Free Essay

Compare and Contrast

In:

Submitted By medic4958
Words 1062
Pages 5
Compare and Contrast Paper
Ray Sweeney
CMJ 306
October 4, 2012
Don Crist

Abstract

In the following paper, this author will compare and contrast the communication lessons learned in the assigned reading and movie. This author will discuss the successes and failures that can be created by effective communication or the lack thereof.

Compare and Contrast Paper Effective communication is key to successful leadership. According to Schroeder and Lombardo (2006), there are ten principles for effective communication. They are; know your objectives, choose your language, consider your environment, rehearse, know your spoken and unspoken message, role play, feedback, hypocrisy, don’t over communicate and listen (p. 99). All of the were used by President Lincoln (Phillips 1993). A leader must be able to use all of the above steps in order to communicate an effective message and get the end results he or she wants. President Lincoln was a very effective communicator and felt that his communication style was key to his successes. Lincoln could talk to anyone using humor and witty stories, which he used as persuasive tools (p. 399). In comparison to Mandela in the movie Invictus (2009), Lincoln used his persuasive, yet honest communication style to win the election in 1860. Mandela was elected as President in 1990 after being incarcerated for 26 years and pledged an oath to unite the people of South Africa. Lincoln’s style was a bit different during the time he ran for president as he was told to remain silent (p. 386) and he only spoke when it was needed in order to alienate few people.
Mandela became President of South Africa during a time of turmoil, as did Lincoln. Lincoln battled the ramifications of the Civil War while Mandela was battling the ramifications of apartheid. In comparison, both conflicts involved race and civil disagreement. The communication methods used by both leaders were similar. In order to unite the people, both leaders looked for common ground. In the case of Mandela, he was able to use rugby. Rugby was a sport in which his country was represented, however did not have the support of the native Africans. The majority of the team in Invictus was white South Afrikaners. When the team would play, the native South Afrikaners would cheer for the other team. Mandela saw an opportunity to unite the country by using rugby and allowing the Springboks to keep their team colors and name, which represented the apartheid movement. Schroeder and Lombardo (2006) state that a vehicle is a necessary part of communication (p. 90). The vehicle is the way in which a message is delivered. The vehicle in Invictus was rugby and Mandela spent a large amount of time speaking to the team captain and clearly communicating his desire to unite the country.
Lincoln used story telling to get his point across (p. 408). There was always a purpose in the stories told by Lincoln and it was the effect of the stories that mattered to him. Mandela told Francois, the team captain about a poem that he recited while incarcerated that kept him going after all of the years. Later in the movie, Francois visits Mandela’s cell and is reminded of the poem, which has a lasting effect on him and his teammates. Mandela’s motives were honest in the movie and this was a huge part of his effectiveness in helping lead the team to victory and uniting the South Africans with rugby.
Lincoln in comparison to Mandela had honest intentions and conveyed that message to those who served with him or for him. They both fought for equality and to unite a nation that was divided and were both successful. This author finds it interesting that Lincoln and Mandela were so much alike. Even after so many years, communication style for effective leaders has not changed. By using the key ingredients in effective communication techniques, every leader can be successful. “Every leader must realize that the power to motivate followers resides almost solely in the ability to communicate effectively” (Phillips, D. p. 412). This quote was key for Mandela and Lincoln as they governed their countries.

Leaders of today and especially law enforcement leaders can learn many lessons form the readings and the movie. Communication can ether make or break you and being able to convey not only the proper message, but the true intent of the message is key. Failure to send the correct message can have devastating consequences. This author believes that while leadership styles may differ, there is a commonality with the way communication must take place to be effective.
One of the most important things a leader must have is a vision. According to Phillips (1993), a leader must not only have that vision, but must also continually reaffirmed it (p. 418). In Invictus, Mandela shared his vision with his with the people of South Africa and then reaffirms it by uniting the country’s rugby team to win the World Cup. During the entire movie, he reaffirmed his vision and took decisive steps to keep the tensions from resurfacing.
There were few things that this author read or watched that were in contrast of each other. The major differences were the fact that Mandela was incarcerated for 26 years, while Lincoln was not. They were both dynamic speakers and were able to gain the attention of any audience. Both came from very different backgrounds and obviously different centuries, but the fact remains that communication was essential in their successes.
Conclusion
The two books and the movie Invictus had some great comparisons. This author was impressed with how closely Lincoln and Mandela were alike in their leadership styles. It is obvious that communication was key to their success. Following the steps according to Schroeder and Lombardo (2006) can assist any leader with ensuring that they make well informed decisions and are able to send a clear and concise message. That message needs to be delivered with the utmost care and followed up on to ensure that the cycle is complete.

References
Phillips, D. (1993). Lincoln on leadership: Executive strategies for tough times. New York, NY:

Warner Books.

Schroeder, D. & Lombardo, F. (2006). Management and supervision of law enforcement

personnel (4th ed.) Charlottesville, VA: LexisNexis-Gould Publications.

Barber, G. & Birnbaum, R. (Executive Producers), & Eastwood, C. (Director). (2009) Invictus

[Motion picture]. United States: Warner Brothers Studios.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Compare and Contrast

...Compare and Contrast His/110CA-U.S. History to 1865 02/11/2014 Charles Slater Compare and Contrast In 1607, 104 men survived a journey which would bring them to the American coast. They sailed into the Chesapeake Bay and up a river which they would later name the James. ("America History", 2007). There where many things that were revealed that caused the failure of some colonies and the success of others. From disease to greed and all the other ups and downs that molded America today. Major differences between the British colonies and the French colonies where the greed and the way the two colonies performed actions that made them fruitful in all the endeavors they were making their goals. Take for intense when the British first came over their goals weren’t clearly set out and endorsed by companies that did not well equip the people they sent over very well, which made it so colonist were very unprepared and met catastrophe. The goals that the British companies had set where small colonies, based for trade and they wanted fur and other agricultural items. The British had little to no regard for the Indians land and saw it as property that could be bought and sold, The British also believed that the land was their God given right and it was their job to use the land. They did trade with the Indians but didn’t see the major uses for the local understanding. The French on the other had came over and set a major problem for the British. The French colonist...

Words: 431 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Compare and Contrast

...John Nicolet June 5, 2015 Compare and Contrast 1. Compare and contrast the Magna Carta to the U.S. Constitution. A.The 6th amendment of the Constitution reads "In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjpy the right to be confronted with the witness against him." Also it was in the Magna Carta that "No freeman shall be taken or imprsioned or exiled or in any waydestroyrd except by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land. B. In Paragraph 29 of the Magna Carta it reads as follows, "No freeman is to be taken or imprisoned or disseised of his free tenement or of his liberties or free customs, or outlawed or exiled or in any way ruined, nor will we go against such a man or send against him save by lawful judgement of his peers or by the law of the land. To no-one will we sell or deny of delay right or justice. It reads the same in Amendment 6 that " In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial..wherein the crime shall have been committed." 2. Compare and contrast the English bill of rights of 1689 and the U.S. Constitution. A.The Bill creates separation of powers, limits the powers of the king and queen, enhances the democratic election and bolsters freedom of speech as well in the Constitution it talks about the seperation of power of each branch of the government. For example in Article 3 Section 2 talks about the Judical branches power and powers that the Supreme Court...

Words: 701 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Compare Contrast

...Compare and contrast essays are effective in all areas for my life. Comparing two items that are similar can be positive, however contrasting these items may not be the best way to write about them. Comparing two items that are very different would not be the best way to write about them. Comparing thru contrast would be a much better essay. The idea of writing any essay is to interest the reader to the point where they do not want to stop reading the paper. It is important to capture the reader’s attention, and to keep their interest until the end of the story, or essay. Comparing two ideas that are similar and comparing their similarities could be detailed on how you could change something about the subjects to be able to show their differences. Letting the reader make their own conclusions after giving them the information will help to get the reader involved. subjects. The situations in which these are most effective are professional reflections. Professional comparisons are usually backed by professional primary sources. Those are primary sources can give factual information about both viewpoints in the essay. Personal reflections in a compare and contrast essay is slightly more ineffective as usually personal emotions can get in the way of being objective. If you take one side of a two viewpoint subject, you would find the essay favor the side you have taken. Professional compare and contrast essays are coming from multiple viewpoints. These viewpoints are factual...

Words: 294 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Compare and Contrast

...Tuesday/Thursday 10:30-11:45 Compare and Contrast The two pieces of art I've chosen to compare, contrast, and analyze are Woman at the Height of her Beauty, by Kitagawa Utamaro and Mother and Child, by Mary Cassatt. Both pieces are reflective of different societies of the time period in which they were created, and both pieces have a background and deeper meaning that goes beyond what meets the viewers eye. However, the aesthetic appeal varies greatly between the two pieces, as do the ideas they correspond to. Woman at the Height of her Beauty, which was made out of color woodblock print, depicts an Asian woman. The artist used linear movements and minimal decoration to create the woman's form, and in doing so created a simplified yet elegant depiction. Though she is portrayed simply and plainly, her hair pieces and clothing are more elaborate, which draws the viewer's eye to her clothes and accessories rather than the woman. This technique of using vague individual features allows the artist to portray women as a group, rather than an individual woman. The woman's facial expression and the position of her body, namely her hands, which she appears to be stretching, give the impression that she is preparing to do tedious and important tasks. If one were to compare these aspects with the title of the piece, one could come to the conclusion that the artist sees women who work hard and are the most successful to be of the most beauty. This reflects the societal views of Japan...

Words: 751 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Compare and Contrast

...Compare and contrast three different types of thinking and comment on how each effects the critical thinking process Logical Creative Optimistic Creative and logical-- Critical thinking and decision making is the process to find the truth. An important aspect of thinking is the process that relies on the ability to coordinate and structure our ideas so that they make sense. Training our mind to use the critical thinking process gives people a better understanding of the information. This paper will discuss the three different thinking styles. It will also compare and contrast logical style, persuasive style, and creative style. Critical thinking will be applied to the decision making process by using work environment examples. The logical style of thinking is a complex process in which reasoning is used to come to a conclusion. This style involves a sequence of steps or thoughts used to solve a problem. According to Kirby and Goodpaster (2007), along with creative thought, inductive and deductive logic comprise the bedrock and substance of all our thinking. Using the two major elements of logical thinking, deductive and inductive reasoning, solutions can be tested with tried and true methods. This style is very distinct and follows a more structured and analytical path using proven methods in order to reach the conclusions. When comparing logical thinking to the creative and persuasive styles of thinking, all three require detailed processes to reach conclusions. With...

Words: 1226 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Compare and Contrast

...Strategies for Persuasion Using Compare and Contrast The two essays that I’ve chosen were “I Want a Wife” by Judy Brady” and my other one was “Sister Flowers” by Maya Angelou. I’ve reread the both of these essays twice just to get the feel of these two essays. In the essay of “I Want a Wife” I looked for the key elements that the Authors had used in this essay. In that essay the author’s purpose was that to show women of how the males treat females in a wrong manner. This is something that maybe all women had been gone through some point in time in their lives, but this is going on in today’s world, it is a relatable subject. It is quoted by Judy Brady that she said in her essay that she wanted all females to think in her message (“those women were being underappreciated, and that she is fed up with it)”. When telling this essay the sound of her tone was I would think that she was angry, but hearing how she had write this essay it seems as if she was calm. My other essay “Sister Flowers” is totally different different from my other essay. In this essay Maya Angelou is an American author, a poet with a remarkable voice telling her stories. When you listen to Maya Angelou tell a story, it almost feels like you’re right there with her, this is a good description essay, and a narrative essay. The purpose of this essay is of revelation; it is quoted that to (reveal the catalyst of her own literary experience, a muse who is a social and racial template for goodness). In the both...

Words: 377 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Compare and Contrast

...Compare and Contrast “Young Goodman Brown” and “The Lottery” By: Melissa A. Reeves Professor Andrew Smith ENGL 102-B46 LUO Thesis Statement The stories “The Lottery” and “Young Goodman Brown” both appear to show that human behavior and judgment can be flawed, even if the person’s intentions appear good to them. There is a level of fear and underlying evil in Puritan settings in both stories. I. Introduction/Statement of Thesis II. Themes and Author’s Purpose A. The Lottery i. Just because something has always been done, does not make it right or just; following the crowd can be dangerously wrong and evil. ii. The author shows through symbolism and storytelling that people can be easily influenced by society and those around them. iii. Also, the themes or persecution is addressed. B. Young Goodman Brown i. The theme is that believing that you are a righteous person does not always make you righteous. ii. The idea of doing one evil thing, but justifying it because it is only one time and he will never do it again and will be a good man afterward is addressed. III. Conclusion Symbolism found within “The Lottery” and “Young Goodman Brown” Melissa A. Reeves Liberty University Professor Andrew Smith 08/03/2014 Symbolism is found within both stories “The Lottery” and “Young Goodman Brown”. In both stories, symbols help in conveying the theme to the reader. In Shirley Jackson’s...

Words: 1043 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Compare Contrast

...Compare Contrast Paper How is it that things so different can be so similar at the same time. Its really quite an amazing thing if you look at it. One of these amazing comparisons is the one between night and day. Such simple things constantly flying by use but rarely admired for what they hold. They have many clear differences but they are more alike than you might think. Day is beautiful full of the light and warmth from the sun. The world is full of brilliant bright colors that draw you attention.The sky above is an amazing blue bright and inviting. The day is warm inviting bright and busy with everything going on. It's noisy everyone has a place to be something always has to be done. The world moves quickly through the day. Night on...

Words: 350 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Compare and Contrast

...Comparison and Contrast essay about gender. Most children grow up and develop their own personalities. In this essay, I will indicate the similarities and differences I have found within two toddlers and their characteristics. Taylor a 3-year-old girl and Savien a 2-year-old boy about to turn three. Savien and Taylor are wonderful kids that love to play all the time. Taylor is a quiet, shy, active, happy, organize, and an attentive type of child. She likes to observe people before she plays or talks to them. She likes to sit in the corner while watching TV and she doesn’t speak much. If you don’t ask her if she is hungry she won’t tell you because she is a very introverted child. Furthermore, she likes dolls, and she plays with them carefully. She also likes to play cars with Savien but she always put them back where they belong after she plays with them, unlike Savien. She is a very active child but likes to play quietly unlike Savien who plays loudly. Taylor is a happy child and a good friend of Savien. Savien is a very destructive, aggressive, active, nosy, happy, messy, and talkative child. He plays with his toys recklessly. Every time he plays with his toys they get damaged or lost. He doesn’t care about them but he likes to play with them. He is a very messy child that plays and leaves his toys everywhere. He likes to play in a more aggressive manner than Taylor, punching and fighting more so. He at times plays rough with Taylor and does not understand that he could...

Words: 425 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Compare and Contrast

...Descriptive versus Narrative This essay is to compare-contrast a narrative and descriptive essay The essays I chose were, “Are the Rich Happy?” written by Stephen Leacock (1916) for the narrative essay and “Homeless” written by Anna Quindlen (n.d.) for the descriptive essay. The title of both essays is what caught my eye and the reason why I read them. Although, I enjoyed reading both essays, I felt the descriptive essay “Homeless” had more value and was the better read. Therefore, in this essay, I am going to compare/contrast the author’s purpose, the difference in their use of descriptive language, and the impact on the reader’s that each author intended to accomplish through the essay that they wrote. I also plan to show why, in the case of these two essays, I felt that the descriptive essay “Homeless” was the better read. One comparison of these two essays is the descriptive language they use. A narrative essay is written to tell a story. In the essay “Are the Rich Happy?” the author Leacock tells a story of his encounters with people he thought to be rich. He sarcastically tells the story using some vague descriptive language. His descriptions are not such that you can see or feel but, so that you understand who he is talking about, their expressions, and their lifestyles so that you can see the comparison he is making between the rich and the poor. In his essay he speaks of a man who makes fifty thousand dollars a year and has told him with great frankness that it is impossible...

Words: 1559 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Compare and Contrast

...Two Protagonists Compare and Contrast Essay Arthur Jeremy Moore July 15, 2015 GEN220 Sophia Mavrogiannis Two Protagonists; Compare and Contrast Essay There are several charters within iconic novels written for the purpose of individuals to identify with. The main character may be a hero or a villain, male or female, human or animal, but always an interesting character learning about themselves in a way that causes the reader to relate. The most intriguing part about reading is how individuals get lost in the fantasy of a characters role, and manage to finish the book; all while learning so much about one’s self. Changes might need to be made in their life, or acceptance should be attempted for heartache or sorrow; somehow readers find a way to compare themselves to these protagonists and mold the fantasy they are reading within their own reality. (Duke, 2010). There are two iconic novel characters who stand out in a way most individuals can relate to. Holden Caulfield and young Ralph. When we cannot hold onto our youth and we must watch it slip away, do we as humans embrace the changes or fight it every step of the way? The Catcher in the Rye, written by J.D. Salinger, was published in 1951. Holden Caulfield is a young male character who is obsessed with the loss of his youth. Similar to Caulfield is young Ralph, a character portrayed in the 1954 novel, as The Lord of the Flies iconic protagonist. Ralph is a twelve-year-old English boy who is elected leader of a group...

Words: 1069 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Compare and Contrast

...GE 117 Compare and Contrast Essay 05/20/2014 Marriage vs. Living Together This essay intends to identify some differences on marriage versus living single. In more recent generations, men and women have argued this amongst each other for what seems like eternity. Traditionally, a man meets a woman or vice versa, they get to know each other then eventually decide to get married and live their lives together. There seems to be a recent trend toward people staying single. I am one hundred percent certain that every man and woman has lived the single life at one point or the other and that lifestyle came with many ups and downs. Freedom in ones’ personal space is probably the greatest selling point of being single. No one can truly explain the joy in having the freedom to leave and return home whenever they chose to. Being able to go out whenever and wherever you want is an added bonus. Being single offers people the idea of non-commitment so they can be free to hang out with whomever they desired or date many different people. Being single may be a viable option when it comes to personal finances. Usually single people even single parents do not spend a lot of money on food as such. Frozen dinners or quick to prepare meals like macaroni and cheese are probably on a single person’s menu at home. A single person normally rents an apartment or room as compared to owning a house. Depending on the State in which a single person lives, there may be tax breaks that would profit...

Words: 571 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Compare and Contrast

...Critical Thinking: Compare and Contrast Latrenda Suggs RSC 801, Section L11 Professor Barker Capitol College Abstract The constructs of this paper will compare and contrast the various definitions of critical thinking. Many of the scholarly articles that I have researched for this paper provide insight of various reasoning as to the ideas of what critical thinking means. Although the wording is very different for each definition they seem to overlap each of in a sense. Some of the researchers of these articles read as though they took a deeper reflection of what critical thinking means. Critical thinking is very important for people all of ages. Critical thinking is detrimental to a student’s success. Introduction Critical thinking is essential for students and people in everyday life. Critical thinking skills are what characterizes’ the way a person thinks and learn. Critical thinking is where ideas are formed. Many researchers interpret critical thinking in different ways. Critical thinking can be used in every field such as engineering, teaching, nursing and business. Some people don’t understand truly what critical thinking mean and how to access their full potential. In 2007 a study was conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics which reveals that the United States was behind the curve on critical thinking. Critical thinking methods aren’t being applied in schools as they should be. Students lack problem solving skills which lead to problems with...

Words: 1602 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Compare and Contrast

...PSYC 101 COMPARE AND CONTRAST PAPER November 1, 2012 There are many variations to the way in which God has desired for us to choose a mate and the ways that we actually use. Although many are Christians, we still do not follow very well they ways in which God wants us to choose a mate. God’s view on the subject remains the same. However, the secular world’s views change, sometimes very frequently. In a perfect world, in God’s views, we would select our mate by the proper means. Dating, in the bible, is commonly referred to as courtship. Courtship, by definition, is “the act, period, or art of seeking the love of someone with intent to marry” (www.thefreedictionary.com). You are to make sure you marry a believer or else you risk your how you could raise your children. Also, the wife must submit to her husband, just as the church submits to God, because the man is the head of the relationship. We are to love our spouse, but we are to love God above all others (Matthew 10:37). We must refrain from degrading our bodies with premarital sex and are to “save ourselves” for our husband/wife. Upon marrying, we are considered one and unbreakable in God’s eyes. However, we live in a far from perfect world, a world that involves adultery, jealousy, lying, etc., just to name a few. As imperfect as our world is, often our dating and mating rituals are just as poor. We far too often engage in moral wrongs, like premarital sex, and having children out of wedlock. We, as a society...

Words: 477 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Compare and Contrast

...Compare and Contrast Each form of control system employ different kind of information yet each can emerge at the same time in an organization and involve different conditional factors for appropriate option. Because Apple Company is large it is more formalized and standardized and to guarantee efficient flow of information, rules, and polices are developed through trial and error to regulate behaviors. The primary purpose of bureaucratic control is to standardize and control employee behavior. It usually involves heavy behavior control and deals with medium scope and variety of information, which is achieved with formalized rules and procedures. It usually deters subordinate involvement. The application of this control system, in Apple requires no standard outputs, not necessary external benchmark of performance. The managers must know very well the work process that they manage. Market Control system arises when price competition is used to estimate the production and output of an organization. Top managers almost always apply the price method to evaluate performance to different years and with other business. The use of market control requires that outputs ne sufficiently explicit for a price to be assigned and that competition exists. Without competition the price will not accurately reflect internal efficiency. Market control system is most often applied in the sales and marketing department. Apple uses a market control system in...

Words: 486 - Pages: 2