Concept of Critical Care

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CONCEPT OF CRITICAL CARE
Critical care nursing is that specialty within nursing that deals specifically with human responses to life-threatening problems.
* As defined by the World Federation of Critical Care Nurses:
Specialized nursing care of critically ill patients who have manifest or potential disturbances of vital organ functions. Critical care nursing means assisting, supporting and restoring the patient towards health, or to ease the patient’s pain and to prepare them for a dignified death.
Aim
To establish a therapeutic relationship with patients and their relatives and to empower the individuals’ physical, psychological, sociological, cultural and spiritual capabilities by preventive, curative and rehabilitative interventions.
Illnesses and injuries commonly seen in patients on critical care units (CCUs)
Gunshot wounds
Traumatic injuries
Cardiovascular disorders
Surgeries
Respiratory disorders
Shock
THE EVOLUTION OF CRITICAL CARE
* Forty years of development in critical care and critical care nursing has given rise to a recognized specialty in nursing practice .
* Critical care units have evolved over the last four decades in response to medical advances .
HISTORICAL PRESPECTIVES
* Florence nightingale recognized the need to consider the severity of illness in bed allocation of patients and placed the seriously ill patients near the nurses’ station.
* Modern medicines boomed to its higher ladder after world war 2
* Dr. Walter E. Dandy
1886-1946
First pioneer of intensive care in USA
Johns Hopkins Medical Center
Developed a special care unit for neurosurgical patients
* As surgical techniques advanced it became necessary that post operative patient required careful monitoring and this came about the recovery room.
* In 1950, the epidemic of poliomyelitis necessitated thousands of patients…...

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