Comparing Ethical Attitudes Across Cultures

In: Business and Management

Submitted By gsds
Words 615
Pages 3
Comparing Ethical Attitudes Across Cultures
As we all know, it is very common for businesses to interact with companies in other countries. It is found that a major difference in culture is the ethics found in different countries. Although, many different countries share views on the ethics of business, there still are many significant differences in opinion found among different countries' opinions regarding business ethics.
There were many tests and samples done in South Africa, Turkey, Israel, USA, Western Australia that were compared to more recent studies done in Jamaica, and the West Indies. Researchers compared the countries' cultures using Hofstede's four dimensions of National culture: power distance, collectivist vs individualist, femininity vs masculinity, and uncertain avoidance.
The researchers then gathered employee attitudes towards business ethics from a sample of people in each country. Some examples of things on the questionnaire are “The only moral of business is making money” or “I view sick days as vacation days that I deserve” etc.
The results suggested that the people in Jamaica and West Indies had similar views on business ethics to those living in Western Australia. Taking it a step further, they found that both Australia and Jamaica scored moderately on power distance and on masculine culture.
USA culture received a score similar to the Australian culture on all four of Hofstede's dimensions, yet Jamaica's attitudes of business ethics were extremely different towards the attitudes of those in USA. This shows that Hofstede's dimensions of national culture doesn't include the attitudes towards business ethics.
The Turkish and Israeli respondents feel more strongly than the Jamaican respondents that businesses are exempt from the common moral actions a person would behave with. For example “Moral values are irrelevant to the business…...

Similar Documents

Attitude

... an ongoing, collaborative management of organizational culture-with special emphasis on the consultant-facilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioural science, including participant action research."   (French & Bell, 1999) Importance of change in Organisation Development. There is no specific definition of change, however change is constant within organisation and it can be define by adding, replacing, repositioning or implementing strategies within organisation. “Change is the law of life. And those who look only to the past or present are certain to miss the future.” John F. Kennedy (American President, 1961) It is not possible for organisation to be consistence profitable using same strategy for year long, change is essential part towards organisation development. In current environment changes are necessary for organisation to stay ahead of competition. Policies, procedures and rules are changing frequently to keep organisation efficient, profitable and competitive. Individual attitudes toward organizational change is emerging one of the most important factors in Organisation development. Managing change effectively is one of the biggest challenges for management; managers must understand factors affecting employee’s motivation in change situation and successfully implementing change for organisation development. Importance of effective staffing Modern organizations struggle with staffing challenges and staffing effectively......

Words: 1538 - Pages: 7

Comparing Ethical Attitudes Across Cultures

...Comparing Ethical Attitudes Across Cultures As we all know, it is very common for businesses to interact with companies in other countries. It is found that a major difference in culture is the ethics found in different countries. Although, many different countries share views on the ethics of business, there still are many significant differences in opinion found among different countries' opinions regarding business ethics. There were many tests and samples done in South Africa, Turkey, Israel, USA, Western Australia that were compared to more recent studies done in Jamaica, and the West Indies. Researchers compared the countries' cultures using Hofstede's four dimensions of National culture: power distance, collectivist vs individualist, femininity vs masculinity, and uncertain avoidance. The researchers then gathered employee attitudes towards business ethics from a sample of people in each country. Some examples of things on the questionnaire are “The only moral of business is making money” or “I view sick days as vacation days that I deserve” etc. The results suggested that the people in Jamaica and West Indies had similar views on business ethics to those living in Western Australia. Taking it a step further, they found that both Australia and Jamaica scored moderately on power distance and on masculine culture. USA culture received a score similar to the Australian culture on all four of Hofstede's dimensions, yet Jamaica's attitudes of business ethics were...

Words: 615 - Pages: 3

Attitude

...ATTUTUDE Attitudes are generally positive or negative views of a person, place, thing, or event— this is often referred to as the attitude object. People can also be conflicted or ambivalent toward an object, meaning that they simultaneously possess both positive and negative attitudes toward the item in question. First person who came to my mind with a really positive attitude is my cousin Navin Yadav. He has aura around him that makes one feel happy and energetic, so I decided to interview him. Questions I asked him are:- ME:- What is the worst thing that ever happened to you when you were in junior high or high school in these areas: work, relationships, family, school, sports, or other extracurricular activities? How did you feel about it and how did you deal with it? Navin: - I have problem in remembering thing, my memory betrays me most of the time. This problem mad me bad in studies and more over I was really good at sports, especially cricket. I used to score badly but never felt bad because all I loved was cricket. As I reached class 10th I got selected to play for a stadium team of Gurgaon, but my parents didn’t allowed me to join them and asked me to study hard as it was a board class. I felt heartbroken that day and just wanted to do nothing. As the year passed I scored well in studies but was never happy about it. Then in 11th standard they made me go for biology but I was a maths guy. I started to live saddened and just allowed to my life to...

Words: 442 - Pages: 2

Attitude

...Attitude Attitude is very important in the workplace. A good attitude is very helpful and most productive. Some of the pros for attitude in the work place are, being kind, it makes talking and confiding in you easy for the patients. Being soft spoken can help settle the nerves of an anxious patient. Having a positive attitude can make your coworkers and patients feel at ease and make the feel of the office relaxing and cheery. If you bring a good/positive attitude to the workplace is almost guaranteed to make for a happy and enjoyable workday. The cons of attitude in the workplace can very not all cons are negative. A good con of attitude in the workplace would be over excited, that could also bring a cheery feeling to the office and bring someone else out of a bad mood, but, it can also irritate your coworkers and make for a hostile workplace. Bringing your home problems to work with you can cause for a rough work day. A bad attitude can turn patients away from you office and into a different office, which hurts your office and takes money away from them. By having a negative attitude you can push coworkers away as well leaving you with extra work because someone quit. All in all if you bring a happy/positive attitude to your workplace more than likely it will run smoothly and you can make someone’s day better. Attitudes are contagious if you have a positive attitude it will rub off on someone and they will feel more at ease and more corporative. If you have a......

Words: 288 - Pages: 2

Attitude

.... Our attitudes are not completely clear to us, so we observe our own behaviour to make inferences about it to determine what our behaviour should be. ATTITUDE CHANGE Changing the attitude of an individual will base on communication techniques. Such communication techniques when designed by one source in a direct attempt to influence the attitude of another of another, is the method of persuasion. Therefore persuasion is the direct attempt to influence the attitude of another through communication techniques. The effectiveness of persuasion depends on the factors such as 1. Source of the message: if the communicator is knowledgeable and trustworthy, the audience is obviously more likely to be convinced. 2. Audience : the kind of people getting the message (old, adult or young ones) 3. The type of message that is been sent to a particular people. 4. The technology used to send the message across. T.V, radio, internet etc. 5. The model that is proposed to explain emotional and rational appeal is the elaborating likelihood model. A. The central route engages someone thoughtful. E.g. commercials. B. The peripheral route involves non message factor such as the source credibility and attractiveness or emotional appeals. It is effective when people are not paying close attention to what you are saying. (Lammers 2000) In a nutshell, attitude may change because of intellectual re-evaluations, pressure. Whether a given message changes an attitude depend on the......

Words: 1244 - Pages: 5

Divine Roles Across Culture Matrix

...Divine Roles Across Cultures Matrix Darlene Teresa Lewis HUM/105 October 3, 2013 Dr. Nancy Kennedy Divine Roles Across Cultures Matrix Title: | Column ADivinity Name: ZeusCulture of Origin: Greek | Column BDivinity Name: God RulerCulture of Origin: War | 1. How is this divinity portrayed? Describe the divinity’s role within the myth. | Zeus was the ruler of all the Olympian gods and master of all men. He is also the lord of the sky, light, winds, clouds, thunder, rain and other atmospheric phenomena. He is represented as the god of justice and mercy, the protector of the weak, and the punisher of the wicked. Not surprisingly for the god of rain, he’s married to Hera (the goddess of the Earth). | | 2. Is the divinity male or female? What function does this gender play? | | | 3. Within the myth of origin, how does this divinity compare with other divinities? How does this divinity interact with or compare to divinities of the same gender and to divinities of the opposite gender? | | | 4. What are the divinity’s attributes, such as divine powers or characteristics? What objects does the divinity possess, such as a weapon or animal, that assist him or her? | | | 5. Identify one character from contemporary culture that shares characteristics of each divinity and explain why you chose each character. What real-life ideals does this divine role represent? How attainable are these ideals? | | | | | | Summary: Write a 150- to......

Words: 252 - Pages: 2

Managing Across Culture

... employee attitudes and values for more than 100,000 individual from the year 1967 to 1973. These data enabled Hofsted to compare dimension of culture across over 40 countries. Hofsted isolated four key dimensions that he claimed summarized different cultures. He created an index score for each of the mentioned dimension that ranged from 0 to 100. These dimensions were * Power distance. This dimension focused on how a society deals with the fact that people are unequal in physical and intellectual capabilities. According to Hofstead high power distance cultures were found in countries that let inequalities grow overtime into inequalities of power and wealth. Low power distance cultures were found in societies that tried to play down such inequalities as much as possible. It also refers to the way in which power is distributed and the extent to which less powerful accept that power is distributed unequally. In simple terms, people in some cultures accept a higher degree of unequally distributed power than do people in other cultures. When in a higher power distance culture the relationship between bosses and subordinates is one of dependence. Countries such as Australia can be considered as low power distance while countries such as Hong Kong will fall under high power distance side of the spectrum. People in high distance countries tend to believe that power and authority are facts of life. Both consciously and unconsciously, these cultures teach their members that...

Words: 2525 - Pages: 11

Attitude

...ATTITUDE OF MALE EMPLOYEES TOWARD FEMALE MANAGERS IN SELECTED ORGANIZATIONS IN GHANA Alexander Preko PhD/CE, Business Studies Department Wisconsin International University College, Ghana, Legon Ghana ABSTRACT The study examines the views of male employees working under female heads in selected organizations in Ghana. The research is significant because it testifies how male negatively regard female heads despite series of both international and national conferences and platforms that advocate for women to assume managerial positions at the workplace. The study employed a case study and descriptive research design. The sample size was 122 respondents from 17 organizations. A purposive random technique was used to select only male employees who have worked or are still working under female heads. Questionnaires and secondary data were used to collect data. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze data which were presented into simple descriptive tables. The study revealed that majority of the male employees (69.5%) preferred to work under male managers and coded managerial positions as masculine position. It is recommended, therefore, that male employees should embrace and integrate female heads in decision making positions, as women now constitute majority of the working population in the world. Keywords: attitudes, influence, managerial position, negative, perceptions, positive. International Refereed Research Journal...

Words: 4678 - Pages: 19

Attitude

...5/22/2015 Attitudes Attitudes What are Attitudes? • The attitude “object” • Attitudes are a learned predisposition • Attitudes have consistency • Attitudes occur within a situation Tricomponent Attitude Model A learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object. Structural Models of Attitudes • Tricomponent Attitude Model • Muliattribute Attitude Model • The Trying-to-Consume Model • Attitude-toward-the-Ad Model The Tricomponent Model • Cognitive Component • The knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by a combination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from various sources. • A consumer belief is a psychological association between a product or brand and an attribute or feature of that product or brand 1 5/22/2015 The Tricomponent Model • Affective Component • A consumer’s emotions or feelings about a particular product or brand. • Purchase decisions are continually influenced by affective response • It is comprised of both our knowledge of stimuli and our evaluations of them Attitude models that examine the composition of consumer attitudes in terms of selected product attributes or beliefs. Multiattribute Attitude Models • Conative Component • The likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object. A model...

Words: 946 - Pages: 4

Divine Roles Across Culture

...University of Phoenix Material Divine Roles Across Cultures Part I Select one common divine role that recurs in world mythology. Possible options of divine roles include the following: father or mother divinities, divinities of war, home or hearth divinities, divinities of love, divinities of wisdom, divinities of medicine or health, divinities of the wind, divinities of agriculture, divinities of the sky, ruler of all the gods, and so on. Identify the role in the title of your table. Select two myths, each from a different culture, in which the divine role appears. Identify the divinity names and cultures in columns A and B. Complete the table by answering each of the five questions for both selected divinities. |Title: |Column A |Column B | | |Divinity Name: Zeus |Divinity Name: Odin | | |Culture of Origin: Greece |Culture of Origin: Norse | |How is this divinity portrayed? Describe the |Zeus is the ruler of the Olympian gods and ruler|Odin is the ruler of all gods. He lives in| |divinity’s role within the myth. |of all men. Zeus is the god of justice and is |the underworld called Valhalla where half...

Words: 1129 - Pages: 5

Attitude

... enables employees to share a better rapport with customers, earning valuable customer loyalty. Negative attitudes are not worthy for the company for a person. Employees that have a negative attitude toward their company are far more likely to be disengaged, fulfilling their jobs with the least amount of work possible and at the lowest quality level. This attitude of disengagement, disconnection and lack of concern for the company's wellbeing is costly to employers by way of lost productivity. Employees with the same skill levels are likely to be many times more productive if they have a positive attitude toward work, and feel connected, committed and invested in the success of the company. Negativity is like a boomerang: It always comes back to you.(Williams G) Likewise, the more you project a positive attitude, the more positivity will come your way. You don’t have to pretend to be someone else. Just recognize the powerful force that is your attitude, and use it to your advantage. In conclusion, a positive attitude at work is beneficial not only to the organization, but also to the employees on an individual basis. Like they say, happy workers happy customers. Employees in their attitude can make or break a company. That is way it is crucial to hire employees with a positive attitude on work and life in general. Bibliography Albarracin, Dolores, Blair T. Johnson, and Mark P. Zanna, eds. The Handbook of Attitudes. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2005. Jacoby, William G.......

Words: 1039 - Pages: 5

Across Culture

..., or how cultural values at the national level interact with individual differences and situational contexts to predict attitudes and behaviors, is a needed wave of the future. Understanding the Cross-Cultural Interface Our review clearly illustrates that much of the research in cross-cultural OB is focused on intracultural comparisons—comparing attitudes and behaviors across cultural groups. Far less attention has been paid to the dynamics of culture in intercultural encounters, or what we would refer to as the “crosscultural interface.” Whether it is differences in motives, justice, negotiation, or leadership, the cross-cultural literature rarely focuses on whether and how cultural differences actually affect intercultural encounters. Theory far outstrips the data even on topics that focus primarily on cultural dynamics, such as in multicultural teams. The next wave of cross-cultural OB research needs to address critical questions regarding cross-cultural interfaces. For example, what are the conditions that help to create third cultures or hybrid cultures in intercultural encounters? Likewise, research is sorely needed on when cultural identities are made salient at the cultural interface and how people negotiate and manage their cultural differences in ways that increase positive outcomes for individuals and organizations. Shifting our attention from intracultural comparisons to the dynamics of cross-cultural interfaces may require a...

Words: 22630 - Pages: 91

Attitude

...Kevin Keliipio Dee Forbes AVS-127 4 October 2015 Learning Goals Response Paper: Guy R. Maher wrote an article titled, “Building the right attitude”. It is a reflection of his experience when Mr. Maher went to the Robinson Safety course, a requirement for pilots that want to become a CFI for any Robinson aircraft. Mr. Maher observed the vast majority of the group had an attitude. The attitude he is talking about is the attitude that they know more than what is being taught. But Mr. Maher went a step further, he asked himself if they act like this here, would they act like this at their profession? This got me thinking of my actions on subjects that I find, “pointless” or topics that I have extensive knowledge in. When I look back to my first week of school, I realize that in every class I enrolled in, I had that “attitude” Mr. Maher wrote about. I thought I knew it all, didn’t give a care in the world to the subject and actually asked to test out of certain classes. My view changed when I was given this assignment. I started to do research on adaptability and how students react to topics they feel will not benefit them in their profession. I found that people who neglect certain topics, generate a routine or habit that limits personal growth. Studies found that people limiting themselves to what they are interested in will neglect opportunities that will impact their chosen field of interest. Like Jim Palmer, a senior HR pilot recruiter said, “it is...

Words: 475 - Pages: 2

Comparing Japanese and American Culture

...American and Japanese Cultures Culture plays a vital role in defining a group of people, helping to shape the way they live, the traditions they carry out, and how they’re viewed by others. That being said, cultures vary greatly worldwide; some customs that are normal to Americans may seem strange to those living in Japan such as entertainment in America and Japan, Respect for Women in American and Japanese Cultures, and The Individual in America and Japan. To begin with, American and Japanese cultures both place an emphasis on film and video as a form of entertainment. In America, it’s not unusual for the media to pay a great deal of attention to new film releases and upcoming television premiers. Similarly Japanese culture focuses on motion pictures for entertainment, mainly through the promotion of “anime,” the Japanese contribution to the animation industry. Much like animated Disney movies are prominent in American culture, anime films are a common appearance in Japanese culture. Anime films are so popular, in fact, that they’re even viewed in the United States, creating a link between American and Japanese culture. America and Japan may share similar interests regarding entertainment, but one must remember that the two countries are at opposite ends of the world, creating differences in the way people live in the two areas. Perhaps the greatest difference between Japanese and American culture is the fact that Americans seem to have more respect for...

Words: 564 - Pages: 3

Ethical Culture and Communication

... being returned in a timely matter, emergency issues where being pushed aside. They also reported that employees were speaking to them in an unprofessional manner as well. If these report and complaint continued to arise I will be on the a very thin line to lose all my property owners. Property owner use my services to solve problem and make being a property owner easier not to create more problem and issues. Losing owner equals to losing money and gain a bad reputation; in which will make it much harder to gain more owners after the fact. Ethical Culture and Communication There’re a couple of things that my company will set in place so unhealthy ethical culture does not continue. Frist thing that will be set in place is creating a survey for all tenant that will be mailed out every 6 months. This survey will consist with questions on the quality is service that we provided to them within the last 6 months. They will also get a chance at the bottom of the survey to write in their own words; what situation was handled in an unprofessional manner. We also would like ideas from them on how we can improve to provide excellent quality service to everyone. Also put in place new rule and regulation for all employee on how to handle all tenants. Also different Time frame and windows on various situation and issue for how quickly complaint need to be handle professionally manner at all times. Those time frame and windows will also be sent out to tenant so they can......

Words: 610 - Pages: 3