Free Essay

Compare Children’s Images in Western and Chinese Children’s Fantasy Literature

In: English and Literature

Submitted By tiffslc
Words 1773
Pages 8
CLB 9003 Cross-cultural Studies of Children's Fantasy Literature (1st Term, 2013-14)

Term Paper

“Compare children’s images in Western and Chinese children’s fantasy literature”

Name : So Lok Ching

Student ID :4028177

Instructor : Dr Tong Man

The development of Western and Chinese children’s fantasy literature varies a lot. Western children’s fantasy literature has a much earlier development process. In Ancient Greece and Rome, there was no distinction between children and adult’s literature, children and adults shared the same literature. Until the 18th century, a remarkable French philosopher, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, believed that every child has a unique value and children should not be seen as immature adults. He also emphasized the importance of moral development in his writing ‘Emile’, in which he believed it could be performed by living a simple life. Rousseau’s ideas had a major influence on the development of children’s literature. People raised awareness about children and children’s fantasy literature was flourishing in the 19th century. In this Golden Age, different varieties of children’s fantasy literature were written to entertain children, such as modern fantasy stories and adventure stories. The naughty image of children could be shown in many adventure stories as well, such as ‘The Adventures of Tom Sawyer’ (1876) by Mark Twain and ‘The Adventures of Pinocchio’ (1883) by Carlo Collodi. Up to the 20th century and recent decades, Naughty main characters are typical and common in children’s adventure stories, they are appealing and popular to young readers as well, for example ‘Charlie and the Chocolate Factory’ (1964) by Roald Dahl.
On the other hand, Chinese children’s fantasy literature had a rather short history of development. Before the 20th century, children’s fantasy literature did not exist in China. Until the Inter-war Period (1921-1937), Chinese children’s literature eventually blossomed. During the May Fourth period in 1919, there was a large-scale introduction of Western children’s literature in China. With many translated pieces of western children’s literature by Lu Xun and Zhou Zuoren at that time, the Chinese authors were inspired by the western children’s literature and started to create their own ones. ‘The Scarecrow’(1923) by Ye Shengtao was regarded as the first book in China’s new children’s literature. Until 1996, ‘Feng Kuang Lu Ci Wei’ written by Peng Yi was the first published children’s fantasy literature in China. ‘Journey to the West’ is one of the most popular adventure stories in China. When it was first written during the Ming Dynasty (the 16th century) , it was not especially created for young readers, and it is one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature. In 2011, Bai Bin rewrote ‘Journey to the West’, he only kept the adventure plots of the story. Without the complicated details of the story and difficult language, it is more attractive and suitable for children to read. The main character is a human-like monkey with a naughty personality, which is also a charming part of the story.

‘The Adventures of Tom Sawyer’ is about the exciting adventures of Tom and his friends. Without living as an ordinary and hardworking school kid, Tom likes playing and exploring with his companions, he even looks for treasures with them. ‘Journey to the West’ is about Sun Wukong(Monkey King)’s adventurous journey to the Western Land to obtain the Buddhist scriptures, together with his master Tang Sanzang and his fellows who are called Zhu Bajie (Pigsy) and Sha Seng (Sand Monk). ‘The Adventures of Tom Sawyer’ and ‘Journey to the West’ are both well-known and popular adventure stories of Western and Chinese children’s fantasy literature respectively, the personalities of the main characters are similar in both of the stories as well. Children’s images in Western and Chinese children’s fantasy literature will be compared with reference to these two adventure stories as follows.
Firstly, ‘The Adventures of Tom Sawyer’ and ‘Journey to the West’ express the playful image of children. Sigmund Freud, who is best known for his study of children’s psychology, expressed his ideas that the pleasure principle is the most basic principle of life, children tend to seek immediate pleasure and fulfill the needs of happiness through playing. The playful image of children is well expressed in these two stories. For example, Tom Sawyer (Tom) ,the main character of ‘The Adventures of Tom Sawyer’, is a naughty and outgoing kid who loves playing a lot. One day, Tom and his friends Joe Harper act as generals, the other boys act as soldiers, they have a fighting battle in the town square. In the classroom, they also teased the lice. Moreover, Tom and Joe take turns to play the role of Robin Hood in the forest. Tom even had an adventurous journey with his beloved girl Becky in the cave. It shows that Tom’s ideas of playing are very creative, with different kinds of tricks. Furthermore, the playful image of Monkey King, the main character of ‘Journey to the West’ can be shown in these plots, such as playing a prank to the Dragon King in the Dragon Palace, having fun with other monkeys in the Mountain of Flowers, flying into Princess Iron Fan’s stomach as an insect to play tricks on her. It shows that the main characters of both of the stories are naughty and playful, almost every part all of their daily lives are related to playing.
Secondly, children’s reluctance to be governed by social rules and their yearning for freedom can be shown in these two stories. For instance, Tom is full of resentful of the boring homework and the hypocritical adults. He always violates the school rules and even skips classes. Also, he doesn’t obey Aunt Polly, he likes sneaking out to swim and hang around in midnights. Besides, he doesn’t obey the rules of Sunday School in church since he is unwilling to memorize the Bible. Tom enjoys living a life full of freedom and without any limitations. Thus, he slips away to a desert island with his friends, so that he can become a ‘pirate’ leisurely. In addition, Monkey King creates havocs in the heavenly court and in the land of darkness (Chinese Hell). Making a mess in both the heaven and the hell, it is really impudent and impolite. After meeting his master Tang Sanzang, he does not obey his master at all. When he hurts the thieves accidentally and getting scolded by his master, he is unwilling to admit his fault and leaves his master alone. It is clear that Tom and Monkey King are unwilling to be controlled by the social norms and they just want to live freely as they want.
Although children long for freedom, they have to grow up and be a part of the society eventually. Thus, Tom gives up his free life as a pirate in the island and returns to the small town he used to live. He overcomes fear and weakness, telling the truth of a murder in the court bravely in order to save the life of innocent Potter. His bravery and calmness can be shown when he lost his way in the cave as well. At last, he has the same idea with the adults, he even persuades Huck to accept the wealthy widow’s adoption in order to have a better future. It shows that Tom has grown up from a naughty child towards an adult. Besides, Monkey King overcomes many difficulties during his adventure to obtain the Buddhist scriptures in the Western Land. He eventually listens to his master and Bodhisattva’s teachings. After suffering from the miseries and being bound by his master’s golden cudgel, he ultimately can complete the mission and being praised by the Jade Emperor, who is the ruler of Heaven. It shows that Monkey King becomes more mature and gains success. Thus, it can be seen that children have to grow up and get involved in the society inevitably.
Besides the similarities of children’s images in Western and Chinese children’s fantasy literature mentioned above, there are differences in ethics, value judgments, education and entertaining purposes due to the divergence of Western and Chinese cultures. The differences can be shown in the children’s images in these two stories.
At first, children’s images in the two stories reflect different ethics and value judgments in Western and Chinese cultures. Confucian values place a great impact on Chinese culture, especially Confucius’s saying of ‘The lords in position behave the way it should, the subjects behave like a subject should, father behave like a father should, son behave like what a son should." It shows the emphasis on social orders and norms, treasuring the interests of the whole society instead of pursuing individual’s own good. In addition, there is a spread of Buddhism in China. Those can be shown from the obedience of Monkey King after being bound by his master’s golden cudgel, Monkey King’s mission to obtain the Buddhist scriptures together with his master is not for pursuing his own benefits, but to protect the interests of the whole country through obtaining the Buddhist scriptures. Thus, Monkey King becomes successful through completing the mission since he can protect the whole nation after that. On the other hand, Western culture emphasizes individualism, places importance on fulfilling individual’s wants and happiness. Thus, Tom yearns for individual prestige, wealth and romance. Eventually, he obtained reputation, valuable treasures and Becky’s love. It shows that success is linked up to individualism in the story, in Western culture as well.
Moreover, children’s images in the two stories place different levels of importance on education and entertaining purposes. Western culture respects personalities. Without many limitations, Tom nearly gains success through his own bravery and intelligence. However, Chinese culture believes ‘Nothing can be accomplished without norms.’ In ‘Journey to the West’, Monkey King receives more strict education than Tom. After being tied around by the golden cudgel, he is forced to obey his master’s teachings without his own willingness. Also, Monkey King’s master and Bodhisattva teach him, as well as admonish him very often. It is clear that the naughty image of Monkey King has a more important role of educating children than to entertain them, but the naughty image and more playful and exciting adventures of Tom emphasize more on entertaining children rather than educating them.
To conclude, children’s images in ‘The Adventure of Tom Sawyer’ and ‘Journey to the West’ are different in ethics, value judgments, education and entertaining purposes due to the divergence of Western and Chinese cultures. However, there are some similarities of the two stories, such as the playful image of children, children’s yearning for freedom and children’s inevitable growing up in reality.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Impulsive Buying Behavior in City Shop Dissertation

...Center of International Programs International Cultural Exchange School Donghua University Undergraduate Research Project: Motivations for impulsive buying behavior and the effective marketing strategies selling grocery products Case: CITY SHOP By: Ilja Khanan Nationality: Germany Major Business Administration Student ID: 113110246 Supervisor: Nikola Zivlak Date: June 2014 Abstract For over sixty years, marketers and consumer researchers have studied Impulsive-buying behavior. Today, 30 to 60% of all purchases are impulsive in the USA (Crawford & Melewar 2003) for different product categories and it is considered to have a $4.2 billion annual volume. That’s why it is becoming more important for marketers to understand how people can be influenced when shopping in order to increase revenues and profits. Millions of dollars are spent on in-store marketing efforts. Over the years, different models have been created for marketers to better understand the key drivers that lead to impulsive buying. This dissertation is written for the retailer or marketer who will adjust their marketing strategies to capture the opportunities of the consumer impulse purchases. This dissertation focuses on City shop and the strategies they use to encourage impulsive buying behavior. The thesis will cover the following topics in regard to impulsive buying: - Factors and influences that lead to impulsive buying behavior? - The different......

Words: 14303 - Pages: 58

Free Essay

Professional Reviews

...American Pop: Popular Culture Decade by Decade. Ed. Bob Bacthelor. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press 2009. 978-0-313- 34410-7. 4 vol. 1,604p. $375.00. Gr. 9-12. This four volume set gives students a broad and interdisciplinary overview of the many and varied aspects of pop culture across America from 1900 to the present. The volumes cover the following chronological periods: V 1. 1900-1929, V 2. 1930-1959, V 3. 1960-1989 and Vol. 4. 1990-Present. There is an Introduction for each volume focusing on the major issues during that period. There is a Timeline of events for the decade which gives extra oversight and content to the study of the period and an Overview of each dcade. Chapters focus on specific areas of pop culture (Advertising, Books, Entertainment, Fashion, Food Music and much more) supplemented with sidebars containing stories, photos, illustrations and Notable information. There are endnotes for each decade and a Resource Guide and Index. Volume 4 also contains a Cost of Products from 1900-2000, and an Appendix with Classroom Resources for teachers and students and a Cumulative Index. Students, teachers and the general reader will love sifting through the experiences of Americans as they easily follow the crazes, technological breakthroughs and the experiences of art, entertainment, sports and other cultural forces and events that influenced each generation. Reference– Popular Culture ...

Words: 13674 - Pages: 55

Premium Essay

Book

...Educational Psychology: Developing Learners This is a protected document. Please enter your ANGEL username and password. Username: Password: Login Need assistance logging in? Click here! If you experience any technical difficulty or have any technical questions, please contact technical support during the following hours: M-F, 6am-12am MST or Sat-Sun, 7am-12am MST by phone at (800) 800-9776 ext. 7200 or submit a ticket online by visiting http://help.gcu.edu. Doc ID: 1009-0001-158C-0000158D Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Professor Emerita, University of Northern Colorado University of New Hampshire ISBN 0-558-65860-1 Boston ● Columbus ● Indianapolis ● New York ● San Francisco ● Upper Saddle River Amsterdam ● Cape Town ● Dubai ● London ● Madrid ● Milan ● Munich ● Paris ● Montreal ● Toronto Delhi ● Mexico City ● Sao Paula ● Sydney ● Hong Kong ● Seoul ● Singapore ● Taipei ● Tokyo Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, Seventh Edition, by Jeanne Ellis Ormrod. Published by Allyn & Bacon. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Editor-in-Chief: Paul A. Smith Development Editor: Christina Robb Editorial Assistant: Matthew Buchholz Vice President, Director of Marketing: Quinn Perkson Marketing Manager: Jared Brueckner Production Editor: Annette Joseph Editorial Production Service: Marty Tenney, Modern Graphics, Inc. Manufacturing Buyer: Megan Cochran Electronic Composition: Modern Graphics, Inc. Interior Design: Denise Hoffman, Glenview Studios......

Words: 101358 - Pages: 406

Free Essay

Art and Story Proceedings 2004

...and Commentary in Emil Nolde’s Legend: St. Mary of Egypt…… William B. Sieger A Narrative of Belonging: The Art of Beauford Delaney and Glenn Ligon…………… Catherine St. John Art and Narrative Under the Third Reich ……………………………………………… Ashley Labrie 28 15 1 22 25 27 36 43 51 Hopper Stories in an Imaginary Museum……………………………………………. Joseph Stanton SECTION FOUR: Photography and Narrative Black & White: Two Worlds/Two Distinct Stories……………………………………….. Elaine A. King Relinquishing His Own Story: Abandonment and Appropriation in the Edward Weston Narrative………………………………………………………………………….. David Peeler Narrative Stretegies in the Worlds of Jean Le Gac and Sophe Calle…………………….. Stefanie Rentsch SECTION FIVE: Memory Does The History of Western Art Tell a Grand Story?…………………………………… Eugene E. Selk Storylines………………………………………………………………………………… Bozenna Wisniewsak SECTION SIX: Art and Identity Two Late Crisis Paintings by Van Gogh………………………………………………….. Robert Wauhkonen Personal Stories and the Intransigent Critic…………………………………………….. Charles S. Mayer The Role or Story in the Development of a...

Words: 117240 - Pages: 469

Free Essay

Momoland

...Complex Systems in Education CSE ESSAYS COURSE Complex Course on Writing English and American Essays for Advanced Students English Language Programs Division Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs Writing 2 United States Information Agency, Washington, D. C. 1999 2 3 How to Use this Complex Course Частные уроки Английского Языка 387-1231 MIND Speaks to MIND – Selected American Essays 4 Preface Some years ago, a visitor to our office, a professor of English at a large foreign university, asked if the English Language Programs Division had published a book of American essays for foreign students – especially students at the advanced level. Having to respond in the negative, I was, nonetheless, “intrigued” by the idea of a collection of essays that would form a source of stimulating ideas or thoughts that could be thoroughly examined in the EFL classroom, discussed and debated in free conversation, and perhaps, ultimately, lead to a significant growth in the exchange of information between cultures – via the printed page. From this rationale, then, there issues an explanation for the title, Mind Speaks to Mind, which itself is an “exchange of information” between the editor and Edward Hoagland in his essay, “On Essays”! And, readers are encouraged to study this essay first as a type of guideline concerning the nature/purpose of the essay. It is found on page 26. For ease of reference, the essays are presented in alphabetical order......

Words: 42425 - Pages: 170

Free Essay

Cross Cultural in China

...Expatriates in China Experiences, Opportunities and Challenges Ilaria Boncori ISBN: 9781137293473 DOI: 10.1057/9781137293473 Palgrave Macmillan Please respect intellectual property rights This material is copyright and its use is restricted by our standard site license terms and conditions (see palgraveconnect.com/pc/connect/info/terms_conditions.html). If you plan to copy, distribute or share in any format, including, for the avoidance of doubt, posting on websites, you need the express prior permission of Palgrave Macmillan. To request permission please contact rights@palgrave.com. Expatriates in China Experiences, Opportunities and Challenges Ilaria Boncori Expatriates in China 10.1057/9781137293473 - Expatriates in China, Ilaria Boncori Copyright material from www.palgraveconnect.com - licensed to University of Wollongong - PalgraveConnect - 2014-05-17 This page intentionally left blank 10.1057/9781137293473 - Expatriates in China, Ilaria Boncori Copyright material from www.palgraveconnect.com - licensed to University of Wollongong - PalgraveConnect - 2014-05-17 Expatriates in China Experiences, Opportunities and Challenges Ilaria Boncori University of Essex, UK Copyright material from www.palgraveconnect.com - licensed to University of Wollongong - PalgraveConnect - 2014-05-17 10.1057/9781137293473 - Expatriates in China, Ilaria Boncori © Ilaria Boncori 2013 Foreword © Heather Höpfl 2013 All rights reserved. No reproduction...

Words: 104917 - Pages: 420

Free Essay

Phsychology

...Mexico City São Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, Eighth Edition, by Jeanne Ellis Ormrod. Published by Pearson. Copyright © 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. Vice President and Editorial Director: Jeffery W.  Johnston Vice President and Publisher: Kevin Davis Editorial Assistant: Lauren Carlson Development Editor: Christina Robb Vice President, Director of Marketing: Margaret Waples Marketing Manager: Joanna Sabella Senior Managing Editor: Pamela D. Bennett Project Manager: Kerry Rubadue Senior Operations Supervisor: Matthew Ottenweller Senior Art Director: Diane Lorenzo Text Designer: Candace Rowley Cover Designer: Candace Rowley Media Project Manager: Noelle Chun Cover Image: © Purestock / Alamy Full‐Service Project Management: Jouve North America Composition: Jouve North America Printer/Binder: Courier / Kendallvile Cover Printer: Lehigh-Phoenix Color / Hagerstown Text Font: Adobe Garamond Pro Credits and acknowledgments for materials borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in...

Words: 244561 - Pages: 979

Free Essay

Estadyguade

...Study Guide to Accompany Meggs’ History of Graphic Design Fourth Edition Prepared by Susan Merritt Professor and Head of Graphic Design School of Art, Design, and Art History San Diego State University (SDSU) With assistance from Chris McCampbell and Jenny Yoshida John Wiley & Sons, Inc. i DISCLAIMER The information in this book has been derived and extracted from a multitude of sources including building codes, fire codes, industry codes and standards, manufacturer’s literature, engineering reference works, and personal professional experience. It is presented in good faith. Although the authors and the publisher have made every reasonable effort to make the information presented accurate and authoritative, they do not warrant, and assume no liability for, its accuracy or completeness or fitness for any specific purpose. The information is intended primarily as a learning and teaching aid, and not as a final source of information for the design of building systems by design professionals. It is the responsibility of users to apply their professional knowledge in the application of the information presented in this book, and to consult original sources for current and detailed information as needed, for actual design situations. This book is printed on acid-free paper. Copyright © 2006 by John Wiley and Sons. All rights reserved Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey Published simultaneously in Canada No part of this publication may be......

Words: 54497 - Pages: 218

Free Essay

Ghhg

...Дневник читателя READER’S JOURNAL Ernest Hemingway. The Old Man and the Sea (1952). Joseph Heller. Catch-22 (1961). Tennessee Williams. A Streetcar Named Desire (1959). Iris Murdoch. The Black Prince (1973). Jerome David Salinger. The Catcher in the Rye (1951). Michael Ondaatje. The English Patient (1992). Ray Bradbury. Fahrenheit 451 (1953). Ken Kesey. One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest (1962). Edward Albee. Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1962). Arthur Miller. Death of a Salesman (1949). ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- Ernest Hemingway. The Old Man and the Sea (1952). ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- FULL TITLE · The Old Man and the Sea ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- AUTHOR · Ernest Hemingway ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- TYPE OF WORK · Novella ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- GENRE · Parable; tragedy ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- LANGUAGE · English ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- TIME AND PLACE WRITTEN · 1951,......

Words: 43588 - Pages: 175

Premium Essay

American Ways

...American Ways American Ways A Guide for Foreigners in the United States GARY ALTHEN with Amanda R. Doran and Susan J. Szmania First published by Intercultural Press. For information contact: Intercultural Press, Inc. Nicholas Brealey Publishing PO Box 700 3-5 Spafield Street Yarmouth, Maine 04096 USA London, EC1R 4QB, UK Tel: 207-846-5168 Tel: +44-207-239-0360 Fax: 207-846-5181 Fax: +44-207-239-0370 www.interculturalpress.com www.nbrealey-books.com © 1988, 2003 by Gary Althen Production and cover design by Patty J. Topel All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission from the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles or reviews. Printed in the United States of America 06 05 04 03 02 1 2 3 4 5 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Althen, Gary. American ways: a guide for foreigners in the United States/ Gary Althen.—2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references (p. ) ISBN: 1-877864-99-4 (alk. paper) 1. United States—Guidebooks. 2. United States—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 3. Visitors, Foreign—United States—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 4. Aliens—United States—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 5. Intercultural communication—United States—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 6. United States—Social life and customs—1971– I. Title. E158.A46 2002 973—dc21 2002032741 ✰ ✰ ✰ Table of Contents Preface to the Second Edition........................................

Words: 75796 - Pages: 304

Free Essay

Eqweqeqqe

...Praise for The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down “Fadiman describes with extraordinary skill the colliding worlds of Western medicine and Hmong culture.” —The New Yorker “This fine book recounts a poignant tragedy…It has no heroes or villains, but it has an abundance of innocent suffering, and it most certainly does have a moral…[A] sad, excellent book.” —Melvin Konner, The New York Times Book Review “An intriguing, spirit-lifting, extraordinary exploration of two cultures in uneasy coexistence…A wonderful aspect of Fadiman’s book is her even-handed, detailed presentation of these disparate cultures and divergent views—not with cool, dispassionate fairness but rather with a warm, involved interest that sees and embraces both sides of each issue…Superb, informal cultural anthropology—eye-opening, readable, utterly engaging.” —Carole Horn, The Washington Post Book World “This is a book that should be deeply disturbing to anyone who has given so much as a moment’s thought to the state of American medicine. But it is much more…People are presented as [Fadiman] saw them, in their humility and their frailty—and their nobility.” —Sherwin B. Nuland, The New Republic 3/462 “Anne Fadiman’s phenomenal first book, The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, brings to life the enduring power of parental love in an impoverished refugee family struggling to protect their seriously ill infant daughter and ancient spiritual traditions from the tyranny of welfare bureaucrats and......

Words: 134140 - Pages: 537

Free Essay

Longman

...Instructor’s Manual to Accompany The Longman Writer Rhetoric, Reader, Handbook Fifth Edition and The Longman Writer Rhetoric and Reader Fifth Edition Brief Edition Judith Nadell Linda McMeniman Rowan University John Langan Atlantic Cape Community College Prepared by: Eliza A. Comodromos Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey New York San Francisco Boston London Toronto Sydney Tokyo Singapore Madrid Mexico City Munich Paris Cape Town Hong Kong Montreal NOTE REGARDING WEBSITES AND PASSWORDS: If you need a password to access instructor supplements on a Longman book-specific website, please use the following information: Username: Password: awlbook adopt Senior Acquisitions Editor: Joseph Opiela Senior Supplements Editor: Donna Campion Electronic Page Makeup: Big Color Systems, Inc. Instructor’s Manual to accompany The Longman Writer: Rhetoric, Reader, Handbook, 5e and The Longman Writer: Rhetoric and Reader, Brief Edition, 5e, by Nadell/McMeniman/Langan and Comodromos Copyright ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Instructors may reproduce portions of this book for classroom use only. All other reproductions are strictly prohibited without prior permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Please visit our website at: http://www.ablongman.com ISBN: 0-321-13157-6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 - D O H - 05 04 03 02 CONTENTS ...

Words: 78100 - Pages: 313

Premium Essay

Unesco

...Changing Legal and Regulatory Ecology Shaping the Internet     by       William H. Dutton   Anna Dopatka   Michael Hills   Ginette Law   and   Victoria Nash       Oxford Internet Institute   University of Oxford   1 St Giles Oxford OX1 3JS   United Kingdom                                     19 August 2010         A report prepared for UNESCO’s Division for Freedom of Expression, Democracy and Peace. The opinions expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UNESCO or its Division for Freedom of Expression, Democracy and Peace.   Preface As stated in its Constitution, UNESCO is dedicated to “Promoting the free flow of ideas by word and image”. Part of this mission, therefore, is to promote freedom of expression and freedom of the press through sensitization and monitoring activities, as a central element in building strong democracies, contributing to good governance, promoting civic participation and the rule of law, and encouraging human development and security. Media independence and pluralism are fostered by the Organization, providing advisory services on media legislation and sensitizing governments and parliamentarians, as well as civil society and relevant professional associations. However, UNESCO recognizes that the principle of freedom of expression must apply not only to traditional media, but also to the Internet. Providing an unprecedented......

Words: 39228 - Pages: 157

Premium Essay

Will Do Next Time

...Instructor’s Manual and Test Bank to accompany A First Look at Communication Theory Sixth Edition Em Griffin Wheaton College prepared by Glen McClish San Diego State University and Emily J. Langan Wheaton College Published by McGraw­Hill, an imprint of The McGraw­Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright Ó 2006,  2003, 2000, 1997, 1994, 1991 by The McGraw­Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The contents, or parts thereof, may be reproduced in print form  solely for classroom use with A First Look At Communication Theory provided such reproductions bear copyright notice, but may not be reproduced in  any other form or for any other purpose without the prior written consent of The McGraw­Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any  network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. PREFACE Rationale We agreed to produce the instructor’s manual for the sixth edition of A First Look at Communication Theory because it’s a first-rate book and because we enjoy talking and writing about pedagogy. Yet when we recall the discussions we’ve had with colleagues about instructor’s manuals over the years, two unnerving comments stick with us: “I don’t find them much help”; and (even worse) “I never look at them.” And, if the truth be told, we were often the people making such points! With these statements in mind, we have done some serious soul-searching about the texts that so many......

Words: 159106 - Pages: 637

Free Essay

The Outline of English Literature

...Министерство образования и науки Республики Казахстан Кокшетауский государственный университет им. Ш. Уалиханова An Outline of British Literature (from tradition to post modernism) Кокшетау 2011 УДК 802.0 – 5:20 ББК 81:432.1-923 № 39 Рекомендовано к печати кафедрой английского языка и МП КГУ им. Ш. Уалиханова, Ученым Советом филологического факультета КГУ им. Ш. Уалиханова, УМС КГУ им. Ш. Уалиханова. Рецензенты: Баяндина С.Ж. доктор филологических наук, профессор, декан филологического факультета КГУ им. Ш. Уалиханова Батаева Ф.А. кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры «Переводческое дело» Кокшетауского университета им. А. Мырзахметова Кожанова К.Т. преподаватель английского языка кафедры гуманитарного цикла ИПК и ПРО Акмолинской области An Outline of British Literature from tradition to post modernism (on specialties 050119 – “Foreign Language: Two Foreign Languages”, 050205 – “Foreign Philology” and 050207 – “Translation”): Учебное пособие / Сост. Немченко Н.Ф. – Кокшетау: Типография КГУ им. Ш. Уалиханова, 2010 – 170 с. ISBN 9965-19-350-9 Пособие представляет собой краткие очерки, характеризующие английскую литературу Великобритании, ее основные направления и тенденции. Все известные направления в литературе иллюстрированы примерами жизни и творчества авторов, вошедших в мировую литературу......

Words: 82733 - Pages: 331