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Comp Sci as

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By coffiie
Words 1764
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What is the format of an IP address? 1. 4 bytes 2. First 2 – network address 3. Second 2 – host address
How is an IP address associated with a device on a network? 1. IP address specifically or automatically assigned 2. Each device has own private IP address
What is the difference between a public IP address and a private IP address? 1. Public – dynamic (changes each time device connects to internet) or static (doesn’t change because used for hosting web pages or services) 2. Private – assigned on LANs (automatically or chosen by LAN administrator) and are static; able to change, but rarely.
What are a URL, IP address, and a DNS? Why are they important? 1. URL – web address typed into a browser 2. IP address – series of numbers that tells computer where to find information 3. DNS (Domain Name System) – collection of domain names; translates a URL into an IP address 4. Every URL has an IP address; IP addresses were too complicated and were shortened by URLs
What happens when a user types in the IP address of a website rather than its URL? 1. Web page at the IP address shows up on browser
Explain how a URL is used to locate a resource on the WWW and the role of the Domain Name Service 1. A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is the web address a user types into a browser to reach a website 2. DNS translates URL to an IP address to take user to desired site
What is streaming? Explain real-time and on-demand? 1. Streaming – method of transmitting/receiving data over a computer network (server to host) as a steady and continuous flow allowing playback to proceed while subsequent data is being received a. Real-time – broadcasting data that is happening at the moment b. On-demand – broadcasting data when the user requests it
What is the impact of bit rates on streaming? 1. Faster bit rate, better streaming 2. Bit rates go up when resolution goes up because more data is processed
How do communications systems like PSTN, dedicated lines, and cell phone networks support the internet? 1. PSTN (Public Service Telephone Network) furnishes most of internet’s long distance infrastructure 2. Dedicated lines – 3. Cell phone service providers offer broadband internet access services
Diagram illustrating hardware like networks, routers, gateways, and servers support the internet

Why would data from a database be accessed using server-side scripting? 1. Server-side scripting sends pages to the client; allows user to use data for calculations or generate reports (?)
Describe the sequence of events executed by the client computer and web server when a web page with client-side embedded code is requested and displayed by a browser 1. User requests web page from server 2. Server finds page and sends to user 3. Page is displayed on browser with any scripts running during/after page is displayed 4. **Allows user to interact with page**
Describe the sequence of events executed by the client computer and web server when a web page with server-side embedded code is requested and displayed by a browser 1. User requests web page from server 2. Script in page interpreted by server; page content is changed/created to suit the user 3. Page is displayed in its final form
What is the internet? 1. Global system of interconnected networks to link devices worldwide
What is a browser? 1. Browser that allows user to access the internet
What is cloud computing? 1. Using remote servers to store/manage data
Define hardware 1. Physical components of a computer system
Define software 1. Computer programs that provide instructions for telling the computer what to do and how
What is the difference between primary storage and secondary storage? 1. Secondary storage not directly accessible by CPU
Why do we need primary and secondary storage? 1. To directly access data from the CPU and have backup storage
What is the difference between RAM and ROM? What does RAM stand for? ROM? 1. RAM – volatile and can be edited 2. ROM – non-volatile and can only be viewed
What does volatile mean? Is RAM or ROM volatile? 1. Volatile – content can be lost after computer shut down 2. RAM is volatile
Explain the difference between SRAM and DRAM 1. SRAM doesn’t need to be constantly refreshed to retain memory unlike DRAM where contents can be lost if not refreshed
Describe the stages of the fetch-execute cycle 1. Fetch program instructions from memory 2. Decodes instruction’s actions 3. Executes action/instruction
Register transfer notation

Describe how interrupts are handled 1. Interrupt – signal telling computer to pause current task and prioritize the needed information 2. Storing all current instructions in play into a stack and when it has completed the process it will return the stack into RAM

Why does a computer system require and operating system? 1. OS allows computer to run and execute programs and enables hardware to software communication 2. Stored in hard drive
What are the key management tasks carried out by the operating system? 1. Manage hardware resources 2. User and machine interface 3. System data security 4. Utility software
What is an operating system? 1. Set of software designed to give an environment in which application software can be executed 2. Software that supports a computer’s basic functions
Give two examples of utility software and explain what they do 1. Utility software- analyze/maintain a computer 2. Anti-virus – scan for computer viruses 3. Backup software – creates copies for backup
Why is utility software needed? 1. Used to configure, optimize, or maintain the system
What are the benefits to a developer of software constructed using library files including Dynamic Link Library Files? 1. Use pre-written code for easier creation 2. Change made to one file in a DLL applies everywhere; software using the DLL file doesn’t have to be changed
How does a programmer use routines from a library? 1. By invoking it through a function call
Why is software need to translate an assembly language program? 1. Change its mnemonics to machine code for proper execution
Why is a compiler needed to translate a high-level language program? 1. Translate it into machine language for proper execution
What are the differences between compilation and interpretation? 1. Compiler– translates whole program into object code that can be stored and re-used 2. Interpreter – translates and executes program line by line (no further use)

What are the advantages and drawbacks of using an interpreter vs compiler? 1. Compiler a. Adv – easily distributed final object file, no need for compiler software after file production, no risk of changing original source code b. Dis – final object file only produced when all errors have been fixed 2. Interpreter c. Adv – can attempt to run program anytime, easier debugging d. Dis – slow program execution, interpreter software always has to be present in memory for every program run, no final object file produced
What is a drawing list? 1. Set of commands to define vector image
What is a vector image? 1. Image drawn using math that can be easily scaled
What is a bitmap image? 1. Collection of bits that form an image, bits hold the color value of the pixels image
What are the pros and cons of vector and bitmap images? 1. Vector a. Pro – easier to scale; file size doesn’t change and no distortion b. Con – cannot represent most photographs 2. Bitmap c. Pro – can represent a wider range of images d. Con – takes up more storage and file size does change and distort
What is color depth? 1. Number of bits used to represent the color of a single pixel 2. Affects color range and clarity
Properties needed for a rectangle 1. Top left corner coordinates 2. Length and width 3. Fill, color, stroke-width
Why is it difficult to save analogue sound waves in digital format? 1. Conversion from continuous to discrete results in a loss of quality

What does a DAC do? 1. Digital to Analogue Converter 2. Converts sound files into sound coming out of speaker
How do sound waves going into a microphone get stored in the computer? 1. Analogue sound wave picked up by microphone 2. Sent to ADC 3. ADC converts electrical signals into digital values to be stored in binary
What is sampling resolution? 1. Sampling resolution – number of bits assigned to each sample
How does the size of the sampling resolution affect the range of volumes? 1. Higher sampling rate, higher range of volumes
What is GOP? How does it compress data? 1. GOP – Group of Pictures reduces spatial and temporal redundancy 2. Spatial redundancy – registering differences between parts of a single frame; intraframe compression 3. Temporal redundancy – registering differences between frames; interframe compression
Name the two types of compression techniques used for sound files 1. Lossless – doesn’t lose accuracy; bigger files, sounds like original; FLAC 2. Lossy – loses file accuracy; smaller files, lower range of volumes; MP3
What is the frame rate of a video stream? 1. Number of still pictures per unit time of video
What is the difference between interlacing and progressive encoding? 1. Interlacing – horizontal scan lines of complete frame are split into odd and even lines (dis – line doubling) 2. Progressive – each refresh period updates all of scan lines of each frame in sequence (better)
What are the components of the CPU and what do they do? 1. ALU – performs simple arithmetic and logical operations 2. CU – manages various computer components (reads/interprets instructions from memory and transforms them into signals to activate other computer parts and calls upon the ALU to perform calculations) 3. Registers – hold information
What is the decoder and where is it? 1. Logic circuit that takes binary representation of instruction and initiates execution of the right instruction 2. In CPU
What is the relationship between assembly language and machine code? 1. Assembly language is an easy to read interpretation of machine code 2. One-to-one matching with machine code and each binary instruction in machine code can be written in assembly
What are the 5 different modes of addressing used in the processor? 1. Indirect – address of the data is held in an intermediate location to be looked up and used to locate the data itself 2. Indexed – final address for data determined by adding value of index register to address used in instruction 3. Relative – address in instruction is distance from current instruction 4. Direct – address of data location is in instruction 5. Immediate – data to be used is in instruction itself

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