In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By Doyal05
Words 47755
Pages 192
Chapter 1
Structure and Functions of a Computer
"Hardware: the parts of a computer that can be kicked." ~ Jeff Pesis

After completing this chapter, you will be able to:
1. Explain the importance of computer literacy. 2. Define the term computer. 3. Identify the components of a computer. 4. Compare the uses of various types of: input devices, output devices, and storage devices. 5. Describe categories of computers and their uses.

Structure and Functions of a Computer


1.0 Introduction
A computer is an electronic machine designed for the storage and processing of data. The machinery is called hardware, and this highly sophisticated equipment needs equally sophisticated programs (called software) to become a working computer system. Modern society has come to depend very heavily on the use of computer systems. Banks, businesses, government departments, industries, shops, people at home and school all rely on computer to play a vital role in their daily activities. These activities are centered on information. In business, the computer system has been used a lot and replaced filing cabinets as means of storing information, and clerical workers as a means of processing it. By storing and processing information on a computer system, these businesses can function more quickly and efficiently, because information can be found and collated much faster. Discovery Learning: A computer was also called a data processor. Why?

1.1 Major Parts and Functions
A Computer is an electronic device that accepts input data, processes data, stores data and produces output into useful information. Data is a collection of raw unprocessed facts, figures and symbols. Computers process data to create information. Information is data that is organized, meaningful, and useful. Whereas a system is a set of interrelated parts that performs different functions to achieve the same…...

Similar Documents


...(LATEST COMPUTER HARDWARE and LATEST MICROPROCESSOR) LATEST COMPUTER HARDWARE 1. Microsoft Desktop 3000 Reliable 2.4-GHz Wireless Enjoy the 2.4-gigahertz (GHz) wireless technology, which delivers a reliable connection with up to a 30-foot range, with virtually no interference. BlueTrack Technology Take advantage of BlueTrack Technology, which combines the power of optical with the precision of laser for remarkable tracking on virtually any surface. Snap-in Mini-Transceiver Plug the wireless receiver into your computer’s USB port when you’re ready to work. Then snap it into the bottom of your mouse when you travel. Media Center Control media playback from your keyboard. Hot Keys Gain one-touch access to Windows Media Player, email, home, calculator, My Documents, zoom, instant messaging and photos. Tilt Wheel and More Navigate fluidly with four-way scroll, five programmable buttons, rubber side grips and magnifier. Device Stage Quickly and easily access common tasks, including product information, registration, settings, and more for popular devices such as cell phones, cameras, printers, and mouse, keyboard, and webcam products. Battery Status Indicators Avoid being caught with a dead battery. The battery status indicator glows red when the battery is running low. PRICE: $36.99 2. Alienware TactX Headset Functionality: Obviously ideal for gaming, the Alienware TactX VoIP headset...

Words: 3886 - Pages: 16


...Discovering Computers 2011 Chapter 4 DISCOVERING COMPUTERS 2011 CHAPTER FOUR: THE COMPONENTS OF THE SYSTEM UNIT PROBLEM SOLVING TIP SHEET Use this Tip Sheet as suggested starting points for the Problem Solving exercises. Problem Solving @ Home 1. Malfunctioning Speakers While working on a homework assignment, you decide to listen to one of your favorite music CDs through your computer speakers. The media player program on your computer automatically starts when you insert the CD. Although it looks like the CD is playing, no sound is coming from your speakers. What might be causing this? What is the first step that you will take to correct this problem? The sound might be muted or the volume turned down; adjust accordingly There may be a problem with your computer recognizing the sound card; check the drivers 2. Optical Disc Drive Stuck While using your computer, you attempt to open the optical disc drive to insert an installation disc for a program you wish to install. The drive, however, does not open when you press the eject button. The drive opened a few minutes prior, when you removed a music CD. What steps will you take to open the drive before calling technical support? Restart the computer. If the problem persists after restarting the computer, shut the computer down and insert the end of a paperclip into the small hole in the optical disc drive (if one exists) to open the drive manually. If necessary, check with technical support or your computer’s...

Words: 1370 - Pages: 6


...Running head: COMPUTER CRIME 1 Computer Crime and the 4th Amendment ITT Technical Institute COMPUTER CRIME 2 The case law that would allow me to search the office computer of Jacob Myers would be the 4th Amendment law and also The Wire and Electronic Communications Interception and Interception of Oral Communications Act. Under the 4th Amendment to do a search and seizure you need to have probable cause. Under The Wire and Electronic Communications Interception and Interception of Oral Communications Act it typically requires a court order issued by a judge who must decide that there is probable cause to believe that a crime has been, is being or is about to be committed. In this case we do have probable cause because the victim, Cynthia Simmons had to countless number of times change her email, IM, and internet provider; during a preliminary investigation we scanned the victims computer and found a key logging program was being used to collect the victims information and stalk the victim. And upon our investigation, posing as the victim the offender once again sent the victim a message via IM. That conversation allowed the officers to trace the computer to the offender’s job at the probation department. So because the suspect Jacob Myers works at the probation department and he has been the one previously stalking the victim there is enough probable cause to search his work computer and put surveillance because now he...

Words: 544 - Pages: 3


...About 9,440,000 results (0.16 seconds) Search Results Classification Essay‎ In the sample essay about types of computers, the computers are classified according to their functions and capabilities, as: Sample essay analysis ... Types of Computers - College Essay - Scodger - › ... › Computers & Internet › Computer Hardware‎ Types of computers. Firstly, what is a computer? Well, a modern computer is typically an electronic or digital device that manipulates data. Computers can ... Types of Computers - Term Papers - Maliktaimurarif › Computers and Technology‎ May 9, 2012 - Read this essay on Types of Computers . Come browse our large digital warehouse of free sample essays. Get the knowledge you need in ... History of Computers Essay - Custom Writing Service‎ You can order a custom essay, term paper, research paper, thesis or dissertation on History of Computers topics at our professional custom essay writing service ... Computer Technology Essay - Custom Writing Service‎ Free sample essay on Computer Technology: Since the beginning of time ... Computers play a significant role in the school system as well. ... Categories. Essay of...

Words: 470 - Pages: 2


...Computer A computer is a programmable machine that receives input, stores and manipulates data, and provides output in a useful format. A computer can process data, pictures, sound and graphics. They can solve highly complicated problems quickly and accurately. Block Diagram Input Unit: Computers need to receive data and instruction in order to solve any problem. Therefore we need to input the data and instructions into the computers. The input unit consists of one or more input devices. Keyboard is the one of the most commonly used input device. Other commonly used input devices are the mouse, floppy disk drive, magnetic tape, etc. All the input devices perform the following functions.  Accept the data and instructions from the outside world.  Convert it to a form that the computer can understand.  Supply the converted data to the computer system for further processing. Storage Unit: The storage unit of the computer holds data and instructions that are entered through the input unit, before they are processed. It preserves the intermediate and final results before these are sent to the output devices. It also saves the data for the later use. Memory Size: All digital computers use the binary system, i.e. 0’s and 1’s. Each character or a number is represented by an 8 bit code. The set of 8 bits is called a byte. A character occupies 1 byte space. A numeric occupies 2 byte space. Byte is the space occupied in the memory. The size of the primary...

Words: 9444 - Pages: 38


... communication skills in both written and spoken English ▪ Computer skills: Computer fundamentals, Windows XP, MS Word, MS Excel, MS PowerPoint, Internet Browsing. Experience: Three month internship in Shahjalal Islami Bank Limited and worked General banking, Foreign Exchange & investment section Personal Information Father’s Name: Kazi Imtiazul Haque Mother’s Name: Amana Begum Date of Birth: 01st January, 1990 Religion: Islam Nationality: Bangladeshi by birth Gender: Female Marital status: Single Blood group: “AB+” Reference: • Mohammad Sakil FAVP & Deputy Manager Mirpur Branch 230, senpara parbata, Begum Rokeya sarani, Mirpur-10 Dhaka-1216 Cell No: +8801755556223 • Islam Biswas Chairman Department of Accounting Bangladesh University of Business and technology Cell No: +8801716403003 e-mail:[pic][pic]...

Words: 413 - Pages: 2


... Computer science branch, my aggregate percentage till now is 73.5%. My hobby is sketching. I am belong from middle class family. | View Comments(1)   |   Your comments please ...  |   +10   -27 | Snehal Rajput said: (Tue, Mar 4, 2014 12:03:30 PM)   | |   | Good morning sir/madam. First, thank you for giving me opportunity to introduce my self. My name is Snehal rajput. I m studying in 3rd year BE electronics. My aggregate till now is 70.70%. I got 80% in 12th and 92% in 10th std. Coming to my family, we are 4 members in my family. My mom and dad and my younger brother. My father is a worker and my mother is housewife. My brother is in FYBsc. My strengths are m good listener and quick learner, I can adjust with any environment and manage people, also m smart worker. My weakness is I can't divine from work until it gets completed. My goal is to get a good job with good salary in reputed company like your's and also to be a good human being. Thank you. ! | View Comments(1)   |   Your comments please ...  |   +14   -13 | Prasad said: (Tue, Mar 4, 2014 10:30:46 AM)   | |   | Good Morning/afternoon/evening sir/mam. , My name is Prasad. I am of 22 years. Basically I am from chidambaram but right now I am living in annanur. To tell about my education I have completed my BCA from ragavendra college with 62%. I passed my 10th & 12th scoring 55 and 50 percent marks respectively. About my family, we are 5 members including...

Words: 8812 - Pages: 36


... Which layer of the 7 layer model provides services to the Application layer over the Session layer connection? A.) Transport B.) Application C.) Session D.) Network E.) Datalink F.) Presentation Sybex CCNA Study Guide: Chapter 1, page 18-19 The OSI Presentation layer is sandwiched between the Application and Session layers. The correct answer(s): E What type of switching creates variable latency through the switch? A.) Cut-Through B.) Inverted C.) Layer 4 D.) Multiplexed E.) Store and Forward Sybex CCNA Study Guide: Chapter 2, page 61-62 DEFINITION: Latency = Delay. Because a store and forward switch reads the whole frame before forwarding, a larger frame takes longer than a shorter frame. The correct answer(s): E The network portion of an address typically represents a: A.) Router B.) Ethernet MAC address. C.) Computer D.) Host E.) Segment Sybex CCNA Study Guide: Chapter 4, page 119-121 Every network segment is represented by a network or subnetwork address. The correct answer(s): D The Physical layer works with which of the following: A.) Segments B.) Globules C.) Packets D.) Bits E.) Frames Sybex CCNA Study Guide: Chapter 1, page 34 Physical - bits Datalink - frames Network - packets The correct answer(s): D Which of the following is an example of the Network Layer? A.) LLC B.) SQL C.) Token Ring D.) IPX E.) SPX Sybex CCNA Study Guide: Chapter 1, page......

Words: 23850 - Pages: 96


...*CS FI* DATA – the raw material , the facts and figures that are processed and outputted in the computer INFORMATION – is made into data, put into the computer where its stored and processed as data ADVANTAGES : 1. they allow people accross the globe to communicate with each other 2. they allow people to look up information directly 3.Backup copies of works can be made easily DISADVANTAGE 1. People sometimes spend all time secluded in theirs room on the computer 2.Pedophiles on chat rooms 3.Easier to copy people homework as you can sometime find the sources online 4. illegal downloading can ruin bussinesses 5. Detail such as bank records , can be hacked Uses and Function of Computer GOVERNMENT – uses computers to forecast weather, to manage paks, to process immigrant AGRICULTURE – Framers uses small computers for billing TRANSPORTATION –use to help run rapid transit system, load containership HEALTH AND MEDICINE – help to monitor the gravely ill intensive care units LAW ENFORCEMENT – innovations in computerized law enforcement include national fingerprint MONITOR- device that provides visual Feedback on the operation of the computer MOUSE – use to select various option KEYBOARD – an input device that enters data directly to the computer SYSTEM UNIT- consisting of a casing and an external keyboard PRINTER – an output device that prints or provides the user a hardcopy DISK DRIVE- Is a device used to spin the disk...

Words: 441 - Pages: 2


...oday’s generation could never ever imagine in their wildest dreams about the world, ages before, when there were no computers or any other technologies. So much we have advanced that now every information is just a click away and is in your hands 24/7. All this advancement was possible only with the introduction of a small device called the “Computer”. Computers Image Curtsey: Basically, computer is a device that accepts the message by the imputer and processes this message and stores the information at the storage devices and later gives an output of the message through the output devices. A simple explanation of the computer. Normally, a computer consists of a processing unit called the Central Processing Unit or the CPU and a form of memory. In the years between 1940 and 1945 were the first electronic digital computers developed. The initial sizes were as big as a room and consumed power as much as today’s personal computers. Initially, computer was related to a person who carries out calculations or computations and as such the word computer was evolved in 1613 and continued till the end of 19th century. Later it as re-described as a machine that carries computations. The early computers were limited in their functions. It was the fusion of automatic calculation and programmability that produced the first computers that were recognized in 1837. Charles Babbage in 1837 was the first to...

Words: 999 - Pages: 4


...Search Results Siwes Report For Computer Science Students Free Essays Free Essays on Siwes Report For Computer Science Students for students. Use our papers to help you with yours. SIWES Project in Computer Science | forever Apr 1, 2012 - SIWES refers to the employment of students nearing ... a compulsory subject offered by every computer science student in the 2nd ... The report 'IT REPORT(COMPUTER SCIENCE) BY AJAYI ADEBAYO ... May 29, 2013 - STUDENTS' INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME (SIWES) REPORT ON INDUSTRIAL TRAINING CARRIED OUT AT F.C.D.A, AREA ... Computer Science Siwes Report on Time and Attendance ... › Computers and Technology Aug 18, 2012 - Read this essay on Computer Science Siwes Report on Time and Attendance ... The Student Industrial Work-Experience Scheme (SIWES) is a ... A TECHNICAL REPORT ON STUDENTS INDUSTRIAL ... I also gained experience in other fields of science, engineering, and project management. ... The students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) is a skill training ..... computers, but not to actually be logged on as a user of that computer. Student industrial work Experience Scheme (SIWES) Report ...

Words: 401 - Pages: 2


...A BRIEF COMPUTER HISTORY The computer as we know it today had its beginning with a 19th century English mathematics professor name Charles Babbage. He designed the Analytical Engine and it was this design that the basic framework of the computers of today are based on. Generally speaking, computers can be classified into three generations. Each generation lasted for a certain period of time,and each gave us either a new and improved computer or an improvement to the existing computer. First generation: 1937 – 1946 - In 1937 the first electronic digital computer was built by Dr. John V. Atanasoff and Clifford Berry. It was called the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC). In 1943 an electronic computer name the Colossus was built for the military. Other developments continued until in 1946 the first general– purpose digital computer, the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) was built. It is said that this computer weighed 30 tons, and had 18,000 vacuum tubes which was used for processing. When this computer was turned on for the first time lights dim in sections of Philadelphia. Computers of this generation could only perform single task, and they had no operating system. Second generation: 1947 – 1962 - This generation of computers used transistors instead of vacuum tubes which were more reliable. In 1951 the first computer for commercial use was introduced to the public; the Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC 1). In 1953 the International Business Machine...

Words: 7002 - Pages: 29


...Hardware Theft and Vandalism Hardware theft and vandalism are other types of computer security risks. Hardware theft is the act of stealing computer equipment. Hardware vandalism is the act of defacing or destroying computer equipment. Hardware vandalism takes many forms, from someone cutting a computer cable to individuals breaking into a business or school computer lab and aimlessly smashing computers. Companies, schools, and other organizations that house many computers are at risk of hardware theft and vandalism, especially those that have smaller system units that easily can fit in a backpack: briefcase. Mobile users also are susceptible to hardware theft. It is estimated that more than 600,000 notebook computers are stolen each year. The size and weight of these computers make them easy to steal. Safeguards against Hardware Theft and Vandalism To help reduce the chances of theft, companies and schools use a variety of security measures. Physical access controls, such as locked doors and windows, usually are adequate to protect the equipment. Many businesses, schools, and some homeowners install alarm systems for additional security. School computer labs and other areas with a large number of semi-frequent users often attach additional physical security devices such as cables that lock the equipment to a desk, cabinet, r floor. Small locking devices also exist that require a key to access a hard disk or optical disc drive. Some businesses use a real time...

Words: 3217 - Pages: 13


...1. What is it called when a virtualization server provides a virtual desktop for users on multiple client machines? ?VDI 2. Which of the following is a good practice when working with an overly confident user over the phone? ?Compliment the user's knowledge, insight, and experience 3. Which of the following is NOT an important principle to consider when customizing a system? ?Ensure your company can supply all parts 4. Which of the following is a good practice when working with a customer on site? ?Limit use of your cell phone to work-related calls 5. You should take ownership of a customer's problem as if it is your own problem. ?True 6. Once you feel like you have resolved a problem, politely tell the customer the job is finished, and go on your way. ?False 7. Which of the following is defined as a record of a call for help with a computer problem? ?Ticket 8. Which of the following is NOT a good practice when working with a computer illiterate user over the phone?? Before proceeding with the call, tell the customer to put someone else on the line. 9. When working with co-workers and supervisors, which of the following is a good practice? ?Be professional by putting business matters over personal matters 10. Which of the following is true about the A+ 2012 certification and exams? ?The A+ certification is not vendor specific 11. What should you do when you have a customer that is frequently complaining about your company, products or...

Words: 591 - Pages: 3


...A proxy server is a computer that acts as an intermediary between the users computer and the Internet. It allows client computers to make indirect network connections to other network services. If use proxy server, client computers will first connect to the proxy server, requesting some resources like web pages, games, videos, mp3, e-books, any other resources which are available from various servers over Internet. As soon as getting such request, the proxy server will seek for the resources from the cache in its local hard disk. If the resources have been cached before, the proxy server will return them to the client computers. If not cached, it will connect to the relevant servers and request the resources on behalf of the client computers. Then it caches resources from the remote servers, and returns subsequent requests for the same content directly Functions of a proxy server * Help improve web performance by storing a copy of frequently used webpages * Help improve security by filtering out some web content and malicious software * Content filtering * Spying * To keep machines behind it anonymous (mainly for security). * To speed up access to resources (using caching). Web proxies are commonly used to cache web pages from a web server. * To apply access policy to network services or content, e.g. to block undesired sites. * To log / audit usage, i.e. to provide company employee Internet usage reporting. * To bypass security...

Words: 691 - Pages: 3