Premium Essay

Comparative International Accounting

In: Business and Management

Submitted By mrsingh123
Words 1057
Pages 5
Comparative Reporting

Harmonization can be described as the ‘Process of increasing the comparability of accounting practices by setting bounds to their degree of variation’ (Page 75). In Essence, it is the continual effort of implementing a global set of standards, in which there is if not none, minimal differences between financial reporting in countries all around the world. For many modern day businesses, it is important to have a set of financial statements that appeals to a wider audience of investors and shareholders in which they can hope to receive important investments. The process of Harmony around the world seems to be a challenge, however in 2006, Canada’s accounting board, AcSB, made a strategic move in giving the option for firms in the public sector the choice of presenting their financial statement in accordance with IFRS which would be in effect as of January 2011.

This essay seeks to establish the influential factors that shaped the accounting standards in Canada, and to distinguish any key differences in relation to the UK accounting system using the Canadian private enterprise, Good Group. This paper will primarily focus on the Private sector that choose to present under the ASPE system, as both Canada and UK use different accounting standards for which they implement in this sector.

Canada’s Accounting System

Like many other countries around the world, Canada has multiple accounting standards to meet the needs of different segments within their accounting environment. The system is categorized into three sections:

Public Companies: IFRS or US GAAP (Only SEC registrants can apply US GAAP)

Private Businesses: IFRS or ASPE

Not for Profit Organizations: IFRS or MIC (Made in Canada)

The reason for the multiple standards is because as the AcSB stated, “One size does not necessarily fit all” (NotforProfit). Culturally it’s a...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Comparative International Accounting

...themselves instead of to license or franchise to other firm and lastly, the existence of MNEs because of relevant cost and the government policies that encourage companies to perform production in other countries. MNEs can be classified into three groups: resource-seeking, market-seeking and efficiency-seeking. Resource-seeking is the search of resources in other country. While companies with market-seeking, they tend to establish subsidiaries. Those subsidiaries play a role as producer of goods to supply the market in the country of parent’s location. As for efficiency-seeking, subsidiary will have their own specialization in producing certain part. With regards to the different arguments for studying international accounting, there are several reasons for studying comparative accounting. It act as a reminder that US and Anglo-Saxon countries are not the...

Words: 4721 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Ias Propeerty

...IAS 40 International Accounting Standard 40 Investment Property This version includes amendments resulting from IFRSs issued up to 31 December 2010. IAS 40 Investment Property was issued by the International Accounting Standards Committee in April 2000. In April 2001 the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) resolved that all Standards and Interpretations issued under previous Constitutions continued to be applicable unless and until they were amended or withdrawn. In December 2003 the IASB issued a revised IAS 40. Since then, IAS 40 and its accompanying documents have been amended by the following IFRSs: • • • • • • • IFRS 2 Share-based Payment (issued February 2004) IFRS 4 Insurance Contracts (issued March 2004) IFRS 5 Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations (issued March 2004) IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements (as revised in September 2007)* Improvements to IFRSs (issued May 2008)* IFRS 9 Financial Instruments (issued November 2009)† IFRS 9 Financial Instruments (issued October 2010).† * † effective date 1 January 2009 effective date 1 January 2013 (earlier application permitted) © IFRS Foundation A1003 IAS 40 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION paragraphs IN1–IN18 INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD 40 INVESTMENT PROPERTY OBJECTIVE SCOPE DEFINITIONS RECOGNITION MEASUREMENT AT RECOGNITION MEASUREMENT AFTER RECOGNITION Accounting policy Fair value model Inability to determine fair value reliably Cost model......

Words: 9481 - Pages: 38

Premium Essay

Manager Stakeholder Conflict

...Y., 2002. Evidence from China on whether harmonised accounting standards harmonise accounting practices. Accounting Horizons, 16(3), pp.183-197. Colasse, Bernard, and Noal Mellott. "The international standardization of accounting: the resistible rise of the IASC/IASB." In  Annales des Mines-Gérer et comprendre, no. 2, pp. 15-24. ESKA, 2010. European Commission. 1995. Communication from the Commission, Accounting Harmonisation: A New Strategy Vis-à-vis International Harmonisation. Com, 95, p.508. Guggiola, G., 2010. IFRS adoption in the EU, accounting harmonisation and markets efficiency: A review1. The International Business & Economics Research Journal, 9(12), p.99. Hoogervorst, H. 2015. Ten years on, what have we learned? IASB Speech. Pacter, P. (2014) Global Standards: How Close Are We? Retrieved from http://www.ifrs.org/ Roberts, C.B., Weetman, P. and Gordon, P., 2005. International financial reporting: a comparative approach. Pearson Education. Schaub, A., 2005. Use of International Accounting Standards in the European Union, The. Nw. J. Int'l L. & Bus., 25, p.609. Tran, L. 2012. The Role of the FASB and the IASB in Establishing Fair Value Measurements. Fair Value Valuation Insights. Winter 2012. Whittington, G., 2008. Fair value and the IASB/FASB conceptual framework project: an alternative view. Abacus, 44(2), pp.139-168. Wong, P., 2004. Challenges and successes in implementing international standards: achieving convergence to IFRSs and ISAs....

Words: 261 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Sarbanes Oaxley

...INTRODUCTION In the wake of high-profile corporate accounting debacles, authorities have started to take action, and new international accounting standards (IAS) defined rules on boards¡¦ responsibilities and imposed penalties (the Sarbanes-Oxley Act) have come into effect. IAS rules will cause a greater need for comparability across various accounting and reporting principles. The European Union has decided that listed companies, a company which has any of its shares listed on a recognized stock market, should use international accounting standards (IAS) for accounting periods beginning since January 2005. Therefore, all EU listed companies that are required to publish consolidated accounts will be required to prepare their accounts in accordance with adopted International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). That will cause a greater need for comparability across various accounting and reporting principles. 1. Change in Financial Reporting Following recent decisions by various jurisdictions to adopt International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs), more than 90 countries will either require or permit the use of IFRSs during the next five years. Thousands of companies throughout the world will be making a transaction in financial reporting by breaking away from national practices and changing to accounting standards set by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). IASB issued IRS 1 First-time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards,......

Words: 2162 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Mobile Banking

...International Business Research Vol. 2, No. 2 Harmonization of Accounting Standards through Internationalization Nikhil Chandra Shil, ACMA (Corresponding Author) Department of Business Administration East West University 43, Mohakhali C/A, Dhaka – 1212, Bangladesh Tel: 9887989(Off.) ext 253, 01819289589 (M) E-mail: nikhilacc@yahoo.com Dr. Bhagaban Das P.G. Department of Business Management, Fakir Mohan University P. O.: Balasore, Pin.: 756019, Orissa, India E-mail: bhagaban_fm@yahoo.com Alok Kumar Pramanik Department of Commerce, Bhatter College P. O.: Dantan, Pin. : 721426, Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, India E-mail: alokdantan@sify.com Abstract The journey to have a common set of accounting standards started long before to give it a professional shape and essence. And accountants all over the world feel the necessity to shorten the gap among different streams of accounting practices through harmonization. Still, we have a couple of strong variants of accounting practices (say, for example, US GAAP, UK GAAP, IAS etc.) over the world existed and practiced simultaneously. These variants are working as threats towards harmonization of accounting practices. However, the profession has also witnessed some improvements in recent years in the process of global convergence putting some ray of hope. International and even local standard setting bodies have come up with projects of harmonization and in most of the cases became successful. The day is not far away when we will......

Words: 5848 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

How International Differences in the Ownership and Financing of Companies Could Lead to Differences in Financial Reporting

...www.ccsenet.org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol. 7, No. 3; February 2012 Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in Developing Countries: The Case of Nigeria Abdulkadir Madawaki College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia Sintok, 06010 Kedah, Malaysia E-mail: abdulkadirmadawaki@yahoo.com Received: September 16, 2011 doi:10.5539/ijbm.v7n3p152 Abstract The study focused on the adoption process of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on a developing economy, with particular reference to Nigeria. The paper is based on the data obtained from literature survey and archival sources in the context of the globalization of International Financial Reporting and the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).Nigeria has embraced IFRS in order to participate in the benefits it offers, including attracting foreign direct investment, reduction of the cost of doing business, and cross border listing. In implementing IFRS Nigeria will face challenges including the development of a legal and regulatory framework, awareness campaign, and training of personnel. Recommendations were made to forestall such challenges which include strengthening education and training, establishment of an independent body to monitor and enforce accounting and auditing standards. Keywords: Financial reporting, Adoption, Accounting standard and Developing countries 1. Introduction Globalization of capital markets is an......

Words: 5879 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

Ifrs to Gaap

...one percent of those companies are incorporated. Corporations have been doing international business for hundreds of years and with the tech boom error growing over twelve times more than the early nineties, the way the world does business has changed tremendously. With the United States having so many businesses there is a consistent need to make sure that the accounting process is done the same all over the country, and to help prevent fraudulent or any misleading information. This issue has become even more important with the evolution of traditional business to ecommerce which leads to the constant moving of money between countries. Accounting has the ability to be done in many different forms and fashions, but the world had narrowed it down to only two accounting practices which are IFRS and GAAP. Accounting practice has been around for hundreds and thousand years and could be trace back to ancient times. In earlier years of accounting and its development started in early Mesopotamia Accounting can also be closely related to writing, counting, and early auditing systems used by ancient Egyptians and Babylonians. The International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) has been adopted by more than one hundred and ten countries and was created in the early 2000’s versus its counterpart the Generally Accepted Accounting Principal (GAAP) which was created in 1978. These two types of accounting practices are similar to get to the final result but have big differences. ......

Words: 1015 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Accg906 Research

...have got a legal obligation to prepare financial statement in many countries. The requirements for preparing financial reporting are usually based on adequate mixture of legislation, accounting standards and specific requirements such as stock exchange rules. Those requirements often give different reporting obligation to entities according to their characteristics such as scope and social or economic substance, and business sector. Therefore, Accounting regulators have required different form of reporting and disclosures depending on entities. That is to say, many regulators broadly enforce different reporting obligations to entities in the private and public sectors, while reporting requirements for entities which operate in not for profit sector are less developed. Such different reporting obligation might have brought related issues to entities and furthermore regulators. Because entities have concerned about significant costs relating considerable reporting and compliance. In additions, as getting into step with globalization, the international harmonization of reporting has been increasingly focused on though; regulators still have a tendency to develop different approaches to reporting requirements for entities with different aspects. With recognition of such complication, some accounting regulators have started to re-define and re-examine regarding differential reporting in order to overcome the difficulties so that can help entities provide more relevant,......

Words: 1124 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Important of Iasb

...In a broad sense a conceptual framework can be seen as an attempt to define the nature and purpose of accounting. A conceptual framework must consider the theoretical and conceptual issues surrounding financial reporting and form a coherent and consistent foundation that will underpin the development of accounting standards. Conceptual frameworks can apply to many disciplines, but when specifically related to financial reporting, a conceptual framework can be seen as a statement of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) that form a frame of reference for the evaluation of existing practices and the development of new ones. As the purpose of financial reporting is to provide useful information as a basis for economic decision making, a conceptual framework will form a theoretical basis for determining how transactions should be measured by historical value or current value and reported is how they are presented or communicated to users. Some accountants have questioned whether a conceptual framework is necessary in order to produce reliable financial statements. Past history of standard setting bodies throughout the world tells us. In the absence of a conceptual framework, accounting standards were often produced that had serious defects that is: * They were not consistent with each other particularly in the role of prudence versus accruals or matching. * They were also internally inconsistent and often the effect of the transaction on the......

Words: 1087 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

International Accounting

...system of accounting to be inefficient. 2.Venice’s commerce was driven by sea traffic. 3.The Genoese system was the first to imply that unlike items could be compared in terms of a common monetary unit. 4.Double entry bookkeeping quickly had world-wide acceptance, as the British accepted it in the 1400s. 5.When hyperinflation exists, alternative systems to historical cost become necessary. 6. The International Accounting Standards Board, an international organization dedicated to the diversity of accounting standards worldwide. 7. One trend in European securities markets is consolidation. 8. The continental accounting system is closely linked to the tax collection system. 9. The first step into international business is usually the creation of a foreign subsidiary. 10. If a firm is not involved in international commercial transactions, knowledge of international business is unnecessary. Multiple Choice Learning Objective #1.1: Identify the key trends in the development of accounting through history 1. The Crusades were important in the development of accounting, because __a. the Arabs first developed double entry accounting, which was then adopted by the Italians. __b. the Christians needed double entry accounting to keep track of the relative profitability of the different Crusades. __c. the trade routes shifted the commercial center from Italy to Constantinople __d. none of the above. 2. The major Genoese influence on accounting......

Words: 14274 - Pages: 58

Premium Essay

The Road to International Reporting

...The road to international reporting The Convergence of GAAP and IFRS | Leroy Meadows Advanced Accounting | The road to international reporting The Convergence of GAAP and IFRS | Leroy Meadows Advanced Accounting | The Road to International Reporting The convergence of a rules-based approach and a principles-based approach in relation to accounting and the dissemination of financial information is not something to be taken lightly. With the need for convergence increasing due to globalization, there are sure to be some contentious issues that must be addressed if convergence is to succeed. While the main issue for those who use a rules-based approach is the issue of comparability, there are other issues that must be taken into account as well. This paper will provide a brief history of globalization as well as the response of the United States in the wake of massive corporate fraud between 2000-2002. The differences between a rules-based approach and a principles-based approach and some difficulties that arise when trying to merge two different systems of accounting will also be examined. Lastly, this paper will address why convergence is not only probable, but necessary. The Need to Be One The modern push for globalization has occurred in two stages. The World Trade Organization, in its 2008 report, provides a chronology of this push which shows the first stage of globalization starting in the mid-19th century and continuing until the start of WWI. The...

Words: 4011 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

The Earned Income Tax Credit

...A Little Bit of History The International Accounting Standard number 7 – Statement of Cash Flows (IAS7 or the standard) is the current authority issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) requiring the preparation and presentation of a Statement of Cash Flows, providing through it the historical changes in cash and cash equivalents of an entity. The standard was first issued in 1977 as IAS 7 – Statement of Changes in Financial Position by the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC); subsequently, it was reissued in 1992 as IAS 7 – Cash Flow Statements. The updated standard was adopted by the IASB in 2001. Its name was changed to IAS 7 - Statement of Cash Flows in 2007 as a result of changes in terminology deriving from requirements in IAS 1 – Presentation of Financial Statements. Moreover, the issuance of new standards such as IFRS 10 – Consolidated Financial Statements, triggered minor amendments to IAS 7. Key differences between U.S. GAAP ASC 230 and IAS 7 The following table summarizes the main differences between the two standards. Subject | U.S. GAAP | IFRSs | Definition of cash and cash equivalents | Cash and short-term, highly liquid investments with maturities of generally 3 months or less are included. Bank overdrafts are not included. Restricted cash is not included. | Cash and short-term, highly liquid investments with maturities of generally 3 months or less are included. Bank overdrafts are included provided certain......

Words: 1819 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Share Capital

...Share Capital It is the amount of money contributed by the shareholders for the furtherance of objectives of the company for which it was created. * Equity / Preference Share * Par value * Number of Shares in each category * Total amount TYPES OF SHARE CAPITAL * AUTHORISED CAPITAL * ISSUED CAPITAL * SUBSCRIBED CAPITAL * CALLED UP CAPITAL * PAID-UP CAPITAL AUTHORISED CAPITAL * MAXIMUM amount of share capital that the company is authorised by its constitutional documents to issue to shareholders. * Part of the authorised capital can (and frequently does) remain unissued. * EXAMPLE: AS PER THE CONSTITUTIONAL DOCUMENT OF A NEW COMPANY ‘XYZ.LTD’ IT CAN ISSUE A TOTAL OF 10 LAKH SHARES OF RS 10 EACH FACE VALUE/PAR VALUE: IT IS THE FIXED DENOMINATION AT WHICH A COMPANY ISSUES ITS SHARES. THE FACE VALUE IS MENTIONED ON THE SHARE CERTIFICATE. ISSUED CAPITAL * THE PART OF AUTHORISED CAPITAL WHICH IS OFFERED TO THE PUBLIC FOR SUBSCRITION * EXAMPLE : * OUT OF 10 LAKH SHARES, COMPANY ‘XYZ LTD.’ ISSUES 7 LAKH SHARES OF RS 10 EACH SUBSCRIBED CAPITAL * PART OF ISSUED CAPITAL THAT IS APPLIED FOR BY PROSPECTIVE SHARE HOLDERS & ALLOTED BY THE COMPANY * UNSUBSCRIBED CAPITAL :BALANCE OF ISSUED CAPITAL NOT SUBSCRIBED BY THE PUBLIC * EXAMPLE : SITUATION 1: UNDERSUBSCRIPTION ‘XYZ LTD.’ GETS PROSPECTS FOR 6 LAKH SHARES SITUATION 2: OVERSUBSCRIPTION ‘XYZ LTD’ GETS PROSPECTS FOR 8 LAKH SHARES ...

Words: 1829 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

: Role of Cost and Management Accountants in Ifrs Regime

...TITLE: ROLE OF COST AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTANTS IN IFRS REGIME Personal Details |NAME |CMA. ARINDAM BANERJEE | |QUALIFICATION |MCOM AICWA | |RANK |Faculty Member, United Institute of Management, Allahabad | |Email |arind2001@yahoo.com | |Mobile |09794108735 | | | | |Communication Address |C/O Mr. Salil Chakroborty, | | |198 A, Sarat Bose Road, | | |Kolkata – 700029. | | | | ROLE OF COST AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTANTS IN IFRS......

Words: 2489 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Comparitive Analysis of Kpmg and Vavrinek Websites

...non-assurance services including accounting, auditing, tax, and consulting. It is ranked among the top 100 CPA firms in the United States and consistently ranks among the top five in the state of California. The Big-4 firm our group has chosen is KPMG. Founded in 1987 with the merger of KMG and Peat Marwick, KPMG also provides auditing, tax, and advisory services. This International network of CPA firms employees 138,000 professionals in over 150 countries, and with annual revenues exceeding $22.7 billion, has become one of the largest professional services networks in the world. From our examination of these sites we will provide a critical evaluation of each, as well as an accompanying comparative analysis. We will begin our assessment by evaluating what we collectively found to be positive characteristics of the Vavrinek, Trine, Day & Company website. The first thing we noticed is that the site has an appealing visual aesthetic. The various pages are organized, cohesive, and uncluttered, and the font size and page layout makes the information presented easily readable. We also appreciated the navigation functions and how easy it is for the user to find the information they are looking for very quickly. Another impressive characteristic is that the content provided in the site provides users with a clear representation of the services offered by the firm. When you click on one of the services links, for example the audit and accounting link, each of the......

Words: 1205 - Pages: 5