Free Essay

# Community Health

In: Science

Submitted By christineg
Words 1195
Pages 5
Data Analysis-Why?
A. To study and examine data collected

1 Synthesis of data

B. Identify community strengths
C. Identify community health needs
D. Determine need for further data collection:
1. find if research has been done.
2. Data gaps: determine need for further data collection. Make sure you can support data gaps with information from assessment.
E. Look for trends/patterns; how often do you see a recurrent theme?
F. Discovery of causative relationships: the R/T portion.
I. Basic Steps of Data Analysis(4)

2 Categorize-e.g. by demographics, commonalities. E.g. intra/extra community for health and social services

3 Summarize

4 Compare

5 Inference/Interpretation

II. Categorize Data

6 There are many ways to sort and categorize data e.g. demographically by age groups, by problem type

7 Geographic approaches may be used

8 Use of model; we are using the wheel from Neuman’s model.

9 Look for data convergence when categorizing-e.g. how many times do we see data converging in different categories?

10 Look for commonalties, health resources that are available. SEC, age, etc.

III. Data Summary

11 Summary statements-summarize each table.

12 Summary statistics-put data into percentages and rates so that different areas/communities can be compared. Raw numbers will not work to compare different areas.

13 Graphic methods of data summary:

14 Remember that tables need concise summary data. P. 222, can put population statistics in graph.

15 Dependency Ratio: how many people in your community who can support the dependents. Calcuation on page 225. Should do for both census tracts.

16 Data summarization facilitates ease of reading and spotting trends/patterns in data

IV. Summary Statistics

17 Rates-vital statistics

18 Percentages-population characteristics

19 Ratios-sex, dependency, etc.

20 Rank order listing-top ten causes of death

V. Examples of Summary Statements

21 When comparing community strengths and needs, it is observed…..

22 Community strengths established include….

23 Through visual inspection as well as interviews of residents, it was found…

24 Public health services in the community include….

VI. Other Data Summary Methods

25 Tables

26 Graphs

27 Charts

28 Mapping – summarizing boundaries

29 Pictures-can be put into appendix and does not count towards page count of final community assessment paper.

30 Photographs

31 Population pyramid-see page 222 in text for example.

VII. Data Comparison

32 Facilitates identification of data gaps, omissions, inaccuracies

33 Determine if a trend or pattern exists, especially if data are collected from past to present

34 Data comparison “gold standard” or benchmark

VIII. Data Comparison Standards

35 Select standard similar to community

36 Use of higher level than study community, e. g. city, state, or national levels

37 May compare different areas or regions of city, county, state, e. g. North side compared to South side

38 Schools to same type of school, other districts or district as whole

39 Aggregates may be compared to different groups or similar groups elsewhere: Example, seniors who express a desire to have better access to healthcare or teens attitudes towards drug use in one area as compared with teen attitudes towards drug use in another area.

40 Previous studies may be used for problems, diseases

41 Norms for developmental stages, ages, ethnic groups may be used

42 National Health Objectives statistics; Healthy People 2010 statistics are available to compare data to. Use this with intervention.

IX. Inference & Interpretation – chapter 10, table 10.1 & 10.5

43 Formulate conclusions with interpretative statements

44 Justify conclusions – use references such as interview quotes or statistical data

45 Cite comparison standards e.g. rates, ratios and/or percentages

46 Formulate lists of strengths and needs

47 Distinguish between fact and opinion

48 Validity of source

X. Community Nursing Diagnosis: from inferences and summary statements.

49 Need to depart from NANDA as it is more individual focused

50 Appropriate for primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of prevention

51 Implies that the community/aggregate is target of intervention

52 Compare strengths to community needs in table format. Take the two needs you find to be most significant. List should be longer than two.

53 From inferences and summary statements, make a final summary statement.

54 Encompasses (what the nursing diagnosis could be)

55 health risks

56 vulnerable groups

57 health problems

58 lack of services

59 health promotion

60 potential risks

XI. Framing the Community Nursing Dx

61 Description of the problem, response, or state-come from the inferences of community

62 Identification of factors etiologically related-causes

63 AEB -Signs and symptoms that characterize the problem/concern; they may come from other subsystems.

D. Nursing diagnosis is the final, summary statement: E.g. Increased fear of crime related to young kids on crime sprees as evidenced by….supporting data.
XII. Validating the Comm. Nsg. Dx

64 Collection of more data

65 Surveys – fast-good way to validate by opinion. E.g. Eight out of ten people surveyed agree that…blah blah blah

66 Interview of residents, business owners, service providers

67 Analysis of other studies of the community; does not have to be r/t this particular community. Secondary Data.

Examples of Community Nursing Diagnoses

1 Description of problem, response, state (have problem and degree of reaction)

2 High rate of dental caries (e.g. problem = caries; deg. of rxn = high rate)

3 Potential for mugging and criminal victimization

5 Incomplete immunization status of preschool children

6 Factors etiologically related

7 lack of fluoride in drinking water; no dental hygiene education; limited income to pay for dental care

8 few self protective measure; episodes of thefts and burglaries

9 clinic days twice a month and no PM hours

10 limited access to immunization clinics; lack of knowledge of importance of early immunizations

11 Signs and symptoms, manifestations, evidence

12 62% have caries on inspection

13 Police report 30 % of calls; personal report of citizens

14 crude birth rate 50% higher than city; published clinic hours

15 immunization completion rate of 37% based on survey data

XIII. Nursing Diagnoses

16 Potential for disability and loss of productive years of life among the residents of CT 333 related to lack of access to area medical resources, inadequate financial resources for needed medicines, and lack of knowledge regarding disease etiology as evidenced by higher adult and infant mortality rates. When compared to the City of Houston, complaints of local residents that waits for medical care are too long, the elderly are unable to afford needed medicines, and school nurses report they are treating more children with diabetes and blood pressure problems.

17 Potential for CV disease in the ethnic population related to the mortality of ethnic statistics (Health of Houston, 1995) as evidenced by high sales of alcohol and tobacco, a median income of \$30-35,000, the inadequacy of nutritional status and fitness facilities, and a lack of programs that offer educational materials about the disease.

18 Potential for accidents as children travel to and from school related to a lack of sidewalks in the neighborhood and inadequate fencing around construction site as evidenced by a lack of after school programs, latch key kids, and open bayou construction.

### Similar Documents

Free Essay

#### Community Health

...Community Health Nursing Assessment Western Governors University Community Health Nursing Assessment A1. Community Description Hernando County is located in west central Florida. The county was officially established on February 27, 1843. It was created from portions of Alachua, Hillsborough and Orange Counties and centered between Citrus County to the north and Pasco County to the south. Its county seat is Brooksville and its largest community is unincorporated Spring Hill. According to “Hernando County History” 2010, the county has a total area of 589.08 square miles, of which 478.31 square miles is land and 110.77 square miles is water. Hernando County is a relative small community but is known for its wild life and national parks. Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge is a National protected area of Hernando, and Weeki Wachee Springs (home of the mermaids) along with Withlacoochee State Forest are State protected areas. The county is known best for its nature preserves and is called the Nature Coast of Florida. This community has a census of 173,000 people, 93,425 households, and 79,575 families residing in this community (U.S. Census Bureau, August 16, 2009). The racial makeup of the community is 92.85% white, 4.07% black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.64% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, and 0.98% from other races. It is also estimated that out of the 55,425......

Words: 2505 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

#### Community Health

...Mental Health Community Experience- Nursing-3 Humble Civic Center Christie Curtis, 09/20/05 Curtis_11@yahoo.com Demographics and Purpose of the Selected Community Mental Health Site. The Humble Civic center, located in Humble Texas, hosted a health fair. The settings feature booths from various organizations with the main focus being healthcare. North Harris College was invited to feature a booth on blood pressure and depression screening. Rationale for Selecting the Community Mental health Site This community (what) was selected to give awareness to members of the community about their health and healthcare need which often go unattended. Date and Time of Community Mental Health Site Visit This site was visited on September 20, 2005 from 9am until 5pm. Community Mental Health Site Physical (Layout) The Humble Civic center is a convention arena that can cater to a large number of people. Clients and vendors were greeted and presented with a name tag. The clients were also given a packet that included the different areas that were offered in the center. The booths were laid out adjacent to each other with huge floor spacing between rows. Each organization had banners depicting the themes they were presenting. Several vendors offered items such as pens, glucometer as well as other items or services they provided. Topic(s) of Discussion(s) at the Community Mental Health Site Topics that were offered included blood sugar, blood......

Words: 663 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

#### Community Health Assessment of a Community

... Community assessment and analysis Presentation Red group Interview with Community health Nurse Essex County New Jersey Demographic of Essex County Essex County is located in the North eastern part of new jersey. The history of Essex county dates back to 1666 when 30 families from Connecticut established settlement along the banks of Passaic river. Essex County was officially established in 1682 by east jersey legislature. Essex County is 129.631 square miles. The Geopolitical communities are designed by natural or human made boundaries (Maurer and Smith, 2009). It holds community safer for the residents and the governing body. Essex County is bordered by human made boundaries. The weather of the community fluctuates according to the seasons. The usual temperature throughout winter stays within 24 to 42 degrees Fahrenheit. In the summer, it hikes up, and ranges between at 68 to 85 Fahrenheit. Natural disasters like flood, blizzards, snowstorms, heavy rains hurricanes, power outrage, water shortage common here. Essex county is the second most densely populated county in new jersey As of 2010 census population was 783969. The county is made up of 22 municipalities which are widely diverse encompassing large inner-city communities. Essex’s county’s economic wealth is not ......

Words: 2461 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

#### Community Health

...Community Health Nursing Case Study Mr. Evans is a new patient to this nurse. This is the first home visit and upon presentation the patient has tachycardia and presumably newly diagnosed Atrial fibrillation, for which he takes Digoxin. According to records last Digoxin level was two months ago. Respiration are increased and adventitious breath sounds are noted. Patient states that this is his baseline. Patient has COPD and takes Proventil PRN and Theo-Dur twice a day. Patient reports he had a hospitalization for “congestion in his heart” and is currently on Lasix 40 BID. Patent denies any acute distress, home health aid reports recent weight loss, loose stools and complaint of nausea. This nurse in the field would interview the patient and his wife after the clinical assessment. I would ask about any anorexia, loose stools, nausea and or vomiting. Patient does take a stool softener daily. After assessing attend skin turgor and sign if dehydration, this nurse would investigate when the patient takes his medication, and if he has been missing any doses of meds. This nurse would ask when his next cardiology follow up is and when he is due for any labs including a BMP since 40 mg of Lasix twice a day is a higher dose, and for a current digoxin level. This nurse would ask how the patient is sleeping and how often he is using his rescue inhaler for shortness of breath and wheezing. This nurse would ask when his next follow up with oncology is and how......

Words: 641 - Pages: 3

#### Community Health

...Community Health C229 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! CKA Task 1 Sharon Wiggins Western Governors University ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Community Health C229 ! ! Date Spent ! ! 6/19/15 ! 6/19/15 ! 6/19/15 ! 6/29-7/2 ! 7/11/15 1200-1700 ! 8/30/15 1100-1600 ! 9/4/15 1100-1200 ! ! 9/9-10/15 0800-1700 0800-1200 ! ! Fieldwork Study Activity Location and Contact Time Windshield Survey Dakota County, Minnesota 10 Cultural Survey Dakota County, Minnesota 5 Scavenger Hunt Dakota County, Minnesota 10 Childhood Obesity attended conference, interviewed other attendees and exhibitors 8757 Rio San Diego Dr, San Diego, CA 92108 (619)692-3800 30 Festival of Farms attended festival interview with community members and exhibitors Lakeside Prairie Farm 20503 180th Ave Barrett, MN 56311 320-492-2526 5 Minnesota State Fair attended & interviews and surveys 1265 Snelling Ave St Paul, MN 55108 (651) 288-4400 5 Dr Koch interviewed Dr. Koch Physician Fairview Ridges Clinic 303 E Nicollet Blvd # 160 Burnsville, MN 55337 (952) 460-4000 1 Communities for Health attended conference, interviewed other attendees, exhibitors Duluth Convention Center 350 Harbor Dr Duluth, MN 55802 (218) 722-5573 12 1 Community Health C229 ! 9/12/15 1200-1500 ! ! 9/18/15 0800-1200 ! 9/19/15 0800-1300 Farm Fest attended,......

Words: 4546 - Pages: 19

#### Community Health

...Community Health and Population-Focused Nursing Hillsborough County, Florida is the 4th largest county in Florida. It is comprised of 1,048 square miles of land and 24 square miles of inland water area for a total of 1,072 square miles located midway along the west coast of Florida. It has a diverse culture of people cohabitating in a large community. Assessing the community allows you to see a broader picture of diversity and layers of multicultural issues that affect the community as a whole. Population Economic Status Assessment Hillsborough County is an average sized county for all intents and purposes with a population of approximately 1,316,298 people. The county is also average in income levels with the average household income of \$49,596 and only 16.8% of this population being at or below poverty level and 83.2% above the poverty level. Isolating ethnicity, it is the Native Americans with the highest percentage of “poor” individuals 29.8% and African Americans second at 27.7%. Approximately 3% of the population is receiving public assistance in various forms. are receiving assistance in one way or another. According to the Tampa Hillsborough Homeless Initiative there are approximately, 1,931 people living without a fixed residence in the county. This number is slightly down from 2014 numbers of 1,944. The majority race in Hillsborough County is Caucasian at 75.6%, followed by Hispanic or Latino at 26% and......

Words: 2743 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

#### Community Health

...Measles Outbreak Communicable diseases are present in every community, city, state, village and country throughout the world. They are easily spread and, in some cases and places, easily prevented. International travel and parents not vaccinating their children are major contributors to the measles outbreak. As a nurse it is pertinent that we are educated on the signs, symptoms and the treatment of any communicable disease. It is imperative that we are also able to educate the general public on them as well. A1. What is the Measles Virus The measles virus is a paramyxovirus, there is only one antigenic type, and it is rapidly inactivated by heat and light (CDC, 2014). Once infected, the person will exhibit symptoms such as a fever, runny nose, a cough, loss of appetite and red water eyes for about 4 days; it is then followed by a rash (ODH, 2014). The rash typically lasts for 5-6 days, begins at the hairline, moves to the face and neck and then moves down the rest of the body (ODH, 2014). People infected with the measles virus are typically contagious 4 days prior to the rash appearing and 4 days after it goes away, meaning the person is contagious before they realize they are infected. It is diagnosed based on the patient’s symptoms and using blood tests. One a person is infected with the measles virus they cannot contract it again and will experience lifelong immunity against it. A2. Epidemiology of Measles The 2014 outbreak of measles in Ohio came as a......

Words: 1297 - Pages: 6

#### Community Health

...Community Health Paper C228/VWT Task 1 By: Ericka Barrera November 20, 2015 A.) Identification of Community Depending on how you drive around, LA County can look very different in various parts of the community. As California’s largest county, with 10,116,705 people in the county, it is not hard to imagine that there are vast differences in even a localized area (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000-2013). With Hispanics making up almost half the population, the remaining Whites, Asians and African Americans, as well as other cultures, lend to a very diverse community. You can be in a very affluent area and drive only a few short miles and be now surrounded by run-down buildings, homeless people on the streets and poverty-stricken neighborhoods. Because of this, our community has many different health concerns that will be addressed in this paper. B.) Assessment of Needs and Risks B1. Population Economic Status In Los Angeles County, of the 10 million residents, 18.9% of households are at or below the poverty level (Los Angeles County, 2015). With the national average being 14.8%, LA County is a community that has to take care of a greater amount of people that are in need (U.S. Census Bureau, 2015). The average household income sits at \$54,529 with African Americans being at the lowest median, around \$36,609. Concurrently, they are also the population who has the highest percentage of poor, 38.1% (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000-2013). LA County also has a high rate of...

Words: 5280 - Pages: 22

#### Community Health

... Obsolete to Outbreak-Health and Vaccination Trends After Rubeola vaccine became available in the U.S. in 1963, reported cases of the measles plummeted, with any reported case being considered extremely rare today. Individuals born before 1957 were at a very high risk of contracting the disease before age 15, resulting in four hundred to five hundred deaths each year. An increased risk is simply not today’s climate, with the disease even reported “eliminated” in 2000. Therefore, the spike of over one hundred cases the first quarter of the year in 2014 raised a lot of questions in the health community (“Measles (Rubeola) Topic-Overview,” 2015). A close look at the Philippines through a socio-economic lens is necessary to understand the beginnings of this outbreak. Twenty five percent of the Filipino population fell below the country’s national poverty line. Moreover, there are numerous flaws in Filipino governmental programs designed to provide health care for those who cannot afford it. It is difficult to qualify for the program that already has sub-par treatment options. The rich seek private healthcare, and the poor often get left behind. This results in standards that differ from those in the United States (”Why the Philippines Healthcare System is Flawed,” 2014). For instance, children are often not required to be vaccinated to enter public school, disease reporting is not mandated, and government dollars are not spent on public health education. People......

Words: 1007 - Pages: 5

#### Community Health

...rural communities in the rural areas are faced with serious problems especially on the medical frontline. Inflated medical costs, under insurance and an overstretched health infrastructure. The larger population of the rural set up is of aged people some who are not even insured and are beyond employment age. The rural community comprising of an older and poorer population some in low skilled jobs relying on the government for the provision of healthcare insurance programs and yet some do not even qualify for them. Much of the healthcare infrastructure comprises of a web of clinics, nursing homes and small hospitals that in constant financial struggle and they work with very low financial margins limiting their investment in technology vital for better healthcare provision. More of the rural population suffer from chronic illnesses; arthritis, diabetes, hypertension, mental disorders and heart problems. Some of these preexisting medical conditions are not covered by insurance or the families have to pay higher premiums to be covered. The larger population in rural America does not access good nutrition issues because less population is engaged in agriculture due to their age. This with a sedentary lifestyle brings obese elderly people with lifestyle diseases. The nurses can assist the rural communities by educating them on ways to live and eat healthily. The people need to be advised on following a good balanced diet to promote good health and avoid diet related health......

Words: 318 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

#### Community Health

...Milestone 2: Assessment and Diagnosis Walnut, California, the city that I’ve known most of my 29 years. This suburban, upper middle class city lies about 27 miles out from Downtown Los Angeles and is part of the Los Angeles County. I moved here when I was barely 2 years old and have resided in this city since. Little did my parents know that the city they choose to raise their family at would be a safe, quaint and well-kept community. Though majority of its residents are Asian, I still feel that Walnut is open to all ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Regardless of ethnicity or culture, we all share at least one common interest and that is to maintain a healthy lifestyle. In this paper I will discuss my assessment I retrieved from my community survey as well as uncover the components of health nursing problems related to this community’s dynamics. Community Overview The community that I am assessing is Walnut, California. Walnut is known for their academic excellence and is a host to Mount San Antonio College. As stated in their mission statement, “It is a community that considers the lessons of the past, understands current and future realities, and shares a sense of cultural belonging” (Walnut Mission Statement, 2016, para 1). This residential city is accessible to four counties and is located between 3 interstates, San Bernardino, Orange and Pomona. As mentioned on the City of Walnut webpage, “Walnut is proud to be identified as one of the cities with the lowest crime......

Words: 1066 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

#### Community Health

...Community Health and Population-Focused Nursing Joanna Carreon Western Governors University The town of Colma is located in San Mateo County within the state of California. Colma was established on August 5, 1924. It has an elevation of 100 feet above sea level, and measures 1.91 square miles. Population Economic Status Assessment The Population Economic Status Assessment tool assisted in obtaining statistical facts about the population of this community. According to the US Census Bureau, Colma has a population size of 1,837, which includes 848 males and 989 females. The percentage of High School graduates or higher is 86.3%. The average household income is \$88,438. The percentage of households at or below poverty level is 10.3%, with unemployment rate of 3.0%, and 9.6% of the total population has health insurance. Racial or ethnic backgrounds include Caucasians, Asians, Hispanics, and African Americans. Neighborhood/Community Safety Inventory The Neighborhood/Community Safety inventory assisted in obtaining information that showed which various hazards are a threat to this community. Colma has a very high earthquake potential as it neighbors the San Andreas Fault, giving it a 735% chance of an earthquake more than the US average. Fog is the typical weather condition that poses a health hazard, as it affects visibility of pedestrians and those in motorized vehicles. There have been 15 fatal traffic......

Words: 1300 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

#### Community Health

...Peak Vista Community Health Center Colorado Springs, Co Colorado Springs, in El Paso County, Colorado, sits on a high elevation mesa at the foot of the Rocky Mountains (particularly Pikes Peak) in eastern central Colorado (City-Data, n.d.). To its east are rolling prairie lands and to the north a place called the Monument Divide, a geological mountain ridge that divides it from the city of Denver, causing distinct differences in weather between the two big cities (City-Data, n.d.; Palmer Lake Historical Society, n.d.). The city is known for its mild, dry weather as it is protected from severe climate by the mountains to the west (City-Data, n.d.). The city encompasses 194 square miles of land with about 2,242 people per square mile (World Population Review, 2016). As of 2015, 11 neighborhoods find refuge within its borders (Statistical Atlas, 2015). Because of its location beside the beautiful Rockies, it has much natural beauty (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2016). In addition to the majestic mountains themselves, national forests and natural sandstone monuments add to the picturesque view (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2016). Colorado Springs, Colorado is an extremely large city, the 2nd most populous in Colorado after Denver, and the 41st largest in the entire US (World Population Review, 2016). The total population is 416,427 as of Suburban Stats 2015-2016 with 34 being the median age. 11% of the population is over age 65, 70% of households are families, and 47% of those......

Words: 2822 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

#### Community Health

...Community Health Community Health & Population-Focused Nursing January 17, 2016 Community Health A.1 The CDC reported 159 people from 17 states and Washington DC to have measles from January 4 – April 2, 2015 (Clemmons, Gastanaduy, Fiebelkorn, Reddl, & Wallace, 2015). Among the cases 155 were U.S. residents and four were foreign visitors. 70% of the cases were connected to an outbreak that originated in Orange County, California in December 2014. The cases were part of a large multi-state outbreak connected to an amusement park in California ("Measles cases," 2016). A 2. The incidence of measles has decreased substantially in regions where vaccination has been instituted and subsequently measles occurs predominantly in areas with low vaccination rates, particularly in the developing world. Worldwide, measles is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Before the introduction of the measles vaccine, over two million deaths occurred annually, the majority in children less than5 years of age. Prior to the availability of the vaccine, annual measles prevalence peaked at 85, 862 in Texas in 1958 ("Measles cases," 2016). Since the vaccine, cases have declined by 99.9% in Texas. Almost all cases and outbreaks of measles in Texas and the US since 2000 has occurred among persons exposed to imported cases from countries where measles is still endemic ("Measles," 2015) Since measles is still endemic in developing parts of the world and is dangerously......

Words: 1241 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

#### Community Health

...Running head: COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING ASSESSMENT Community Health Nursing Assessment Alison C. Jessup Saint Joseph’s College COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING ASSESSMENT Abstract COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING ASSESSMENT Prior to becoming a nurse five years ago I didn’t really give much thought to the community that surrounded me. I independently went about my daily life without really considering my neighbors or municipality and I certainly wasn’t geared towards thinking about how I can give back to the community. It wasn’t until I began working in a local hospital that I started to contemplate the community and those I serve not only within the confines of the brick and mortar but far beyond. I initially started to become involved in the Jordan Hospital community and today I currently participate in various committees such as our Unit Based Council, Service Excellence, Meditech 6.0 Computer Implementation and our Stroke Resource Team. Exposure to various teambuilding opportunities has enhanced my relationship with senior leadership and also allowed me to be a voice for staff nurses and implement positive change. A particular area that I saw the greatest opportunity for change with the most impact to patient care and safety was with our stroke team. It is not unusual to have patients admitted to my floor with a diagnosis of Cerebral Vascular Accident or Transient Ischemic Attacks. Rarely do we see the inpatient stroke victim, but it does happen. The first inpatient......

Words: 2872 - Pages: 12