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Compelx Sentence

In: English and Literature

Submitted By jokazmaj
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Contents:

Contents 1
1. INTRODUCTION 2
2. SENTENCE TYPES 3
3. IDENTIFICATION OF THE COMPLEX SENTENCES 4
4. TYPES OF COMPLEX SENTENCES 6
5. FINITE CLAUSE 7 5.1 Nominal clause 7 5.2 Adjectival clause 11 5.3 Adverbial clause 13
6. NON-FINITE CLAUSE 16 6.1 Gerund 16 6.2 Infinitive 17 6.3 Participles 18
7. Verbless clause 19
8. CONCLUSION 20
REFERENCES 22

COMPLEX SENTENCES

1. INTRODUCTION
The study of sentence structure is called syntax, and because there is so little variation in the grammatical structure of English words, a syntactic analysis forms the dominant element in a modern English grammar. The area provides the main point of contrast with traditional grammars, which because of their Latinate origins paid little attention to the syntactic properties of sentences. Syntax takes the central part of language between morphology (shape of words) and semantics (which deals with a meaning of word; what are they meaning), however, syntax is the part of grammar which treats of phrases, clauses and sentences.
There are three syntactical units in English language: * Phrase (word); * Clause; * Sentence.
A phrase is a syntactic construction which typically contains more than one word, but which lacks the subject-predicate structure usually found in a clause. Phrases can be divided into endocentric- when a phrase can be replaced by its head and exocentric- when it is not possible. Most of the phrases are endocentric, except prepositional phrase, (rarely some verbal and adjectival phrase). Phrases cannot stand alone and they do not express a complete thought.
There are five types of phrases: nominal, verbal, adjectival, adverbial and prepositional phrase. A clause is the key unit of syntax, capable of occurring independently (i.e. without being part of any other unit). It is useful to think of the clause as a unit that can stand alone as an expression of a ‘complete thought’- that is, a complete description of an event or state of affairs. Hence, many spoken utterances consist of a single clause.A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a predicate. A clause may be either a sentence (an independent clause) or a sentence-like construction within another sentence (a dependent clause).

The traditional definition of a sentence states that a sentence expresses a complete thought. A sentence is a grammatical unit that is syntactically independent and has a subject that is expressed or, as in imperative sentences, understood and a predicate that contains at least one finite verb.
Sentences commonly include a variety of phrases and clauses. A phrase is a closely related group of words that lacks both a subject and a verb. In sentences, phrases act as grammatical units, such as subjects, objects, or modifiers.

2. SENTENCE TYPES

We distinguish according to their function (purpose of communication):

Declarative sentence makes a statement. A declarative sentence ends with a period.

The house will be built on a hill. The dog is barking. The teacher is talking.
Interrogative sentence asks a question. An interrogative sentence ends with a question mark.
Have you made a decision yet?
Imperative sentence gives a command.

Please be quiet. Close the door. Give me a piece of pizza.

Exclamatory sentence shows strong feeling. It ends with an exclamation mark.

The monster is attacking! How boring this lecture is! What a terrible mistake has been made!

Type of sentences according to their structure:

Simple sentence consists of one independent clause.

She has been reading a book all day long. I like to eat chocolate.

Compound sentence has two or more independent clauses, joined by coordinating conjunctions, and no subordinate clauses. Compound sentences are often formed with these coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, yet, so.

Marc played football so Ann went shopping. I am on a diet yet I really want a cookie. Complex-compound sentence combines a compound sentence with a complex sentence. It contains two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses:

Although I like to go camping, I haven't had the time to go lately, and I haven't found anyone to go with.

In the following text the emphasis is on the complex sentences, its structure and function.

3. IDENTIFICATION OF THE COMPLEX SENTENCES

Complex sentences are widely used in English writing and especially in literary works. Since in literary work the writer expresses himself in many kinds of sentences and making complex sentences is more challenging of the very large variety of clauses signals to choose from many combinations.

Complex sentences can be used to judge whether a work is written in a good way or not. By which, the accuracy and variety of the work can be known. Complex sentences are the best means of eliminating choppy sentences and giving accuracy of literary work. It will not be satisfied until he has at down the number of simple or compound sentences and increase the number of complex sentences.

A complex sentence is like a simple sentence in that it consists of only one main clause, but, unlike a simple sentence it has one or more subordinate clauses functioning as an element of the sentence. Subordination is an asymmetrical relation: the sentence and its subordinate clauses are in a hypotactic relationship, that is, they form a hierarchy in which the subordinate clause is a constituent of the sentence as a whole.

Here are some examples:

I was drinking while you were talking.

We visited the museum before it closed.

After I came home, I made dinner.

The complex sentence has a base of a complete sentence with a subject, verb, and words to complete the thought. A complex sentence also adds additional information in separate phrases. The information in the phrases depends upon the information in the complete sentence base; it cannot stand alone. The complex sentence is an effective way to show that one idea takes precedence over another. The idea in the complete sentence base is more important than the idea in the dependent phrase.
Here are some examples of dependent clauses include the following: because Marry and Jane arrived at the bus station before noon I did not see them at the station. while he waited at the train station, Marc realized that the train was late. after they left on the bus, Mary and Jane realized that Joe was waiting at the train station.

Dependent clauses such as those above cannot stand alone as a sentence, but they can be added to an independent clause to form a complex sentence. Dependent clauses begin with subordinating conjunctions. Here are some examples of the most common subordinating conjunctions:
After, although, as, because, before, even though, if, since, though, unless, until, when, whenever, wherever, while.
The complex sentence joins an independent clause with one or more dependent clauses. The dependent clauses can go first in the sentence, followed by the independent clause, as in the following:

Note When the dependent clause comes first, a comma should be used to separate the two clauses.

Here are some examples:
Because Mary and Jane arrived at the bus station before noon, I did not see them at the station.
While he waited at the train station, Joe realized that the train was late.
After they left on the bus, Mary and Jane realized that Joe was waiting at the train station. Conversely, the independent clauses can go first in the sentence, followed by the dependent clause, as in the following:

Note When the independent clause comes first, a comma should not be used to separate the two clauses.
Examples:
I did not see them at the station because Mary and Jane arrived at the bus station before noon.
Marc realized that the train was late while he waited at the train station.
Mary and Jane realized that Joe was waiting at the train station after they left on the bus.

4. TYPES OF COMPLEX SENTENCES

Depending upon the structure of their verb phrase, subordinate clauses may be finite or non-finite. According to Greenbaum and Quirk, (1990), the grammatical roles of finite dependent clauses are varied, and it is not always clear to what extent clauses should be regarded as independent or as part of other structures since the degrees of integration range from clear subordination (nominal, adverbial, relative, and comparative clauses) to loosely attached structures, such as reporting clauses, comment clauses and tags.
A finite subordinate clause is generally marked by a clause link, which may be of various kinds. The most common formal device of subordination is a subordinator, a wh- word, or that. Except for these ‘markers’, there are other indicators of subordination, such as subject-operator inversion and absence of finite verb (in case of non-finite clauses). However, not all subordinate clauses contain such markers since some of them (wh-word and that) are omissible. A complex sentence, syntactically defined, is a unit that consists of more than one clause, of which one is independent and one or more are dependent clauses that may not stand alone. Nevertheless, the dependent clauses exhibit different degrees of dependency. Complex sentences may contain several instances of subordination called multiple subordination, which occurs when a clause enters into more than one relationship and it becomes subordinate to one clause and super ordinate to another. In such cases each subordinate clause is treated separately in the present study. Subordination is considered to be an index of structural complexity in language, and it is important in the study of differences not only between speech and writing but also within different varieties of texts. The total number of sentences in the corpus is 6557, which comprises 5820 subordinate clauses. There were found 4374 finite and 1446 non-finite clauses within the four text types. The first impression gained from the overall figures of occurrence of the clauses indicates a quite uneven distribution of the two types of subordinate clauses. The number of finite clauses is almost three times the number of non-finite clauses.
Complex sentences come in many varieties based on the types of subordinate clauses that are available in English. Subordinate clauses are divided into three major types: * Finite clause * Non-finite clause * Verbless clause

5. Finite clauses
Finite clauses are the basic subordinate clauses that are the focus of most work with complex sentences. The "finite" just means that there a full verb phrase, and that the clause has some type of "time" meaning. The finite clause always contains a subject as well as a predicate, except in the case of commands and ellipsis.
According to their function within complex sentences, subordinate clauses may work as: * Nominal clauses * Adjectival clauses * Adverbial clauses

Note Nominal, adjectival and adverbial clauses may also be non-finite clauses: Examples:
For a bridge to collapse like that is unbelievable.
Opening the book slowly and tentatively, she began to read.
Seeing an accident ahead, I stopped my car.

6.1 Nominal clauses
Nominal clauses (clauses approximating in function to noun phrases) fall into six major categories: * that-clauses, or subordinate declarative clauses * subordinate interrogative clauses * subordinate exclamative clauses * nominal relative clauses * to-infinitive clauses * -ing clauses

That-clauses

Nominal that-clauses may function as:

subject: That the invading troops have been withdrawn has not affected our government's trade sanctions. direct object: I noticed that he spoke English with an Australian accent. subject complement: My assumption is that interest rates will soon fall. appositive: Your criticism, that no account it has been taken of psychological factors, is fully justified. adjectival complementation: We are glad that you are able to join us on our wedding anniversary.

They may not, however, function as object complement or as prepositional complement.

When that-clause is direct object or complement, the conjunction that is frequently omitted except in formal use, leaving a zero that-clause:

I know it's late.

But otherwise that cannot be omitted in a subject clause, since without the subordinate marker the clause would be initially misinterpreted as a main clause.
Subject that-clauses are usually extraposed. Extraposition is particularly preferred when the superordinate clause is interrogative or passive:

Is it possible that they can't afford to rent that apartment?
It was thought that the cease-fire still held.

If the superordinate clause is exclamatory, extraposition is obligatory:
How strange it is that the children are so quiet!

Wh-interrogative clauses

Subordinate wh-interrogative clauses occur in the whole range of functions available to the nominal that-clause and in addition may function as prepositional complement: subject: How the book will sell depends on the reviewers. direct object: I can't imagine what they want with your address. subject complement: The problem is who will water my plants when I am away. appositive: Your original question, why he did not report it to the police earlier, has not yet been answered. adjectival complementation: I'm not sure which she prefers. prepositional complement: They did not consult us on whose names should be put forward.

Exclamative clauses

Subordinate exclamative clauses generally function as extraposed subject, direct object, or prepositional complement:

extraposed subject: It's incredible how fast she can run. (It's incredible that she can run so fast). direct object: I remember what a good time I had at your party.(I remember that I had such a good time at your party). prepositional complement: I read an account of what an impression you had made. (I read an account that you had made an excellent (or a terrible) impression).

Nominal relative clauses

Nominal relative clauses resemble wh-interrogative clauses in that they are also introduced by a wh-element. Indeed, a major reason for including nominal relative clauses in this chapter is that it is often difficult to distinguish them from the interrogative clauses. On the other hand, in some respects nominal relative clauses are more like noun phrases, since they can be concrete as well as abstract and can refer even to persons. In fact, we can paraphrase them by noun phrases containing a noun head with general reference that is modified by a relative clause:

Whoever did that should admit it frankly.
(The person who did that. . .)
I took what they offered me.
(… the thing(s) that they offered me.)
Macy's is where I buy my clothes.
(… the place where I buy my clothes.)

Compare also the paraphrase when the wh-element is a determiner:
I took what books she gave me. (… the books that she gave me).
Furthermore, nominal relative clauses share with noun phrases a wider range of functions than are available to other nominal clauses.

To-infinitive clauses

Nominal to-infinitive clauses may function as:

subject: To be neutral in this conflict is out of the question. direct object: He likes to relax. subject complement: The best excuse is to say that you have an examination tomorrow. appositive: Your ambition, to become a farmer, requires the energy and perseverance that you so obviously have. adjectival complementation: I'm very eager to meet her.
The presence of a subject in a to-infinitive clause normally requires the presence of a preceding for. When the subject is a pronoun that distinguishes subjective and objective cases, it is in the objective case:
For your country to be neutral in this conflict is out of the question.
For us to take part in the discussion would be a conflict of interest.
I'm very eager for them to meet her.

-ing clauses

Nominal -ing clauses (or more fully, nominal -ing participle clauses) may function as:

subject: Watching television keeps them out of mischief. direct object: He enjoys playing practica1 jokes. subject complement: Her first job had been selling computers. appositive: His current research, investigating attitudes to racial stereotypes, takes up most of his time. adjectival complementation: They are busy preparing a barbecue. prepositional complement: I'm responsible for drawing up the budget.

Like a noun, a nominal clause names a person, place, thing or idea. A nominal clause may function as any of the following: a subject, a direct object, an indirect object, an object of a preposition, a subject complement, an object complement, an adjectival complement or an appositive.
Here are some examples of a noun clause functioning as subject:
Thomas made her angry. I know that she is pretty. What the professor said was inspiring.

Nominal clause may function as a direct object. Examples:

We discovered his arrogance. I must decide which Spanish course to take. No one would tell me who came to Marc’s birthday party.

It may function as an indirect object, examples:

Marc gave what Ann suggested a try. We showed the professor the error. I gave whoever it was a cup of tea.

Nominal clause may function as an object of a preposition, for example:

She found fault in his question. English teachers dispense wisdom to whoever will listen. Tom Cruise talked at length about how he had won the Academy award.
It can function as a subject complement. Here are some examples.
The point is that we’re leaving. The problem is that my laptop is lost. The wonderful thing about Eskimos is that they all get along so well.
It may function as an object complement: Examples:
I imagined him overcome with grief. You can call her what you wish. Call me whatever you like; you're still not borrowing my car.
It can function as an adjectival complement. For instance:
I am not sure which she prefers. She is curious what color it is.

6.2 Adjectival clauses

An adjective clause is a dependent clause, within complex sentence that acts as an adjective. That is, it modifies the noun or pronoun that comes before it. Like a single-word adjective, an adjectival clause describes a noun (in the sentence's main clause) and answers one of these questions: Which one? What kind? The adjectival clause usually begins with a relative pronoun, which makes the clause subordinate (dependent). Here are some common relative pronouns:
That, which, who, whom, whose

Note Use who, whom, and whose to describe people.
Use that and which to describe things.

Most adjective clauses start with the relative pronouns which, who and that. For example:
Everyone who went on the cruise had a great time.
The dog barked at the squirrel, which ran up a tree for safety.
Who can change its form to whom (when it's an object) or whose (to show ownership). For instance:
Marina Abramovic, whom we met at the art show, is a well-known artist.
The girl whose bike was stolen needs a ride home.
That can apply to people, animals or things. Examples:
The mayor congratulated the firefighter that won the award.
The dog that ate my socks has indigestion.
We enjoy the carnival that comes to town every summer.
Adjectival clauses may also begin with selected subordinating conjunctions: when (to describe time), where (to describe a place), why (to describe a reason). Here are examples:
Spring is the season when everything blooms.
The house where I was born has been turned into apartments.
I did not understand why my experiment failed.
An adjective clause—also called an adjectival or relative clause—will meet three requirements: * First, it will contain a subject and verb. * Next, it will begin with a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, that, or which) or a relative adverb (when, where, or why). * Finally, it will function as an adjective, answering the questions What kind? How many? or Which one?
The adjective clause will follow one of these two patterns: relative pronoun or adverb + subject + verb relative pronoun as subject + verb
Here are some examples:
Whose big, brown eyes pleaded for another cookie?
Whose = relative pronoun; eyes = subject; pleaded = verb.
Why Fred cannot stand sitting across from his sister Melanie?
Why = relative adverb; Fred = subject; can stand = verb (not, an adverb, is not officially part of the verb).
That bounced across the kitchen floor.
That = relative pronoun functioning as subject; bounced = verb.
Who slept for seven hours?
Who = relative pronoun functioning as subject; slept= verb.

6.3 Adverbial clauses
Adverbial clauses, like adverbials in general, are capable of occurring in a final, initial, or medial position within the main clause (generally in that order of frequency, medial position being rather rare). An adverb clause is a dependent clause, within complex sentence that acts as an adverb. That is, it modifies the verb in a sentence in the same way an adverb does. Adverb clauses begin with subordinating conjunctions. The most common conjunctions used in adverb clauses are listed below, according to the type of clause they introduce:
Clauses of time Finite adverbial clauses of time are introduced by such subordinators as: after, before, since, until, when:
When I last saw you, you lived in Spain.
Buy your tickets as soon as you reach the station.
Our hostess, once everyone had arrived, was full of good humor.

Clauses of place Adverbial clauses of place are introduced by where and wherever:
They went wherever they could find work.
Where the fire had been, we saw nothing but blackened ruins.

Clauses of condition and concession
Whereas conditional clauses state that dependence of one circumstance or set of circumstances on another:
If you treat her kindly, (then) she will do anything for you.
Although he hadn’t eaten for days, he (nevertheless) looked very fit. The overlap between conditional and concessive clauses comes with such subordinators as even if, which expresses both the contingent dependence of one circumstance upon another:
Even if he went down on bended knees, I wouldn’t forgive him.
Clauses of condition
Finite adverbial clauses of condition are introduced chiefly by the subordinators if (positive condition) and unless (negative condition), once, in case, provided/providing that, suppose/supposing that, considering(that), given(that), granted(that), admitting(that), presuming(that), seeing(that). The examples are given:

He must be lying if he told you that.
Unless the strike has been called off, there will be no trains tomorrow.
We will have a picnic providing that it doesn’t rain.
In the event or (in case) (that) it rains, the picnic will be postponed.

Clauses of concession
Clauses of concession are introduced chiefly by though, or it’s more formal variant although. Other conjunctions include: while, whereas, even if, and occasionally if.
No goals were scored, though it was an exciting game.
Although I felt very tired, I tried to finish the work.
Whereas Marc seems rather stupid, his brother is clever.
Even if you dislike music, you would enjoy this concert.

Clauses of reason or cause
Clauses of reason or cause are most commonly introduced by the conjunctions because, as, or since.
I lent him the money because he needed it.
As/Since Ann was the oldest, she looked after the others.
Since she got a bad mark in chemistry, she received punishment.

Clauses of circumstance
Clauses of circumstance express a fulfilled condition or (to put it differently) a relation between a premise (in the subordinate clause) and the conclusion drawn from it (in the main clause). Because, since, and as can convey this meaning, but in addition there is a special circumstantial compound conjunction, seeing (that):
Seeing that the weather has improved, we shall enjoy our game.
Note Non-finite and verbless clauses are often used, but without subordinator:
The weather having improved, we enjoyed the rest of the game.

Clauses of purpose
Clauses of purpose are adjuncts, usually infinitival, introduced by in order, to, so as to:
They left the door open, in order for me to hear the baby.
Ann visited Belgrade in order that (so that) she could see her husband.

Clauses of result
Clauses of result (disjunct, placed finally in superordinate clauses) are factual. They may contain an ordinary verb form without a modal auxiliary. They are introduced by:
So + adjective or adverb + that
She is so pretty that she attracts a lot of attention.
Such (a) + noun + that
It’s such a hot day that I must go to the beach.

Clauses of manner
Clauses of manner are introduced by as if and as though:
Jane looks as if she needs more sleep.
He left the room as though angry.

6. Non-finite clauses

Nonfinite clauses have verbs that are not marked for person, number, or tense. They often lack overt subjects and occur in embedded positions. English does not admit nonfinite clauses as main clauses. These clauses are called "nonfinite" because the verb phrases do not have tense. They are recognizably verb phrases (and actually predicates since they combine verb phrase with objects and even adverbials) but they have been changed to make them usable as sentence elements that we call "nonfinite clauses."
Non-finite clauses are always subordinate. They fall into three categories:

* Gerund * Infinitive * Participles

7.4 Gerund

A gerund is a noun made from a verb by adding "-ing." The gerund form of the verb "read" is "reading." However, it occupies some positions in a sentence that a noun ordinarily would, for example: subject, direct object, subject complement, and object of preposition. Gerunds are almost complete clauses whose first verb is a -ing form and which always function as Noun phrase, therefore as subjects, objects, or objects of prepositions. Here are some examples:

Gerund as subject:
Giving grammar lectures is always a challenge.
Reading helps you learn English.

Gerund as direct object:
They do not appreciate my singing. I enjoy reading.

Gerund as indirect object:
We give discussing language our highest priority

Gerund as subject complement: My cat's favorite activity is sleeping. Her favorite hobby is skiing. Gerund as object of preposition:
The police arrested him for speeding.

7.5 Infinitive

An infinitive phrase will begin with an infinitive (to + simple form of the verb). It will include objects and/or modifiers. Infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. In the usual (traditional) description of English, the infinitive of a verb is its basic form with or without the particle to: therefore, do and to do, to be or not to be, and so on are infinitives.
Here are some examples:
To smash a spider.
To kick the ball past the dazed goalie.
To kill a mockingbird.
Infinitive phrases can function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. Here are examples:
To finish her shift without spilling another pizza into a customer's lap is Michelle's only goal tonight.
To finish her shift without spilling another pizza into a customer's lap functions as a noun because it is the subject of the sentence.
Ann hopes to win the approval of her mother by switching her major from fine arts to pre-med.
To win the approval of her mother functions as a noun because it is the direct object for the verb hopes.
The best way to survive Dr. Peterson's boring history lectures is a sharp pencil to stab in your thigh if you catch yourself drifting off.
To survive Dr. Peterson's boring history lectures functions as an adjective because it modifies way.
Marc , an aspiring comic book artist, is taking Anatomy and Physiology this semester to understand the interplay of muscle and bone in the human body.
To understand the interplay of muscle and bone in the human body functions as an adverb because it explains why Kelvin is taking the class.

5.3 Participles

Participle is a form of a verb which is used in a sentence to modify a noun or noun phrase, and thus plays a role similar or identical to that of an adjective, or sometimes an adverb. It is one of the types of non-finite verb forms. Its name comes from the Latin participium, a calque of Greek metochḗ "partaking" or "sharing"; it is so named because the Ancient Greek and Latin participles "share" some of the categories of the adjective or noun (gender, number, case) and some of those of the verb (tense and voice).
Participles may correspond to the active voice (active participles), where the modified noun is taken to represent the agent of the action denoted by the verb; or to the passive voice (passive participles), where the modified noun represents the patient (undergoer) of that action. Participles in particular languages are also often associated with certain verbal aspects or tenses. The two types of participle in English are traditionally called the present participle (forms such as writing, singing and raising; these also serve as gerunds and verbal nouns), and the past participle (forms such as written, sung and raised; regular participles such as the last also serve as the finite past tense).

A participle is a verbal that is used as an adjective and most often ends in -ing or -ed. The term verbal indicates that a participle, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, since they function as adjectives, participles modify nouns or pronouns. There are two types of participles: * Present participle * Past participle
The present participle is the –ing form of the verb that is used as a verb and an adjective. Present participles end in -ing. Here are some examples:
Used as a verb: I was crying for my lost cat.
Used as an adjective: The crying baby was in the crib.

The past participle end in -ed, -en, -d, -t, -n, or -ne as in the words asked, eaten, saved, dealt, seen, and gone. Here are some examples: Shaken, he walked away from the wrecked car. Pressed by reporters, the president acknowledged that the war was a fiasco. 7. Verbless clause

Verbless clauses are less common than non-finite ones as far as the range of circumstances they express are concerned. Time, condition and concession clauses are most commonly identifiable as verbless, as in:

a) When in trouble, ask for help.
b) If in a hurry, take a taxi.
c) Though old, he managed by himself.

Verbless clauses do not have an overt subject and predicator. The “missing” constituents are assumed to be recovered from the context of the main clause. Usually the missing verb is “be” and the subject is identical with the subject of the main clause as in the proverb:

When in Rome, do as the Romans do. which can be rephrased into:
When you are in Rome, (you) do as the Romans do.

Verbless subclauses are less common than non-finite ones as far as the range of circumstances they express are concerned. Time, condition and concession clauses are most commonly identifiable as verbless, as in:

Although usually curious, this time I decided not to touch the animals. If anything, it seems lighter.
Although usually late, Jane arrived on time today.

Verbless clauses are always introduced by a subordinator, most commonly when / until for time clauses, if / unless for conditionals and though / however for clauses of concession. Verbless clauses, as all the other structural types, can take initial or end position, without any change of meaning as far as the semantic relationship between the main clause and subordinate clause is concerned.

With the verbless clause, we can usually infer ellipsis of the verb "be" the subject, when omitted, can be treated as recoverable from the context:

Dozens of people were stranded, many of them children.
(Many of them being children)

Whether right or wrong, he always comes off worst in an argument.
(Whether he is right or wrong)

8. Conclusion | To summarise this work, syntax is a discipline that examines the rules of language that dictate how the various parts of sentences go together. It describes how language is actually used and tries to come up with rules and successfully describe what various language communities consider to be grammatical or not grammatical. In English language there are three syntactical units: (phrases, clauses and sentences). A phrase is a syntactic construction which typically contains more than one word, but which lacks the subject-predicate structure. A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a predicate. A clause may be either a sentence (independent clause) or a sentence-like construction within another sentence (a dependent clause). Every clause has at least a subject and a verb.
The traditional definition of a sentence states that a sentence expresses a complete thought. A sentence is a grammatical unit that is syntactically independent and has a subject that is expressed or, as in imperative sentences, understood and a predicate that contains at least one finite verb. Sentences can be classified on the basis of their syntactic properties.

We distinguish according to their function: * declarative * interrogative * imperative * exclamatory

However, according to their structure we distinguish: * simple * compound * complex-compound * complex sentences

The task was to give a better inside through complex sentences. The seminar paper would not be successful if it had not be for the bibliography by Greenbaum and Quirk (1990); Macmillan (1997); Diessel (2004) and others authors.

A complex sentence is a sentence which includes at least one main clause, and at least one subordinate clause. Complex sentences are often formed by putting these words at the beginning of the dependent clause: as, as if, before, after, because, though, even though, while, when, whenever, if, during, as soon as, as long as, since, until, unless, where, and wherever.

These words are called subordinating conjunctions.

Complex sentences come in many varieties based on the types of subordinate clauses that are available in English. Subordinate clauses are divided into three major types:

* Finite * Non-finite * Verbless clause

Finite clauses are the basic subordinate clauses that are the focus of most work with complex sentences. The "finite" just means that there a full verb phrase, and that the clause has some type of "time" meaning. The finite clause always contains a subject as well as a predicate, except in the case of commands and ellipsis.
The finite clause always contains a subject as well as a predicate. According to their function within complex sentences, subordinate clauses may work as:

* Nominal * Adjectival * Adverbial clause

Nonfinite clauses have verbs that are not marked for person, number, or tense. They often lack overt subjects and occur in embedded positions. English does not admit nonfinite clauses as main clauses. These clauses are called "nonfinite" because the verb phrases do not have tense. They are recognizably verb phrases (and actually predicates since they combine verb phrase with objects and even adverbials) but they have been changed to make them usable as sentence elements that we call "nonfinite clauses."
Non-finite clauses are always subordinate and they fall into three categories:

* Gerund * Infinitive * Participles

Verbless clauses are less common than non-finite ones as far as the range of circumstances they express are concerned. Time, condition and concession clauses are most commonly identifiable as verbless. Verbless clauses are always introduced by a subordinator, most commonly when / until for time clauses, if / unless for conditionals and though / however for clauses of concession. Verbless clauses, as all the other structural types, can take initial or end position, without any change of meaning as far as the semantic relationship between the main clause and subordinate clause is concerned.

REFERENCES:

1. Crystal, David, 1995. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, Cambridge University Press, 2. Greenbaum, Sidney; Quirk, Randolph, 1990. A Student's Grammar of the English Language, Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 3. Leech, Geoffrey, Svartvik, Jan, 1975. A communicative grammar of English, Third edition, Longman, 4. Quirk, Randolph; Greenbaum, Sidney; Leech, Geoffrey; Svartvik, Jan, 1985. A comprehensive grammar of the English language, Harlow, Longman, 5. Coghill, Jeffrey; Magedanz, Stacy, 2003. English Grammar, Willey Publishing Inc. 6. Macmillan, Palgrave, 1997. English Syntax and Argumentation, Bas Arts 7. Coghill, Jeffrey; Magedanz Stacy; Leech, Geoffrey, 2002. Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English, Harlow, Longman 8. Diessel, Holger, 2004. The Acquisition of Complex Sentences, Cambridge University Press

--------------------------------------------
[ 1 ]. Crystal, David, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, Cambridge University Press, 1995, page: 214.
[ 2 ]. Biber Douglas, Conrad Susan, Leech Geoffrey, Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English, Longman, 2002, page: 46.
[ 3 ]. Greenbaum, Sidney, Oxford English Grammar, Oxford University Press, 1996, page: 308.
[ 4 ]. Coghill, Jeffrey, Magedanz, Stacy, English Grammar, Wiley Publishing Inc., 2003, page: 183.
[ 5 ]. Quirk, Randolph; Greenbaum, Sidney; Leech, Geoffrey; Svartvik, Jan , 1985. A comprehensive grammar of the English language, Harlow: Longman, page:987.
[ 6 ]. Coghill, Jeffrey;Magedanz Stacy; Leech, Geoffrey, 2002. Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English, Harlow: Longman, page: 264.
[ 7 ]. Diessel, Holger, 2004. The Acquisition of Complex Sentences, Cambridge University Press, page: 182.

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