Fitter Future for All” which was launched in March 2012.

7. This ten year strategy will seek to improve the wellbeing of people throughout their entire life from newborns to seniors.

8. Obesity increases the risk of developing serious illnesses such as heart disease stroke some cancers and type 2 diabetes. 58

Writing Task 3
Activity 3
Colon :
Use a colon before giving an example or an explanation of what has gone before, a list or a quotation.
There are various types of care facilities: hospitals, residential homes, domiciliary care and day care.
Rewrite the sentences below putting the colon in its proper place.
1. The vacancy advert in the paper suits me it‟s looking for someone with experience in home care working.

2. Safety signs are vital they are a constant reminder of the hazards in the workplace.

3. Care plans are useful they provide information and guidance on the care of the client.

4. Peter made a list of what he needed to prepare the feed gloves, measuring jug, powder mixture and milk.

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Writing Task 3
Activity 4
Semi-colon ;
Use a semi-colon to separate two related sentences.
Example
Many care workers suffer from back injuries; more than 50% of these injuries occur when moving and handling clients.
Insert semi-colons into the following sentences.
1. Plan your moving and handling in advance avoid injury.

2. There can be no short cuts on safe practice keep your training up to date.

3. Some moving will require the use of a hoist always make sure you check it before you start.

4. You may need someone else‟s help with the hoist ensure someone is with you from the beginning of the move.

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Writing Task 3
Activity 5
Brackets ( ) and Dashes Brackets and dashes can be used to separate out extra information from the main part of the sentence or statement. Either works equally well.
Example
1. Protective clothing (especially leather or PVC gloves) should be worn to protect the hands from sharp or jagged edges.
2. Protective clothing - especially leather or PVC gloves - should be worn to protect the hands from sharp or jagged edges.
Now try these. Rewrite the sentences below twice – once using brackets and the second time using dashes.
1. Sprains and strains to muscles joints, ligaments, tendons, disc trouble and hernias are often caused by sudden awkward movements while lifting.

2. When I first started work with North West Homecare at the beginning of my apprenticeship I was given an induction talk and had training in Health and Safety.

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Writing Task 3
Activity 6
Speech Marks “ ”
Speech marks are used to show the exact words spoken.
Ann said, “The new respite service is starting next week.”
Put speech marks in the correct places within these sentences.

1. The driver asked Margaret where do I leave the delivery?

2. Have you completed your training on Health and Safety legislation the tutor asked the group?

3. Did Joe pass on the memo to you the receptionist asked?

4. Jan said we finish tomorrow for our holidays.

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Inverted Commas
We use inverted commas when:
• Quoting what someone has said or written, e.g. The newspaper article stated that “Global temperatures are continuing to rise.”
• Giving the title of newspaper, book, film or play, e.g. Joe Blogg‟s book
“Understanding Health and Social Care” is used by care students throughout the UK.
• When using slang or when words are used in a particular way e.g. He thought the group was “real cool.”
Insert inverted commas into the following sentences.
1. Environmental correspondent, Richard Black (BBC News website) in his article Big profit from nature protection says that money ploughed into protecting wetlands, coral reefs and forests can bring a hundredfold return on capital.

2. Sue thought her manager was a bit of a jobsworth until she realised that the rules were legal requirements that kept her and her colleagues safe.

3. The title of Peter‟s assignment was Health and Safety Policies improve safety in the workplace.

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Writing Task 4 - Apostrophes
Apostrophe or Plural?
Most mistakes with apostrophes are made using plurals. Plural just means more than one. You would not use an apostrophe with a plural,
e.g.
We offer discount on larger orders.
(more than one order – it is plural so no apostrophe used)
Joiners should look after their tools.
(more than one joiner – plural so no apostrophe needed)

Activity 1
In the following sentences apostrophes have been used for plurals.
Rewrite the sentences correctly.
1. „Belfast Catering Supplies for cheaper meal‟s !‟

2. Hoist‟s are one of the most important pieces of equipment in the residential home.

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Writing Task 4
3. It is important to keep the room‟s in the Home clean and tidy.

4. It is vital to offer client‟s something to drink regularly so they stay hydrated.

5. Eat two portion‟s of salad or vegetables with every meal.

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Writing Task 4
Apostrophes - Possession
Apostrophes are used to show ownership
„s is added to the word that shows who the owner is.
The doctor‟s chart.
(the chart belongs to the doctor)
The plumber‟s van
(the van belongs to the plumber)
The safety officer‟s inspection
(the inspection was carried out by the safety officer)

Activity 2
The sentences below all have single owners. Rewrite using an apostrophe to show ownership.
The joiners last job took him four days to complete.

The televisions remote was broken.

The clients family were very happy with the support being given.

Writing Task 4
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When there is more than one owner and the noun ends in „s‟ add an apostrophe after the „s‟ e.g.
The customers‟ property
The clients‟ wishes
When a noun ends in s you can add „s or just „
Thomas‟s plane
Charles‟ drill.

67

Writing Task 4
Apostrophes - Omission
Apostrophes are used when letters are missing.
Contractions
The apostrophe is used when writing contractions. Contractions are shortened forms of words from which letters are missing. We mainly use contractions in speech or in informal texts.
We shorten a word or phrase and then use an apostrophe to show where the letters are missing from.
Here are some familiar examples
COMPLETE
WORD/PHRASE do not are not was not
I am
I will
It is you are let us can not could not

MISSING LETTERS o o o a wi i a u no o

SHORTENED FORM don‟t aren‟t wasn‟t I‟m
I‟ll
it‟s you‟re let‟s can‟t couldn‟t

Another example which doesn‟t fit so neatly is the shortened form of will not: won‟t.
Often the following are mixed up. If you say the words in full you should not get mixed up.
There / their / they‟re
They‟re sounds like there (a place) and their (belonging to them). It is short for they are.

Writing Task 4
You‟re / your
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Your means belonging to you.
You‟re is a short for you are.
It‟s / its
It‟s is short for it is or it has.
Its means belonging to it.
Activity 3
Rewrite sentences 1, 2 and 3 below changing the bolded words into contractions using an apostrophe.
1. They are throwing a party when the new home is complete.

2. You are the best candidate for the job.

3. It is important to ensure confidentiality at work.

4. Now write a sentence containing its and one containing it‟s.

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Writing Task 4
Read through the email below. It contains a number of contractions.
Underline or highlight the contractions in the text then rewrite the email message using the words written in full. Does the rewritten message sound more formal?

Email
To… jcurran@abc.com cc… Subject: Saturday Job!
Hi Jane
I haven‟t had a minute since I last saw you. How‟s the new job going?
Hope you‟re not working too hard! I‟m wondering if you‟d be interested in some weekend work.
One of the girls has gone off sick and we‟re looking for some cover this weekend in your area. I know you‟re familiar with the clients.
You wouldn‟t, by any chance, have Ann‟s mobile number? I‟m hoping she‟ll tip in as well because it‟s hard to beat a good team!
Let me know anyway and I‟ll see you soon
.
Alice

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Writing Task 4
Email
To… jcurran@abc.com cc… Subject: Saturday Job!

71

Writing Task 5 – Subject Verb Agreement
Verbs and subjects must agree. Rewrite the sentences using the correct verb form so that it agrees with its subject.
(Remember: Verbs are action words and the subject is who or what is doing the action)

1. The Health and Safety at Work (Northern Ireland) Order require/ requires that employers must provide a safe place of work. 2. Employers must provide equipment that are/is suitable for the job. 3. One of the benefits of training is/are that it helps you do your job better.

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Writing Task 5
4. Confidentiality is/are very important at work.

5. The wooden chairs was/were made from Douglas fir.

6. The new beds was/were very comfortable.

73

Writing Task 6 - Tenses
A verb indicates when an action takes place. It can be the past, present or the future.
PAST PRESENT FUTURE
PAST
PRESENT
FUTURE
In 2008 I worked for
I work for the Western Next year I will own my
North West Homecare Domiciliary care own business
When using verbs you need to think whether the sentence is referring to the past, present or future.
Remember to keep the verb tense consistent when discussing the same event. Verb Tenses - Activity
Read the following report on a workplace accident and chose the correct verb tense for the report.
Joan Briars and her supervisor Elaine Reid, were / are / will be employees of Domiciliary Care West, a Northern Ireland home care company. They were / are / will be carrying out a visit at 22 Sloan
Street to assess a client and had just started / start / will start back to work after lunch at 2pm.
The assessment went well and Elaine agrees/ agreed/ will agree the contract with the client. As they left, Joan trips/ tripped/ will trip on the step outside the house. Elaine helps/ helped/ will help her to the car and drives/ drove/ will drive to Casualty. Joan has/ had/ will have fractured her ankle badly.

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Writing Task 7 – Spelling Homophones
Homophones are words that sound the same but are spelled differently and have different meanings.
Many homophones, such as the ones below, are used very often so it is important that you learn how to spell them.
Rewrite the sentences below using the correct homophone. Then write a sentence of your own containing each of the homophones.
Activity 1 Are, Our and Hour
Are is part of the verb to be – e.g. „We are care workers‟ – „they are nurses‟– „you are a social worker‟
„Team meetings are normally held on Friday afternoon‟
Our means belonging to us. e.g. „Our new contract begins in October.‟
Hour means the time on the clock e.g. „The delivery should have been here an hour ago.‟
a. Chairs for clients ( are / our / hour ) available in a variety of designs, shapes, sizes and materials.

b. ( Hour / our / are ) course tutor is a stickler on values.

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c. We practice taking bloods in ( are / our / hour ) workshop at college. d. Different types of hoists ( hour / are / our ) often used in moving and handling clients whose mobility is limited.

e. An important part of ( our / hour / are ) job is keeping records.

f. Often there ( our / are/ hour ) several different types of records to complete at work.

g. ( Hour / our / are ) group had a three ( are / our / hour ) risk assessment training on Tuesday.

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Writing Task 7
Activity 2 - They‟re / their / there
They‟re - they are - They are planning to move
There - 1) - a place e.g. over there 2) Used with is, are, were, was.
Their - belonging to them - their business
Rewrite the following sentences using the correct homophone.
a. ( They‟re / there / their ) planning to start the new respite care service in May.

b. ( They‟re / their / there ) normally offered one week or two week respite care periods.

c. Most older people prefer to live in their own homes. ( They‟re / their / there ) home is a familiar place.

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d. ( Their / there / they‟re ) assessment process focuses on the client. e. Staff need ( they‟re / their / there ) own cars to visit clients so it is important that ( they‟re / there / their ) roadworthy.

f. Individuals work best when ( there / their / they‟re ) valued and motivated. g. When using equipment ( their / there / they‟re ) can be danger of injury so staff must use (their/ there/ they‟re) protective gear. 78

Writing Task 7
Activity 3 - Where / were / wear / we‟re
Where - a place - Where is the client‟s home?
Were - past tense - We were planning to move.
We‟re - short for „we are‟. We‟re the proud owners of two new protective mattresses. Wear - to be clothed in - I wear protective at work. Or - to wear out something by using it a lot.
a. In the Care Home it is important to ( were / where / we‟re / wear ) gloves when handling food.

b. At night it is important to ( where / wear / we‟re /were ) high visibility vests to let others see exactly ( where / wear / we‟re / were ) you are.

c. ( Wear / we‟re / were / where ) all agreed that ( we‟re / where / wear / were ) Health and Safety are concerned, it‟s better to be safe than sorry.

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d. Jean knew ensured she knew exactly ( wear / where / we‟re / were ) all her clients‟ families lived.

e. If you are using equipment it is vital to ( where / wear / we‟re / were ) the correct Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for the task.

f. It is important to know when and ( were / where / wear / we‟re ) to use particular equipment.

g. We need to maintain equipment to protect it from ( we‟re / where / wear / were ) and tear.

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Writing Task 7
Activity 4 - Who‟s or Whose?
Who‟s - means „who is‟
Whose - means belonging to whom
a. Make sure you know ( who‟s / whose ) job it is to carry out a risk assessment on the new client‟s home.

b. “( Who‟s / whose ) the new supervisor at North West Caring?”

c. “( Who‟s / whose ) uniform is this?”

d. ( Who‟s / Whose ) name is on this kit?

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Writing Task 7
Activity 5 - To / Two / Too
To - towards - „I am going to the suppliers later.‟
Two - the number 2
Too - as well as - or also - or „over the top‟ - „too much‟
a. The workers knew that if they accepted another job they would have ( to / two / too ) much work on to be able to complete on time.

b. Most garages are (to / two / too) small for modern cars.

c. Disruption ( to / two / too ) to your home life can be kept ( to / two / too ) a minimum by using the same carers visiting at a regular time.

d. The visit would take ( to / too / two ) hours at the most.

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Writing Task 8 - Paragraphs
Look at any piece of writing – a newspaper article, a letter, a book or a magazine – and you will see that the text is divided into paragraphs.
Dividing the text into paragraphs makes it easier to read and follow. Each paragraph in a text deals with an aspect of the topic you are writing about.
Activity 1
a. Read each of the paragraphs below then write the topic of the paragraph in a word or phrase.
b. One sentence in each paragraph does not fit in. Write out the sentence that does not belong.
c. Say why it doesn‟t fit in.
1. When I first became an apprentice with Western Home Care I was given an induction course on Health and Safety and fire awareness training. I was trained to use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and learned when and where I should wear protective clothing. There was a great canteen there as well. I had training on how to work safely with machinery and how to go about making a risk assessment. There were also a number of fire drills to make so I knew what to do in the event of a fire. a. Paragraph Topic:
b. Sentence that does not fit in:

c. Sentence does not belong because:

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Writing Task 8
2. The „Give It A Go!‟ initiative aims to increase awareness of the range of nutritional and physical activity initiatives in the southern area. The
Minister said: “The Give It A Go! Initiative is a great example of how collaborative work can make such a positive contribution to peoples‟ lives by providing opportunities for learning, participation in physical activity and for social interaction‟. The accident and emergency department at the local hospital is closing.
a. Paragraph Topic:
b. Sentence that does not fit in:

c. Sentence does not belong because:

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Writing Task 8
3. During Climate Change Week (12– 18 March 2012), the Public Health
Agency is calling for people to make simple changes to their lifestyle both at home and in work - in a bid to reduce their carbon footprint and improve quality of life for everyone. It is widely recognised that global climate change is already having long-term health consequences, as people are now being exposed to conditions which can result in illness and death due to respiratory illness. These include asthma, heat-related stress, the effects of flooding and colder weather, and insect-borne diseases. MLA Mr Sammy Wilson thinks global warming is a con. Also, increased exposure to UV radiation has led to more incidences of skin cancer. a. Paragraph Topic:
b. Sentence that does not fit in:

c. Sentence does not belong because:

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Writing Task 8
Activity 2 - Paragraph Writing
The following sentences or bits of sentences introduce the topic of the paragraph. Complete the paragraphs.
Go to http://www.collinseducation.com/resources/HSCBTECNationalch01.pdf and read the chapter on communication for help in completing this section. 1.

One-to-one communication occurs when one person speaks to or writes to another individual.

2.

Group communication follows slightly different „rules‟ to communication in one-to-one situations.

3.

Care staff communicate with people using services very frequently and in a variety of ways.

4.

A number of features of speech can affect the quality and effectiveness of verbal communication.

5.

Care practitioners spend a lot of time writing because

6.

We communicate non-verbally through body-language.

7.

The success of communication in health and social care is influenced by a number of factors.

8.

Alcohol and drugs impair a person‟s ability to communicate effectively. 9.

A person may have a hearing, visual or speech impairment.

10.

There are ways that technology can aid communication.

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Writing Task 8
Activity 3 – Paragraph Writing
Divide the following text into five paragraphs. Write out the text using paragraphs for each new section. Remember to think about where one topic ends and another begins. Positive and negative influences on communication - The physical environment can affect the quality of communication between people and may even put individuals off making an effort to communicate with one another in the first place. In particular, the nature of the setting in which communication takes place, noise levels, the arrangement of seating, the quality of lighting, and the amount of available space and time can all impact on the effectiveness of interaction and communication. People who use care services may interact and communicate with care professionals in their own homes, in community facilities, such as GP practices or day centres, in residential care settings or in institutional settings like hospitals. Where a setting is very busy and there is little privacy, communication may be inhibited. An individual may not feel comfortable talking about themselves or aspects of their life or personal situation in a public environment. However, where efforts are made to ensure the person can talk in private without being overheard, interaction and communication is likely to be more effective. Similarly, people may become isolated and have few opportunities to interact and communicate socially in domestic, community or residential settings that lack comfortable, well-organised communal spaces. It is important to ensure that care settings have private spaces, as well as areas where people can meet and talk more publicly. An environment where there is a lot of noise, either from within or outside of the building, can be a barrier to effective communication. Background noise from a television or radio, from people talking close by or from traffic passing outside a window can make communication very difficult for someone with a hearing impairment, for example. This can be a problem for people who use hearing aids as the background noise is amplified to the same level as the voice of the person speaking to them. The way that the seats are organised in a room can have a big impact on interaction and communication. Seating that is organised in rows or a line around the outside of the room is less likely to promote interaction than seating organised into small clusters, for example. The seating in a room should be organised in a way that brings people into relatively close proximity, promoting eye contact.
While people need to be close enough to interact and talk, seating arrangements shouldn‟t cause the room to feel cramped.
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Writing Task 8
Activity 3 - Positive and negative influences on communication
First paragraph

Second paragraph

Third paragraph
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Fourth paragraph

Fifth paragraph
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Writing Task 9 – Mind Mapping
Task
Sixty Minute Makeover
You have been offered the chance to have a thirty minute makeover on your home /or a flat that you are renting/buying. The makeover team can change three areas for you. Select three areas you would like changed and use the mind map below to explore your ideas on:
• How things are at the present
• How you would like your home/flat to look when the makeover team have finished.
When planning a project/essay/article etc always mind map your ideas.
Mind mapping is a process whereby we start with a topic and explore ideas the way our mind would.
It is an excellent way of gathering ideas and recording them until they are needed.
For example if we start with the topic „HOUSE‟ we begin by thinking of the different rooms etc. This is how our thinking might look.

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Writing Task 9
Sixty Minute Makeover
Next look at how you might describe how these rooms look at the moment. Take them one at a time.
For example, how would you describe the hallway?
Think Hallway









Is there a colour scheme? What is it?
How is it decorated? Is there a coat rail? Or a mirror? Or a plant?
Is the hallway well lit - or not? Think why or why not e.g. does the front door have glass panes to allow in light?
Are the walls papered or painted?
Is the floor carpeted or wooden with a runner?
What effect does this have?
What would you like to change?
What, if anything, would you like to keep?

You can repeat the process for each of the rooms.

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Writing Task 10 – Structuring an Extended Text
Using the mind map below about things that improve the quality of life for those in care – write an essay of 500 words or more that expands on these topics. Read the mind map before you start and add your own thoughts to it if you want.
Remember to include:
• Title - Your title should be a word, phrase or short sentence that tells the reader what the essay is about.
• Introduction - first paragraph - where you outline the purpose of your essay and say what it will be about.
• Subheadings - to highlight clearly for your reader what the paragraph is about.
• Paragraphing - to separate your points.
• Conclusion - final paragraph - you might want to state the importance of ensuring all these factors are addressed in the delivery of care

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Writing Task 11 – Proof Read and Revise Writing for Accuracy and Meaning

Use the MAPS* method to revise and proof-read your writing

The land of proof-reading

Agreement
Punctuation
Meaning
Spelling

Using the MAPS method, follow the proof-reading path to check your work. 1. Begin at the city of Meaning – does it say what you want to say?
Is this what you meant? Does it make sense? Have you missed any words or ideas out, or put in more than you want? (check your mind map) Meaning is the most important place to start.

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2. Travel to the town of Agreement. This is about making sure the different parts of your writing agree. Does the subject and verb agree (eg, we were not we was)? Is the tense consistent? Does it
”hang together” properly and flow?
3. Carry on to the place called Punctuation. Have you written in sentences and have you put full stops in? This is the capital city so it is especially important to check your capital letters! Check any other punctuation while you‟re here.
4. Your final destination is the scary city of Spelling. Many people find this a daunting place to go, but it‟s worth the visit. Don‟t forget to bring your dictionary and spell-checker. When you leave your journey across the land of Proof-Reading is complete. You just need to move on to the neighbouring country of Final Copy.
*Margaret Adams www.skillsworkshop.org

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Writing Task 12 – Writing and Extended Text: Report on Your
Organisation

Write a report on your organisation – here are some ideas to help you write the report. You do not need to use them all. Your report should be two A4 pages long.

Introduction
Give a general overview of the organisation. Give its name and address and say when the organisation started. How many years has the organisation been in operation? Talk about the kind of work it carries out. History / Background of the Organisation
Say how the organisation got started. Who formed it? How many staff did the business start off with – how many staff does it have now? Did the organisation start off with having just a few staff and develop into one that has a large workforce – has it stayed the same? Is the business still in the hands of the original owners or has it been taken over or sold on? Who used to run it and who runs it now? What kind of contracts did the organisation start off with? How have these contracts changed over the years? Has your organisation achieved any awards? If so what were they and what were they for?

The Organisation Now
What kind of work is currently being carried out by the organisation?
Is work carried out by the organisation in different towns in various areas of Northern Ireland/Ireland/UK etc. or does it carry out most of its work locally? Does the organisation advertise? If so where? Does it have a website? Describe it and give the web address? Does the organisation have a logo? What is it and what does it stand for?

Your Role Within the Organisation
Say how long you have worked for the organisation? Give the title of your job and talk about your work in a typical day. Has your work role changed over the time you have been with the business? What were
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your responsibilities when you started with the organisation and what are they now? Are you responsible for helping to train new members of staff in, for example, health and safety issues? How many people are in your team? What are the jobs of the other team members? Give details of the types of contracts / jobs you have helped to carry out (Do not give confidential client information). Have you had any interesting or unusual experiences while working for the company?

Qualifications / Training
What kind of qualifications and training do you need for your job? What training have you had so far? What training are you undertaking at present and what qualifications do you hope to gain when you finish your training? Talk about workplace training and college training and give the titles of the qualifications you have and the qualifications you are working towards. Give details of the training within your organisation. Do you have regular training sessions? Are you required to wear protective clothing at work? If so, say when and why?

Conclusion
What are your views about the organisation? What do you enjoy about working there? Where would you like to see yourself in 5/10 years‟ time?

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Writing Task 13 – Writing an Essay / Article
Audience and Purpose
The two most important things you need to think about with any written activity are:
1. Who you are writing for (audience)
2. Why you are writing (purpose).
Audience and purpose will affect what you write and the way you write it.

Research and Make Notes on Topic
Gather information to use in your article from e.g.:
• Course Books and Handouts
• Library
• Internet (some websites are listed at the end of this book)
• Television
Mind Map your ideas OR list points FOR and AGAINST if you are writing a balanced argument.

Essay / Article Structure
Essays or articles have:
1. An introduction - or opening paragraph
2. A main section – or middle paragraphs - where all your points are made 3. A conclusion

With a good essay structure you catch and hold the attention of your reader as your writing will be easy to follow and understand.

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Writing Task 13
Introduction (Opening Paragraph)
This is your first opportunity to catch the attention of your reader. If you make a good first impression the reader will want to continue reading; so make sure your introduction is interesting and engaging.
Here are some ways to make your opening paragraph interesting.

Rhetorical Question
Rhetorical questions engage the reader by making them think about what is being asked e.g.
“Are we meeting the needs of older people in the community?”
Rhetorical questions also directly address the reader giving the impression their opinion is important.

Quotation
A quotation from an expert in the topic you are writing about will help persuade the reader round to that point of view,
e.g. Health Minister, Mr Poots stated: “Smoking still kills almost 2,300 people each year in Northern Ireland and thousands more are living with debilitating illnesses as a result of their addiction.”

Dramatic Statement
Dramatic statements immediately grab the attention of the reader.
“The Health Service is failing the Elderly!”

Balanced Argument
A balanced argument looks at the different views on a topic and will encourage the reader to see your writing as even handed and unbiased
e.g. “Many people argue that services should be delivered to people in their own homes whereas others believe we still need hospital and residential care.

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Writing Task 13
Writing an Essay – Balanced Argument

Is Global Warming a Result of Human Activity or is it a Natural
Process?

Opening Paragraph - 1 - Introduction
In the opening paragraph you will need to address different views about the topic and provide more detail, perhaps giving your own point of view or the issues you intend to address. “Many people argue that global warming is a result of human activity while others believe it is a result of the earth‟s natural processes. I believe that the scientific evidence that global warming is a result of human activity is now too strong to be ignored.” Main Section
The middle section of a long piece of writing is made up of paragraphs.
A paragraph is a series of sentences on the same topic. Each paragraph deals with a different aspect of the main essay subject.
1. Say what the paragraph is about in a topic sentence (a sentence that introduces the topic)
2. Explain the point in more detail.
3. Give an example to illustrate the point

Paragraph 2
Topic sentence: Former Northern Ireland Environment Minister, Sammy
Wilson thinks that man-made climate change is a con.
Explanation: He believes that climate change is a result of natural processes and that the billions of pounds spent worldwide attempting to reduce carbon emissions will not solve the problem of climate change.
Example: Mr. Wilson is convinced that the money spent on reducing carbon emissions is depriving developing countries of vital funds to tackle famine, HIV and other diseases.

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Paragraph 3 (Opposing View)
Topic sentence: However recent scientific studies of the Antarctic and
Arctic have shown that changes to the climate are due to human activity
Explanation: The new study of the North and South Poles by the
Climate Research Unit at the University of East Anglia shows that temperature increases to Antarctica in the past 60 years cannot be attributed to natural variations.
Example: The coastal areas of the Antarctic has been most affected by global warming which has resulted in the disintegration of ice shelves and the speeding up of the flow of glaciers to the sea.

Conclusion
Conclusions are just as important as introductions. In your conclusion you will want to sum up your arguments into an effective ending for the reader to consider.
Conclusions should:
• Address the original question / topic
• Briefly summarise the main points of both arguments
• Not introduce a new idea
In the final sentence you might want to:
• Ask a rhetorical question
• Request some sort of action
• Present a warning
• Give your own personal view
• Consider what might happen in the future
Conclusion
Last Paragraph - 4
In conclusion, many believe that man-made global warming does not exist. They believe that the billions of pounds being spent worldwide in an attempt to halt global warming are diverting vital funds from developing countries where they could be used to address health and education. However, recent scientific studies indicate that global warming is, indeed, a result of human activity and that immediate action is needed to reverse the damage that has already been caused. Can we really afford not to listen?
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Writing Task 13
ACTIVITY
Write a four paragraph essay giving a balanced argument on the topics below: Writing a four paragraph essay will give you practice at writing:





an effective introduction a paragraph on the first viewpoint a paragraph on the opposing viewpoint an effective conclusion

Topics:





Work related stress
Choose a barrier to communication and discuss how to overcome it
Are we meeting the care needs of the Elderly in our local community? Reflective Practice – does it make a difference?

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Writing Task 13
Linking Words and Phrases
When writing an article we use different words and phrases to link together our ideas. We use them to help build an argument, compare and contrast ideas and to sum up what we have said.
USE FOR BUILDING AN ARGUMENT
Firstly
Also
Therefore
In addition

As well as this

Moreover

It might be said
What is more

Consequently
For that reason

As a result
Besides

USE WHEN COMPARING/CONTRASTING IDEAS
In comparison
As well as
Just as
Similarly
At the same
Equally
time
In the same way Both
Despite

But
On the other hand Conversely

On the other hand Also
Likewise

Although
Though

However
Although

Those who disagree may argue In contrast
Nevertheless

Opponents of this view would claim In opposition to this On the contrary

Still

All the same

Nonetheless

In summary
To outline the main points
Lastly

To sum up
Overall

SUMMING UP IDEAS
In conclusion
To conclude
To summarise
Finally
To recap

No one can deny Some would argue Convincingly
Importantly

On balance I believe 103

To finish

Writing Task 14 – Formal Letter: Letter of Complaint
Letter of Complaint
Effective complaints are more likely to produce better outcomes. Letters are the most reliable way to complain although complaints may be made using emails or phone calls.
The most effective complaints are:


Brief – short, sharp letters can be quickly read and understood.



Professional – Well written and professionally presented letters will command respect and will be taken more seriously.



Factual – they give the reader all the facts they need to process the complaint (names, dates, times, what you want to happen etc).



Constructive – Even if you are angry they should contain positive statements and suggestions. A positive approach is more likely to have a positive outcome.



Cooperative – No matter how aggrieved you feel it is important to remember that aggression will not encourage a positive response. A positive letter will encourage the reader to respond positively.

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Writing Task 14
Letter of Complaint
Template
Your address
Postcode
Telephone number

Date

Name
Position
Organiation
Address
Postcode
(of the person you are writing to)
Dear (name of person or Dear Sir/Madam if you don‟t know the person‟s name)
Heading – alerting the reader immediately to the main issues of the letter, briefly outlining the problem and relevant details or reference numbers)
Introduction – State the facts simply
Main Section of Letter – Give relevant details. Let the reader know what you would like to happen (make a positive request for help in sorting out the problem) to which the reader can respond.
It is best to end by including positive comments about the organisation (such as previous good service).
Even if you are very angry it is best to end on a complimentary note.
Even if the complaint is long and complicated, the letter should still be short and to the point. Further explanations, notes, should be attached.
I look forward to hearing from you.
Yours sincerely (if you know the person‟s name) Yours faithfully (if not).
Your signature
Your name printed clearly

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Writing Task 14
Letter of complaint - example
24 Anystreet
Thistown
BT29 6AB
Tel: 0161 349812
20th March 2012

Mr Joe Bloggs
Customer Services Manager
Bakery Supplies
Thistown Industrial Estate
Thistown
BT29 4WR

Dear Mr Bloggs
Supply of Bread to Thistown Residential Home – Order Number 1234
Supply of Bread to our Residential Home as per order number 1234, has been arriving later and later over the past month.
The most recent delivery on 16th March 2012, didn‟t arrive until nearly 9.00am.
Could you please follow this up for me as it is important that we receive our supply by 7.30am in order to prepare breakfast for the residents.
I know this isn‟t normal practice as we have been receiving break from you since
2009 and it was always delivered on or around the agreed time of 7.30am.
I look forward to hearing from you.
Yours sincerely
Jane Brown
JANE BROWN

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Writing Task 14
Activity 1 - Writing a letter of complaint
You are a self-employed trainer, providing moving and handling training to care homes. A recent invoice you sent was ignored as was the reminder you also sent.
Write a letter of complaint to your customer outlining the issues and reminding him of your policy to pursue outstanding debts through the courts.
Remember always be professional, concise, factual, constructive and co-operative.

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Writing Task 14
Complaints Letter – Proofreading Check List
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

SCORE
1-10
I considered my audience.
I considered the purpose (my reason for writing).
Letter was written in formal letter format with proper spelling, punctuation and grammar.
It was clear and concise. Any extra information was attached rather than included in the letter.
It contained all the relevant facts and information needed to resolve my complaint.
It included positive statements and suggestions.
The tone of my letter was thoughtful and co-operative.

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SPEAKING AND
LISTENING Tasks
My parents taught me how to listen to everybody before I made up my own mind.
When you listen, you learn. You absorb like a sponge-and your life becomes so much better than when you are just trying to be listened to all the time.
Steven Spielberg

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Speaking and listening
Speaking and listening are vitally important parts of your everyday communication within health and social care.
In your day to day work, you are required to speak with a range of people, including your line manager and colleagues; clients / service users and their families; other professionals or workers from other organisation and visitors who may be with your client / service user.
You are also required to provide others with important information and respond to information given to you by others, either in written or verbal form, for example recording notes, attending team meetings, making phone calls, contributing to case reviews or sharing information with other professionals to support the assessment or review process.

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Speaking and Listening Task 1 - How Well do I Listen?
TASK
Do this self-assessment exercise to see if there anything you would change about the way you listen. Think carefully about your answers. PAYING ATTENTION

Often

Do you not bother to listen carefully and pick out relevant information?
Are you inattentive when others are speaking? Do you forget to show you are listening e.g. by providing feedback such as „Yes I see?‟
Do you stay focused or are you easily distracted by things that are going on around you?
Do you show irritation when someone is speaking to you?
ATTITUDE TO SPEAKERS
Do you only bother to listen properly if you are speaking to a friend or someone you like?
If you do not find a topic interesting do you stop paying attention to the speaker? Do you need to like a speaker‟s appearance before you will listen to them? 111

Sometimes Hardly
Ever

Does the way a person speaks sometimes put you off?
Do you get bored if someone talks for a long time?
ALLOWING OTHERS TO SPEAK
Do you allow others time to finish speaking? Do you assume you know what others are going to say next?
Do you interrupt if you think someone‟s conversation is boring?
When others are speaking, do you interrupt and start talking about something else?

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Speaking and Listening Task 2 – How Well do I Speak?

RESPONDING TO OTHERS

Often

When you are asked a question do you mumble a reply?
If you think a question is silly do you give a silly answer?
Is your non-verbal communication
(body language) stand-offish or aggressive when you do not like the person you are talking to?
Do you just cut in when others are speaking rather than say „excuse me‟ or use other appropriate phrases to interrupt? Do you speak over the top of others rather than taking turns to speak?
Do you ignore the opinions of others?

SPEAKING TO SUIT THE
SITUATION
If you are asked for information about your job do you only give enough information to get the manager off your back?
Do you think it is not worthwhile trying to speak clearly because nobody ever listens to you anyway?
Do use an aggressive tone?

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Sometimes Hardly
Ever

Do you not bother to ask questions when there is something you do not understand? PROVIDING RELEVANT
INFORMATION
At a meeting or in a discussion do you let others do all the talking?
Do you think it is not worthwhile taking the trouble to research information to prepare for discussions or meetings?
Do you think it is a waste of time putting ideas and information into its proper order?

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Speaking and Listening Task 3 - Speaking to Others
Chatting to friends or friendly people in a relaxed atmosphere is usually fairly easy.
However, speaking to people in a formal or work situation, or speaking to someone we do not know very well, or who is angry or upset, or has different ideas from us, can sometimes be very difficult. In these situations it is important to plan what we want to say.

One to One
Look at the situations below and jot down some notes on how you would go about planning for these.
Meeting and looking after a visiting inspector Speaking with an angry client / service user or a family member

A colleague is acting in a manner that is discriminatory towards the client / service user

Explaining the use of personal protective equipment to a new employee / student.

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Speaking and Listening Task 4 - Using the Telephone
Telephones play an important role in you communicating with others in the organisation and for the organisation to communicate with other employees, the clients / service users and other professionals and organisations. Phone calls at work are mainly formal and it is important that the message you put across t is that you and your organisation is professional, respectful and competent.
Making a Telephone Call
It is important when making a telephone call to speak clearly and use a pleasant tone.
Give your own name and the name of your organisation [when appropriate] and say why you are calling. Keep your message brief and to the point. Include all the relevant information and do not include a lot of unnecessary detail that will confuse the person you are calling.
Task 1
Which of these greetings do you think is correct?
1. „This is Mary – who‟s that? The rota is wrong today and I won‟t be finished on time.
OR
2. „Good morning. This is Mary from Home Care Services. Could I speak to the Home Care Manager about today‟s rota please?

Task 2
Which of these greetings would you use to receive an incoming call in a nursing home when you are on the evening shift?
1. “Hello”
2. „Good Evening, Daffodil Care Home, Mary speaking, how can I help you?‟ 3. “Hello, we‟re really busy at present; please call back in half an hour”

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Speaking and Listening Task 5 - Following Spoken
Instructions
It is important to listen carefully to instructions so that work is carried out properly and in a safe manner.
Instructions are not pieces of advice or suggestions about how to carry out a task.
Instructions are about how a task MUST be carried out so that the end result is a task completed safely and to the proper standards.
Instructions use words that give orders e.g. „do,‟ or „do not‟ etc.

Task
Which of these are instructions?
1. It is better to encourage a client / service user to do as much as they can for him / herself
2. Do not dispose of sharps in a house hold waste bag
3. Wash hands thoroughly before engaging in food preparation
4. Report any concerns you have about a client‟s well being
5. Judith prefers to work in the area in which she lives

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Speaking and Listening Task 6 - Listening for instructions
Task
Food Safety
Often instructions are given along with other information so it is important to listen carefully and pick out the actual instructions from the other information.
Jenny‟s manager is talking her through some food safety issues that are relevant to her role in preparing food for clients / service users in their own home.
Read the information given to her and underline or highlight the instructions (i.e. the things she must or must not do).
“First of all I want you to think about the health and safety issues you will need to bear in mind. For example, did you know that food contamination can occur in a number of ways and can cause illness, injury or make food unfit for consumption? So you need to be very careful in all aspects of food preparation especially when working with high risk or vulnerable groups, such as older people or those who may be ill and have a reduced immune system.

In order to prevent cross contamination, your personal hygiene must be of the highest order – wash hands thoroughly, ensure your uniform is clean and always cover cuts with a highly visible waterproof dressing.
Use utensils such as spoons or tongs, rather than hands, to handle food.
Cooking food thoroughly to a minimum core temperature of 75c will ensure most bacteria are destroyed. Do not reheat food more than once and any uneaten reheated food should be thrown away. Hot food should

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never be placed in a fridge without having cooled significantly, as this could raise the temperature of the fridge.

Ideally, raw and cooked foods should be stored in separate fridges. If this is not possible, remember raw below cooked always. Most food packages are labelled with a „use by‟ or „best before‟ date. It is not acceptable to serve food that has exceeded its „use by‟ date. Such food should be discarded. „Best before‟ dates are often an indication that the food will be at its premium quality if stored correctly until that date.”

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Speaking and Listening Task 7 - Team Meetings
Sometimes you will need to take part in meetings:
• Team Meetings - with your own team discussing your work with your
Manager
• Informal Meetings – with some members of the team to discuss something that is of concern to you.
• One to one discussions with team members to discuss some concerns regarding a client or how to address an issue that you face.
Team meetings can be formal or informal. Formal meetings will have a formal agenda, given out before a meeting, to let you know what is being discussed. Good speaking and listening skills will help you to take part in formal and informal meetings.

Good speaking and listening skills are:
 Knowing what to say – know what the meeting is about.
 Knowing when to say something – everyone should have a chance to speak.  Knowing how to say something – i.e. use appropriate formal / informal language.
 Maintain good eye contact with others.
 Speak clearly in order to be heard by everyone.
It is important to listen carefully to what has already been said and think about how you can add to what others are saying.

Responding to another person when they have different ideas:




It is important that any response you give to another person‟s point of view is polite and considerate.
Everyone has the right to hold a viewpoint, even if you do not agree with it.
It is important too, to look out for what is fact and what is opinion.
Someone‟s point of view is just their opinion and you are as much entitled to your point of view as they are.
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Turn Taking
It is important to respect the turn taking rights of others at meetings and during discussions. We must allow time for others to speak.

Remember To Prepare for Meetings:
• Know what the meeting is about.
• Think about the questions you are likely to be asked?
• Think about the questions you will want to ask?

Task
Which of the following points are important to remember when taking part in a discussion?
Important
Listen carefully to pick out the main points. Have some cool jokes you can tell to impress the Manager
Ignore all other distractions that may occur.
Watch out for body language, yours and others.
Look at the person who is speaking. Take note of important details such as names, places, dates, times and so on.
Have a smart answer ready for anyone who does not agree with you. Respect other people‟s right to express their points of view.
Ask for clarification if there is something you do not understand.
Give reasons why you hold a certain point of view.

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Yes / No

Speaking and Listening Task 8 - Group Discussion:
Sample
Topic: How important is good communication in the workplace?
Types of Communication

Interaction with clients, supervisors, clients‟ families and other members of team

Care plans, domiciliary care record of visit books

Instructions – written or verbal

Telephone

Emails – internal and external

Memos – within organisation

Meetings

Presentations

Reports

Forms

Notices / Posters

Good Communication (examples)

Effective interaction with clients and colleagues

Co-operating effectively with supervisors and others

Giving and receiving information effectively

Pleasant and helpful telephone manner

Accurate records kept up to date

Information passed on promptly to relevant people

Good non-verbal communication (body language, eye contact)

Results of good communication

Staff will work well as a team

Work will be completed correctly and on time.

Clients receive a high standard of care.

More contracts
Consequences of poor communication

Without effective workplace communication the machinery of an organisation would break down

Clients suffer

Staff will feel dissatisfied and leave

Business may fail
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Conclusion
Good communication and the sharing of information are essential for the success of an organisation.
Without it a business would become disorganised, clients and their families would become dissatisfied and workers would become demoralised and the company would fail.

ACTIVITY
Choose a topic and question to discuss. Arrange a time to have your discussion. The discussion will take 15-20 minutes.
Research the topic and make out a set of notes. You will want to include relevant issues you would like to explore and questions you would like to ask. Some Topic Suggestions:
1. Why is it important to make sure that clients have input into their care? 2. What are the implications for social care workers of the Government‟s plans to reduce the number of hospital beds and residential care beds?
3. Why is training and development important for social care workers?
4. Work related stress
5. Choose a barrier to communication – discuss your experience of it in working with clients / carers / colleagues and how it could be overcome.
You will be assessed on:
• Speaking clearly
• Keeping to the point
• Giving relevant information
• Listening and responding to others
• Using positive body language
• Keeping the discussion going.
Think about:
 What the issues are
 How they are being addressed at the moment
 What I think should happen to improve the situation
 Questions I would like to ask the group
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Speaking and Listening Task 9 - Group Discussion: Rate
Your Performance Checklist
Name:
Topic:
Date:
(1 = very weak; 10 = very strong)

No
1
2
3
4
5

6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Skill
I researched and made notes on the topic for discussion I listened carefully to others to identify relevant information I followed and paid careful attention to longer explanations, instructions, etc
I answered detailed/extended questions
I dealt appropriately with criticism noting the points made and accepting that others will not necessarily agree with my point of view
I offered constructive criticism i.e. I suggested ways that others might make improvements.
I spoke clearly and confidently to suit the situation I asked questions to obtain detailed information.
I expressed facts clearly.
I made sure the information I provided was in the proper order.
I developed, clarified, or confirmed information provided by others
I made relevant contributions & helped move discussion forward
I adapted my contributions to suit the audience, context, purpose, situation
I used appropriate phrases for interruption or to change the topic. supported my arguments and opinions with evidence. I made sure that my attitude was reassuring to others e.g. I used appropriate body language, phrases etc.

124

Grade 1-10

Speaking and Listening Task 10 - One Minute Talks
To practice for your 4 minute short talk, identify a topic you have chosen yourself - and speak for one minute on it.

Remember:

Plan your talk – use mind mapping to help you plan


Remember your audience and purpose



Will you use formal language, informal language a mixture of both?



Have an introduction - a main section where you develop your ideas
– and a conclusion.



Support opinions and arguments with evidence e.g. facts / quotes



Clarify information e.g. technical terms



Speak with enthusiasm.



Stick to the topic



Vary tone of voice to keep the listeners‟ interest



Use good body language – open and relaxed



Maintain good eye contact

125

Speaking and Listening Task 10
One Minute Talk: Rate your Performance Checklist
Name:
Topic:
Date:
(1 = very weak; 10 = very strong)

No
1
2
3
4

Skill
I used notes or PowerPoint slides to help structure talk and to introduce each new section
I used appropriate formal and/or informal language according to audience and purpose
I spoke clearly and was easily understood

6

My voice was at the right pitch and everyone heard me. I varied the tone so that my audience did not get bored. I remembered all the points I wanted to make

7

I made the points in the proper order

8

9

I supported the arguments and opinions I made with evidence (e.g. facts, quotes, statistics)
I clarified difficult words or technical terms or phrases

10

I spoke at the right speed – not too quickly

11

My body language was relaxed

12

I maintained good eye contact with my audience

13

I did not read from a script

14

Talk was completed within the timescale

15

I invited questions from the audience

5

126

Grade 1-10

Researching Information Using ICT


Be clear about the topic you are exploring.



Know the purpose of your research. For example, are you gathering information to write an article or a report? What is your topic?



List the web addresses that are useful to you. Say why they were of use. Use the proforma page provided which shows evidence of your research.



List the web addresses that you explored but were of no use to you.
Say why this was the case. Again enter these on to the page provided. Include title, author of document and date of publication.



Find two 500 word documents for L2 on your chosen topic.



Read and extract the main points from the documents for the purpose you have intended.

Topic:
Useful Websites
Web Address

Was useful because

127

Appendix 1

- Relevance to QCF H&SC Qualifications

If learners are also working towards one of the QCF Health and Social
Care Qualifications listed below, they may be producing work which could be used as evidence towards some of the required learning outcomes. Where there is potential evidence from a task the unit will be highlighted. Relevant QCF Qualifications
Level 2 Diploma in Health & Social Care
Level 2 Certificate in Induction to Adult Social Care in Northern Ireland

128

Level 2 Certificate in Induction into Adult Social Care
Tasks

Units

Reading Task 5

Principles of Personal
Development in adult social care settings Principles of communication in
3.1
adult social care settings
Understand person-centred
6.1
approaches in adult social care settings Principles of Personal
1.1
Development in adult social care settings Understand the role of the social
2.1
care worker
Depending on the topic chosen, the following units may have elements addressed
 Principles of communication in adult social care settings  Principles of Personal Development in adult social care settings
 Understand health and safety in health and social care  Principles of safeguarding and protection in health and social care

Writing Task 8 – activity
3
Writing Task 10

Writing Task 12

Writing Task 13

Assessment
Criteria
1.1

Writing Task 14

Principles of safeguarding and protection in health and social care 4.2

Speaking and Listening
Task 6

Understand health and safety in health and social care

7.1, 7.2

Speaking and Listening
Task 7
Speaking and Listening
Task 8

Understand the role of the social care worker
Principles of communication in adult social care settings

1.1, 1.2

129

1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 3.1

Level 2 Diploma in Health and Social Care
Tasks

Units

Reading Task 5

Intro to Personal Development in health, social care and children‟s and young people‟s settings
Introduction to communication in
3.1
health, social care or children‟s and young people‟s settings
Support effective communication 3.2 with individuals with a sensory loss Implement person centred
6.1
approaches in health and social care Intro to Personal Development in 1.1 health, social care and children‟s and young people‟s settings
The role of the health and social
2.1
care worker
Depending on the topic chosen, the following units may have elements addressed
 Introduction to communication in health, social care or children‟s and young people‟s settings
 Intro to Personal Development in health, social care and children‟s and young people‟s settings
 Contribute to health and safety in health and social care
 Principles of safeguarding and protection in health and social care

Writing Task 8 – activity
3

Writing Task 10

Writing Task 12

Writing Task 13

Assessment
Criteria
1.2

Writing Task 14

Principles of safeguarding and protection in health and social care 4.2

Speaking and Listening
Tasks 1 & 2

Intro to Personal Development in health, social care and children‟s and young people‟s settings
Contribute to health and safety in health and social care

2.2, 4.2

The role of the health and social care worker
Introduction to communication in health, social care or children‟s and young people‟s settings

1.1, 1.2

Speaking and Listening
Task 6
Speaking and Listening
Task 7
Speaking and Listening
Task 8

130

6.1, 6.2

1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 3.1

Northern Ireland Social Care Council
7th Floor, Millennium House
19-25 Great Victoria Street
BELFAST
BT2 7AQ

Telephone:
E-mail:
Website:

028 9041 7600 info@niscc.hscni.net www.niscc.info

This resource is free to download as a PDF file from the NISCC website www.niscc.info Material within this resource may be reproduced for training and learning purposes only. Copies can be made available in a range of different formats by contacting the Communications Team at the above address. NISCC November 2012

131

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