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Computer Interfacing

In: Business and Management

Submitted By CeeeeJay10
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Republic of the Philippines
MINDANAO UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
C.M. Recto Avenue, Lapasan, Cagayan de Oro City, 9000

Ultrasonic Radar System Documentation

Submitted by: Cabilla, Lorener Marie Bahian, Aila Garcia, Giselle Mae Rosagaran, Caleb Japondar, Cledel Joyce Benigay, Dessa Mae Mercado, Jerica Camugao, Rex Jay

Submitted to: Mrs. Mayette Saculingan

BSIT-3R2 September, 2015 Ultrasonic Radar System By: GROOk Contact Information: www.GROOk.net Abstract: This project is an object detection system which uses radio waves to determine the range, altitude, direction, or speed of objects. Keywords: I. Instroduction The idea of making an Ultrasonic RADAR appeared to us while viewing the technology used in defense, be it Army, Navy or Air Force and now even used in the automobiles employing features like automatic/driverless parking systems, accident prevention during driving etc.
Radar systems come in a variety of sizes and have different performance specifications. Some radar systems are used for air-traffic control at airports and others are used for long range surveillance and early-warning systems. A radar system is the heart of a missile guidance system. Small portable radar systems that can be maintained and operated by one person are available as well as systems that occupy several large rooms.
The modern uses of radar are highly diverse, including air traffic control, radar astronomy, air-defense systems, antimissile systems; marine radars to locate landmarks and other ships; aircraft anti-collision systems; ocean surveillance systems, outer space surveillance and rendezvous systems; meteorological precipitation monitoring; altimetry and flight control systems; guided missile target locating systems; and ground-penetrating radar for geological observations. High tech radar systems are associated with digital signal processing and are capable of extracting useful information from very high noise levels.
The main problem of the people and even most of the countries is safety while driving. So, we came up with a solution to that by making use of this project to continuously scan the area for traffic, population etc. and as well as protection of the vehicles at the same time to prevent accidents or minor scratches to the vehicles.

II. Methods

1.Making own Arduino Uno Board/Boot Loading the ATmega328
Since, we believe in learning by doing. So, we decided to make our own arduino board instead of using the readymade board. So, the steps required to make an arduino board [8] are as follows: * Boot loading an Atmega328 using the Arduino board by uploading the boot loader program to the Microcontroller.

Figure 1 Boot loading Atmega328 using Arduino Uno [8] * Making the connections on a general purpose PCB, connecting the crystal osicillator, capacitors, connectors for the connections to Arduino board etc. * Providing the power supply, usually 5 volts. * Arduino is ready for use.

Figure 2Circuit diagram for Boot Loading ATmeg328
After you have done all this, then only the minimum circuitry like crystal oscillator, capacitors, connectors, power supply is required to complete the board. The same circuit can be made on the PCB, either designed or general purpose. Since, Arduino is an Open-Source. Hence, it is easy to make and can have any enhancements as per the requirements.

2. Connecting the Servo Motor

Figure 3 Connecting the Servo Motor
A servomotor is a rotary actuator that allows for precise control of angular position, velocity and acceleration. A normal servo motor has three terminals:
1.VCC
2. GND
3. PULSE
A servo motor works at normally 4.8 to 6 volts. Gnd is provided by connecting it to the Ground of the Arduino. The total time for a servo motor pulse is usually 20ms. To move it to one end of say 0 degree angle, a 1ms pulse is used and to move it to other end i.e 180 degree, a 2ms pulse is applied. Hence, according to this to move the axis of the servo motor to the center, a pulse of time 1.5 ms should be applied. For this, the pulse wire of the servo motor is connected to the Arduino that provides the digital pulses for pulse width modulation of the pulse. Hence, by programming for a particular pulse interval the servo motor can be controlled easily.
3. Connecting the Ultrasonic Sensor
An Ultrasonic Sensor consists of three wires. One for Vcc, second for Gnd and the third for pulse signal. The ultrasonic sensor is mounted on the servo motor and both of them further connected to the Arduino board. The ultrasonic sensor uses the reflection principle for its working. When connected to the Arduino, the arduino provides the pulse signal to the ultrasonic sensor which then sends the ultrasonic wave in forward direction. Hence, whenever there is any obstacle detected or present in front, it reflects the waves which are received by the ultrasonic sensor. If detected, the signal is sent to the arduino and hence to the PC/laptop to the processing software that shows the presence of the obstacle on the rotating RADAR screen with distance and the angle at which it has been detected.

Figure 4: Connecting Ultrasonic Sensor to Arduino

Figure 5 Working of Ultrasonic Sensor
4. Using the Arduino IDE
The Arduino integrated development environment (IDE) is a cross-platform application written in Java, and is derived from the IDE for the Processing programming language and the Wiring projects. It is designed to introduce programming to artists and other newcomers unfamiliar with software development. It includes a code editor with features such as syntax highlighting, brace matching, and automatic indentation, and is also capable of compiling and uploading programs to the board with a single click. A program or code written for Arduino is called a "sketch".
Arduino programs are written in C or C++. The Arduino IDE comes with a software library called "Wiring" from the original Wiring project, which makes many common input/output operations much easier. Users only need define two functions to make a run able cyclic executive program: * Setup(): a function run once at the start of a program that can initialize settings * Loop(): a function called repeatedly until the board powers off.
Open the Arduino IDE software and select the board in use. To select the board: * Go to Tools. * Select Board. * Under board, select the board being used, in this case Arduino Uno. * Go to Tools and to Port and select the port at which the arduino board is connected.

Figure 4.6 Selecting the Board in Arduino IDE

Write the code in the space provided and click on compile. Once the code is compiled, click on upload to upload the sketch to the Arduino board.
5. Using the Processing Software Processing is an open source programming language and integrated development environment (IDE) built for the electronic arts, new media art, and visual design communities with the purpose of teaching the fundamentals of computer programming in a visual context, and to serve as the foundation for electronic sketchbooks. The project was initiated in 2001 by Casey Reas and Benjamin Fry, both formerly of the Aesthetics and Computation Group at the MIT Media Lab. One of the stated aims of Processing is to act as a tool to get non-programmers started with programming, through the instant gratification of visual feedback. The language builds on the Java language, but uses a simplified syntax and graphics programming model.

Figure 4.7 Processing Software (Version 2.0)

6. Problems Faced
Since, electronic components when used to form any circuit require some amount of troubleshooting to make the circuit work according to our expectations. In our project, there were some problems that we had to deal with.
6.1Making own Arduino board
The Arduino boards are available readily in the electronics market, but we decided to make our own Arduino board instead of buying one. So, the first problem was where to start from to achieve this goal. Since, all parts on an arduino board are SMD’s, so we had to find a way to replace the SMD’s with DIP IC’s and also had to make an AVR programmer in order to pursue our further work. Hence, it took us some days to determine and plan our course of action.
After that we had to boot load the AVR chip so as to make it compatible with the Arduino IDE software. Hence, we had to find a way to boot load the Arduino using the AVR programmer. It took us a long time to make the AVR programmer by researching on the type of communication and architecture of the AVR as it is not as same as a 8051 microcontroller. 6.2 Communicating with Arduino through PC
Another major problem related to the Arduino board was the communication with it from PC. Since, we require RS-232 to TTL conversion for the communication, so we tried some methods: 1. Firstly we used the MAX-232 IC to communicate with the Arduino as with the 8051 but due to large voltage drop and mismatch in the speed, it failed to communicate. 2. Next, we tried to use a dedicated AVR as USB to Serial converter as in the original arduino board, the difference being DIP AVR used by us instead of the SMD Mega16U2 controller. But, unfortunately we were unable to communicate through it. 3. At last we had no other choice but to complete the project in time by using the FTDI FT-232R chip for USB to Serial conversion. Finally IT WORKED!!! 6.3 Programming the Arduino to display the RADAR screen
The next part of the project was to be able to display the RADAR screen. For this we used VB.NET to form the RADAR screen but interfacing it with the Arduino input was a little bit of a problem and not synchronized with the Arduino input. After a lot of trials, we came to know about the Processing software (Version 2.0). So, we had to go through a lot of programs to finally program it to form the RADAR screen.

III. Project Design

3.1 Arduino Uno The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328. It has 14 digital Input /Output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16MHz ceramic resonator, USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. The Uno differs from all preceding boards in that it does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial driver chip. Instead, it features the Atmega16U2 programmed as a USB-to-serial converter. Changes in Uno. 1. Pin out: added SDA and SCL pins that are near to the AREF pin and two other new pins placed near to the reset pin, the IOREF that allow the shields to adapt to the voltage provided from the board. In future, shields will be compatible with both the board that uses the AVR, which operates with 5v and with the Arduino due that operates with 3.3v. 2. Stronger RESET circuit. 3. ATmega16U2 replace the 8U2.

Figure 3.1 Arduino UNOBoard "Uno" means one in Italian and is named to mark the upcoming release of Arduino 1.0. The Uno and version 1.0 will be the reference versions of Arduino, moving forward. The Uno is the latest in a series of USB Arduino boards, and the reference model for the Arduino platform; for a comparison with previous versions, see the index of Arduino Boards.

Table 3.1 Features of Arduino at a Glance Microcontroller | ATmega328 | Operating Voltage | 5V | Input Voltage (recommended) | 7-12V | Input Voltage (limits) | 6-20V | Digital I/O Pins | 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output) | Analog Input Pins | 6 | DC Current per I/O Pin | 40 mA | DC Current for 3.3V Pin | 50 mA | Flash Memory | 32 KB (ATmega328) of which 0.5 KB used by bootloader | SRAM | 2 KB (ATmega328) | EEPROM | 1 KB (ATmega328) | Clock Speed | 16 MHz |

3.2 AVR ATmega328
The ATmega328 is a single chip micro-controller created by Atmel and belongs to the mega AVR series. The high-performance Atmel 8-bit AVR RISC-based microcontroller combines 32 KB ISP flash memory with read-while-write capabilities, 1 KB EEPROM, 2 KB SRAM, 23 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, three flexible timer/counters with compare modes, internal and external interrupts, serial programmable usart, a byte-oriented 2-wire serial interface, spi serial-port, a 6-channel 10 bit Analog to Digital converter (8-channels)in tqfp and qfn/mlf packages),programmable watchdog timer with internal oscillator and five software selectable power saving modes. The device operates between 1.8-5.5 volts. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the device achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz, balancing power consumption and processing speed.[5]

Figure3.2ATmega328 [3] 3.3 Crystal Oscillator A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency. This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time (as in quartz wristwatches), to provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits, and to stabilize frequencies for radio transmitters and receivers. The most common type of piezoelectric resonator used is the quartz crystal, so oscillator circuits incorporating them became known as crystal oscillators, but other piezoelectric materials including polycrystalline ceramics are used in similar circuits.
Quartz crystals are manufactured for frequencies from a few tens of kilohertz to hundreds of megahertz. More than two billion crystals are manufactured annually. Most are used for consumer devices such as wristwatches, clocks, radios, computers, and cell phones. Quartz crystals are also found inside test and measurement equipment, such as counters, signal generators, and oscilloscopes.

Figure 3.3 Crystal Oscillator (16 MHz) [4]
3.4 Servo Motor A servomotor is a rotary actuator that allows for precise control of angular position, velocity and acceleration. It consists of a suitable motor coupled to a sensor for position feedback. It also requires a relatively sophisticated controller, often a dedicated module designed specifically for use with servomotors.
Servomotors are not a different class of motor, on the basis of fundamental operating principle, but uses servomechanism to achieve closed loop control with a generic open loop motor.
Servomotors are used in applications such as robotics, CNC machinery or automated manufacturing.

Figure 3.4 Servo Motor
3.6 Ultrasonic Sensor Ultrasonic sensors [7] (also known as transceivers when they both send and receive, but more generally called transducers) work on a principle similar to radar or sonar which evaluate attributes of a target by interpreting the echoes from radio or sound waves respectively. Ultrasonic sensors generate high frequency sound waves and evaluate the echo which is received back by the sensor. Sensors calculate the time interval between sending the signal and receiving the echo to determine the distance to an object.
This technology can be used for measuring wind speed and direction (anemometer), tank or channel level, and speed through air or water. For measuring speed or direction a device uses multiple detectors and calculates the speed from the relative distances to particulates in the air or water. To measure tank or channel level, the sensor measures the distance to the surface of the fluid. Further applications include: humidifiers, sonar, medical ultra sonography, burglar alarms and non-destructive testing.
Systems typically use a transducer which generates sound waves in the ultrasonic range, above 18,000 hertz, by turning electrical energy into sound, then upon receiving the echo turn the sound waves into electrical energy which can be measured and displayed.

Figure 3.6 Ultrasonic Sensor [7]

IV. Results

Fig Radar Screen

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...INTRODUCTION. Adoption of emerging technologies prior to their proven value is both acceptable and normal in today’s globalized economy. In current global environment, organizations all around the world have to constantly facing challenges to hold the competitive advantage. Firms that refuse to change their approach face declining sales, obsolescence, and potential bankruptcy. The global world is characterized by more competition, diverse work force, continuously changing customers’ needs, and new technological changes, etc. The adoption of emerging technology in business is broadly studied but the resulting research has produced inconsistent results (Brandyberry, 2003). An organization is define as a group of persons that team up together to work to achieve the organization strategy. Organizational strategy can be defined as a plan for interacting with the competitive environments to achieve organizational goals. According to Charlesmore Partners International (2008), organizational strategy is a clear definition of how the organization needs to change – over time - in order to be able to deliver the strategy of the enterprise and an actionable plan of how to make the transformation. This requires both the thinking and analysis to compare current state to desired state and define the gap, and the execution capabilities to make the requisite changes happen. Other definition of organizational strategy is a plan for interacting with the competitive environments to achieve......

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