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AS 3600—2009

AS 3600—2009

Australian Standard®
Concrete structures

Accessed by NEWCREST MINING LIMITED on 14 Jul 2010

This Australian Standard® was prepared by Committee BD-002, Concrete Structures. It was approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 8 October 2009. This Standard was published on 23 December 2009.

The following are represented on Committee BD-002: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • AUSTROADS Association of Consulting Engineers Australia Australian Building Codes Board Bureau of Steel Manufacturers of Australia Cement Concrete & Aggregates Australia—Cement Cement Concrete & Aggregates Australia—Concrete Concrete Institute of Australia Engineers Australia La Trobe University Master Builders Australia National Precast Concrete Association Australia Steel Reinforcement Institute of Australia University of Adelaide University of Melbourne University of New South Wales University of Western Sydney

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 05252. Standards Australia wishes to acknowledge the participation of the expert individuals that contributed to the development of this Standard through their representation on the Committee and through the public comment period.

Keeping Standards up-to-date
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Australian Standards® are living documents that reflect progress in science, technology and systems. To maintain their currency, all Standards are periodically reviewed, and new editions are published. Between editions, amendments may be issued. Standards may also be withdrawn. It is important that readers assure themselves they are using a current Standard, which should include any amendments that may have been published since the Standard was published. Detailed information about Australian Standards, drafts, amendments and new projects can be found by visiting www.standards.org.au Standards Australia welcomes suggestions for improvements, and encourages readers to notify us immediately of any apparent inaccuracies or ambiguities. Contact us via email at mail@standards.org.au, or write to Standards Australia, GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001.

AS 3600—2009

Australian Standard®
Concrete structures

Accessed by NEWCREST MINING LIMITED on 14 Jul 2010

First published in part as AS CA2—1934. AS A26 first published 1934. AS CA2 redated 1937. MP 13 first published 1957. AS CA2—1937 and AS A26—1934 revised, amalgamated and redesignated AS CA2—1958. Third edition 1963. MP 13—1957 revised and redesignated AS CA35—1963. Second edition 1973. Fourth edition AS CA2—1973. AS CA2—1973 revised and redesignated AS 1480—1974. AS CA35—1973 revised and redesignated AS 1481—1974. Second edition AS 1481—1978. Second edition AS 1480—1982. AS 1480—1982 and AS 1481—1978 revised, amalgamated and redesignated AS 3600—1988. Fourth edition 2009.

COPYRIGHT © Standards Australia All rights are reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written permission of the publisher. Published by Standards Australia GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia ISBN 0 7337 9347 9

AS 3600—2009

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PREFACE
This Standard was prepared by Standards Australia Committee BD-002, Concrete Structures, to supersede AS 3600—2001. Objective of the Standard The principal objective of the Standard is to provide users with nationally acceptable unified rules for the design and detailing of concrete structures and members, with or without steel reinforcement or prestressing tendons, based on the principles of structural engineering mechanics. The secondary objective is to provide performance criteria against which the finished structure can be assessed for compliance with the relevant design requirements. Background to the fourth edition Amendment No. 1 to the 2001 edition of the Standard was issued in May 2002 to address various editorial errors in the Standard. At the time the committee embarked on a full revision of the Standard to include design rules for advances in concrete design, including the use of high strength concrete as well as a restructure of the design procedures section to align the Standard to the new editions of the AS/NZS 1170 series, Structural design actions. Amendment No. 2 was published in October 2004 to address two matters the committee believed required immediate attention. These matters included the use of low Ductility Class L reinforcement and its limited ability to distribute moments as implied by the simplified analysis. The minimum reinforcement requirements for crack control introduced in the 2001 edition were also amended as they increased the amount of reinforcement required sometimes by up to 50% of that which was required for the minimum strength provisions. These two Amendments have been incorporated into this revised edition of AS 3600 as well as a number of other changes. Areas of major change in the Standard are as follows: (a) Increase in concrete strength specified in design rules from 65 MPa to 100 MPa. This has resulted in the review of all equations in AS 3600 for strength and has meant, in some instances, modification of equations such as the rectangular stress block model and inclusion of requirements for confinement to the core of columns. Section 2, Design procedures, actions and loads, has been revised to align with the editions of AS/NZS 1170 series, Structural design actions, and contains additional design check methods for designers to consider. Section 3, Design properties of materials, (previously Section 6) has been reviewed to— (i) (ii) (d) (e) include new shrinkage equations, which will address autogenous and drying shrinkage; and revisions to creep calculations, which modify the creep factor by revising the k2 and k 3 factors and include the addition of environmental and humidity factors.

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(b)

(c)

Specification of additional severe exposure classifications and requirements for sulfate soils introduced in Section 4 on durability. The fire resistance criteria in Section 5, Design for fire resistance, have been reviewed to take into account the latest developments in EN 1992-1-2:2004, Eurocode 2. Design of concrete structures Part 1-2: General rules—Structural fire design.

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AS 3600—2009

(f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k)

Section 6, Methods of structural analysis, (previously Section 7) has been completely revised. A new Section 7, Strut-and-tie modelling, which provides rules on strut-and-tie modelling, has been included. Clause 10.7.3 regarding confinement to the core of columns in Section 10 has been significantly changed due the importance of this issue for high strength concrete. Section 11, Design of walls, has been revised to be more consistent with Section 10, Design of columns for strength and serviceability. Section 13, Stress development, splicing of reinforcement and coupling of tendons, has been completely revised. Section 17, Liquid retaining structures—Design requirements, and Section 18, Marine structures, of the 2001 edition of the Standard have been deleted as they did not provide specific design advice. This Standard traditionally used the terms ‘tie’ and ‘fitment’ interchangeably. The word ‘tie’ is now used only in the strut-and-tie analysis section while the term ‘fitment’ is used for units such as stirrups and ligatures that perform various functions, such as restraining the longitudinal reinforcement and resisting shear.

(l)

Statements expressed in mandatory terms in notes to tables are deemed to be requirements of this Standard. The terms ‘normative’ and ‘informative’ have been used in this Standard to define the application of the appendix to which they apply. A ‘normative’ appendix is an integral part of a Standard, whereas an ‘informative’ appendix is only for information and guidance.

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CONTENTS
Page SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL 1.1 SCOPE AND APPLICATION..................................................................................... 8 1.2 NORMATIVE REFERENCES .................................................................................... 9 1.3 EXISTING STRUCTURES......................................................................................... 9 1.4 DOCUMENTATION................................................................................................... 9 1.5 CONSTRUCTION....................................................................................................... 9 1.6 DEFINITIONS .......................................................................................................... 10 1.7 NOTATION .............................................................................................................. 16 SECTION 2 DESIGN PROCEDURES, ACTIONS AND LOADS 2.1 DESIGN PROCEDURES .......................................................................................... 28 2.2 DESIGN FOR STRENGTH....................................................................................... 28 2.3 DESIGN FOR SERVICEABILITY ........................................................................... 33 2.4 ACTIONS AND COMBINATIONS OF ACTIONS .................................................. 35 SECTION 3 DESIGN PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 3.1 PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE ................................................................................ 37 3.2 PROPERTIES OF REINFORCEMENT .................................................................... 43 3.3 PROPERTIES OF TENDONS................................................................................... 44 3.4 LOSS OF PRESTRESS IN TENDONS ..................................................................... 46 3.5 MATERIAL PROPERTIES FOR NON-LINEAR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS....... 49 SECTION 4 DESIGN FOR DURABILITY 4.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 50 4.2 METHOD OF DESIGN FOR DURABILITY............................................................ 50 4.3 EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION .............................................................................. 50 4.4 REQUIREMENTS FOR CONCRETE FOR EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATIONS A1, A2, B1, B2, C1 AND C2 .................................................. 53 4.5 REQUIREMENTS FOR CONCRETE FOR EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION U ..... 54 4.6 ABRASION............................................................................................................... 54 4.7 FREEZING AND THAWING ................................................................................... 54 4.8 AGGRESSIVE SOILS............................................................................................... 55 4.9 RESTRICTIONS ON CHEMICAL CONTENT IN CONCRETE.............................. 57 4.10 REQUIREMENTS FOR COVER TO REINFORCING STEEL AND TENDONS.... 57 SECTION 5 DESIGN FOR FIRE RESISTANCE 5.1 SCOPE ...................................................................................................................... 60 5.2 DEFINITIONS .......................................................................................................... 60 5.3 DESIGN PERFORMANCE CRITERIA.................................................................... 62 5.4 FIRE RESISTANCE PERIODS (FRPs) FOR BEAMS.............................................. 63 5.5 FIRE RESISTANCE PERIODS (FRPs) FOR SLABS............................................... 66 5.6 FIRE RESISTANCE PERIODS (FRPs) FOR COLUMNS ........................................ 69 5.7 FIRE RESISTANCE PERIODS (FRPs) FOR WALLS.............................................. 72 5.8 INCREASE OF FIRE RESISTANCE PERIODS (FRPs) BY USE OF INSULATING MATERIALS.................................................................................... 74

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Page SECTION 6 METHODS OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 6.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 76 6.2 LINEAR ELASTIC ANALYSIS ............................................................................... 79 6.3 ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF FRAMES INCORPORATING SECONDARY BENDING MOMENTS............................................................................................. 80 6.4 LINEAR ELASTIC STRESS ANALYSIS ................................................................ 81 6.5 NON-LINEAR FRAME ANALYSIS ........................................................................ 81 6.6 NON-LINEAR STRESS ANALYSIS........................................................................ 82 6.7 PLASTIC METHODS OF ANALYSIS ..................................................................... 82 6.8 ANALYSIS USING STRUT-AND-TIE MODELS ................................................... 83 6.9 IDEALIZED FRAME METHOD OF ANALYSIS .................................................... 83 6.10 SIMPLIFIED METHODS OF FLEXURAL ANALYSIS .......................................... 85 SECTION 7 STRUT-AND-TIE MODELLING 7.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 93 7.2 CONCRETE STRUTS............................................................................................... 93 7.3 TIES .......................................................................................................................... 98 7.4 NODES...................................................................................................................... 98 7.5 ANALYSIS OF STRUT-AND-TIE MODELS .......................................................... 99 7.6 DESIGN BASED ON STRUT-AND-TIE MODELLING.......................................... 99 SECTION 8 DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR STRENGTH AND SERVICEABILITY 8.1 STRENGTH OF BEAMS IN BENDING ................................................................ 100 8.2 STRENGTH OF BEAMS IN SHEAR ..................................................................... 105 8.3 STRENGTH OF BEAMS IN TORSION ................................................................. 109 8.4 LONGITUDINAL SHEAR IN COMPOSITE AND MONOLITHIC BEAMS ........ 111 8.5 DEFLECTION OF BEAMS .................................................................................... 113 8.6 CRACK CONTROL OF BEAMS............................................................................ 116 8.7 VIBRATION OF BEAMS....................................................................................... 118 8.8 T-BEAMS AND L-BEAMS .................................................................................... 118 8.9 SLENDERNESS LIMITS FOR BEAMS................................................................. 119 SECTION 9 DESIGN OF SLABS FOR STRENGTH AND SERVICEABILITY 9.1 STRENGTH OF SLABS IN BENDING.................................................................. 120 9.2 STRENGTH OF SLABS IN SHEAR....................................................................... 123 9.3 DEFLECTION OF SLABS...................................................................................... 127 9.4 CRACK CONTROL OF SLABS............................................................................. 130 9.5 VIBRATION OF SLABS ........................................................................................ 133 9.6 MOMENT RESISTING WIDTH FOR ONE-WAY SLABS SUPPORTING CONCENTRATED LOADS ................................................................................... 133 9.7 LONGITUDINAL SHEAR IN COMPOSITE SLABS ............................................ 133 SECTION 10 DESIGN OF COLUMNS FOR STRENGTH AND SERVICEABILITY 10.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................................. 134 10.2 DESIGN PROCEDURES ........................................................................................ 134 10.3 DESIGN OF SHORT COLUMNS........................................................................... 135 10.4 DESIGN OF SLENDER COLUMNS ...................................................................... 136 10.5 SLENDERNESS...................................................................................................... 137 10.6 STRENGTH OF COLUMNS IN COMBINED BENDING AND COMPRESSION ..................................................................................................... 141 10.7 REINFORCEMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR COLUMNS..................................... 144 10.8 TRANSMISSION OF AXIAL FORCE THROUGH FLOOR SYSTEMS ............... 152

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Page SECTION 11 DESIGN OF WALLS 11.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................................. 153 11.2 DESIGN PROCEDURES ........................................................................................ 153 11.3 BRACED WALLS .................................................................................................. 154 11.4 EFFECTIVE HEIGHT............................................................................................. 154 11.5 SIMPLIFIED DESIGN METHOD FOR WALLS SUBJECT TO VERTICAL COMPRESSION FORCES...................................................................................... 155 11.6 DESIGN OF WALLS FOR IN-PLANE SHEAR FORCES ..................................... 155 11.7 REINFORCEMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR WALLS .......................................... 156 SECTION 12 DESIGN OF NON-FLEXURAL MEMBERS, END ZONES AND BEARING SURFACES 12.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................................. 158 12.2 STRUT-AND-TIE MODELS FOR THE DESIGN OF NON-FLEXURAL MEMBERS.............................................................................................................. 158 12.3 ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTINUOUS CONCRETE NIBS AND CORBELS...................................................................................................... 160 12.4 ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR STEPPED JOINTS IN BEAMS AND SLABS .................................................................................................................... 160 12.5 ANCHORAGE ZONES FOR PRESTRESSING ANCHORAGES .......................... 160 12.6 BEARING SURFACES........................................................................................... 162 12.7 CRACK CONTROL................................................................................................ 162 SECTION 13 STRESS DEVELOPMENT OF REINFORCEMENT AND TENDONS 13.1 STRESS DEVELOPMENT IN REINFORCEMENT .............................................. 163 13.2 SPLICING OF REINFORCEMENT........................................................................ 169 13.3 STRESS DEVELOPMENT IN TENDONS ............................................................. 171 13.4 COUPLING OF TENDONS .................................................................................... 172 SECTION 14 JOINTS, EMBEDDED ITEMS AND FIXINGS 14.1 JOINTS.................................................................................................................... 173 14.2 EMBEDDED ITEMS .............................................................................................. 174 14.3 FIXINGS ................................................................................................................. 174 SECTION 15 PLAIN CONCRETE PEDESTALS AND FOOTINGS 15.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................................. 176 15.2 DURABILITY......................................................................................................... 176 15.3 PEDESTALS ........................................................................................................... 176 15.4 FOOTINGS ............................................................................................................. 176 SECTION 16 SLAB-ON-GROUND FLOORS, PAVEMENTS AND FOOTINGS 16.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................................. 178 16.2 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS................................................................................ 178 16.3 FOOTINGS ............................................................................................................. 178 SECTION 17 MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS 17.1 MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR CONCRETE AND GROUT.......................................................................................................... 179 17.2 MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR REINFORCING STEEL..................................................................................................................... 181 17.3 MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR PRESTRESSING DUCTS, ANCHORAGES AND TENDONS........................................................... 184

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Page 17.4 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR JOINTS AND EMBEDDED ITEMS..................................................................................................................... 186 17.5 TOLERANCES FOR STRUCTURES AND MEMBERS........................................ 186 17.6 FORMWORK.......................................................................................................... 187 APPENDICES A REFERENCED DOCUMENTS .............................................................................. 191 B TESTING OF MEMBERS AND STRUCTURES ................................................... 193 C REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURES SUBJECT TO EARTHQUAKE ACTIONS................................................................................................................ 199 BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................. 205

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AS 3600—2009

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STANDARDS AUSTRALIA Australian Standard Concrete structures

SECT ION

1

SCOPE

AND

GENERA L

1.1 SCOPE AND APPLICATION 1.1.1 Scope This Standard sets out minimum requirements for the design and construction of concrete building structures and members that contain reinforcing steel or tendons, or both. It also sets out minimum requirements for plain concrete pedestals and footings.
NOTES: 1 The general principles of concrete design and construction and the criteria embodied in this Standard may be appropriate for concrete structures other than buildings, members not specifically mentioned herein and to materials outside the limits given in Clause 1.1.2. It is intended that the design of a structure or member to which this Standard applies be carried out by, or under the supervision of, a suitably experienced and competent person. For guidance on the design of maritime structures, refer to AS 4997.

2 3

This Standard is not intended to apply to the design of mass concrete structures. 1.1.2 Application This Standard applies to structures and members in which the materials conform to the following: (a) Concrete with— (i) (ii) (b)
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characteristic compressive strength at 28 days 100 MPa; and

( f c′ )

in the range of 20 MPa to

with a saturated surface-dry density in the range 1800 kg/m 3 to 2800 kg/m 3 .

Reinforcing steel of Ductility Class N in accordance with AS/NZS 4671.
NOTE: These reinforcing materials may be used, without restriction, in all applications referred to in this Standard.

(c)

Reinforcing steel of Ductility Class L in accordance with AS/NZS 4671— (i) (ii) may be used as main or secondary reinforcement in the form of welded wire mesh, or as wire, bar and mesh in fitments; but shall not be used in any situation where the reinforcement is required to undergo large plastic deformation under strength limit state conditions.

NOTE: The use of Ductility Class L reinforcement is further limited by other clauses within the Standard.

(d)

Prestressing tendons complying with AS/NZS 4672.1 and tested in accordance with AS/NZS 4672.2.

1.1.3 Exclusions The requirements of this Standard shall not take precedence over design requirements and material specifications set out in other Australian Standards that deal with specific types of structures, such as concrete residential slabs and footings, and swimming pools.
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AS 3600—2009

1.2 NORMATIVE REFERENCES Normative documents referred to in this Standard are listed in Appendix A.
NOTE: Informative documents referred to in this Standard are listed in the Bibliography at the end of this document.

1.3 EXISTING STRUCTURES The general principles of this Standard shall be applied when evaluating the strength or serviceability of an existing structure.
NOTE: Existing structures are likely to contain materials that do not comply with the material specifications herein and may have been designed to different requirements, but the general principles of this Standard would apply. (See also Appendix B.)

1.4 DOCUMENTATION The drawings and/or specification for concrete structures and members shall include, as appropriate, the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) (p) (q) (r) Reference number and date of issue of applicable design Standards. Imposed actions (live loads) used in design. The appropriate earthquake design category determined from AS 1170.4. Any constraint on construction assumed in the design. Exposure classification for durability. Fire resistance level (FRL), if applicable. Class and, where appropriate, grade designation of concrete. Any required properties of the concrete. The curing procedure. Grade, Ductility Class and type of reinforcement and grade and type of tendons. The size, quantity and location of all reinforcement, tendons and structural fixings and the cover to each. The location and details of any splices, mechanical connections and welding of any reinforcement or tendon. The maximum jacking force to be applied in each tendon and the order in which tendons are to be stressed. The shape and size of each member. The finish and method of control for unformed surfaces. Class of formwork in accordance with AS 3610 for the surface finish specified. The minimum period of time after placing of concrete before stripping of forms and removal of shores. The location and details of planned construction and movement joints, and the method to be used for their protection.

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1.5 CONSTRUCTION All concrete structures, designed in accordance with this Standard, shall be constructed so that all the requirements of the design, as contained in the drawings and specifications, are achieved.

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1.6 DEFINITIONS 1.6.1 General For the purposes of this Standard, the definitions below apply. 1.6.2 Administrative definitions 1.6.2.1 Building authority or other relevant regulatory authority The body having statutory powers to control the design and construction of the structure in the area in which the structure is to be constructed. 1.6.2.2 Drawings The drawings forming part of the documents setting out the work to be executed. 1.6.2.3 Specification The specification forming part of the documents setting out the work to be executed. 1.6.3 Technical definitions 1.6.3.1 Action Set of concentrated or distributed forces acting on a structure (direct action), or deformation imposed on a structure or constrained within it (indirect action).
NOTE: The term ‘load’ is also often used to describe direct actions.

1.6.3.2 Action effects Internal forces and bending moments due to actions (stress resultants). 1.6.3.3 Anchorage zone Region between the face of the member where the prestress is applied and the cross-section at which a linear distribution of stress due to prestress is achieved. 1.6.3.4 Average ambient temperature Average value of the daily maximum and minimum ambient temperatures over the relevant period at a site. 1.6.3.5 Average axis distance See Clause 5.2.1. 1.6.3.6 Axis distance
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Distance from the centre-line axis of a longitudinal bar or tendon to the nearest surface exposed to fire (see Figure 5.2.2). 1.6.3.7 B-region Portion of a member in which the assumption that plane sections remain plane can be applied. 1.6.3.8 Basic creep coefficient Mean value of the ratio of final creep strain to elastic strain for a specimen loaded at 28 days under a constant stress of 0.4 f c′ (see Clause 3.1.8.2). 1.6.3.9 Bottle-shaped compression field Compression field that is wider at mid-length than at its ends [see Figure 7.2.1(c)].

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1.6.3.10 Braced column Column in a structure for which the lateral actions, applied at the ends in the direction under consideration, are resisted by components such as masonry infill panels, shear walls or lateral bracing. 1.6.3.11 Column strip See Clause 6.1.4.1. 1.6.3.12 Characteristic strength Value of the material strength, as assessed by standard test, that is exceeded by 95% of the material (lower characteristic strength). 1.6.3.13 Composite concrete member Member consisting of concrete members constructed separately but structurally connected so the member responds as a unit to applied actions. 1.6.3.14 Concrete Mixture of cement, aggregates and water, with or without the addition of chemical admixtures. 1.6.3.15 Construction joint Joint that is located in a structure or part of a structure for convenience of construction and made so that the load-carrying capacity and serviceability of the structure, or part of the structure, will be unimpaired by the inclusion of the joint. 1.6.3.16 Cover Distance between the outside of the reinforcing steel or tendons and the nearest permanent surface of the member, excluding any applied surface finish. 1.6.3.17 Creep coefficient Mean value of the ratio of creep strain to elastic strain under conditions of constant stress. 1.6.3.18 Critical shear perimeter Perimeter defined by a line geometrically similar to the boundary of the effective area of a support or concentrated load and located at a distance of d om /2 therefrom [see Figure 9.2.1(A)]. 1.6.3.19 Critical opening
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Opening through the thickness of a slab where an edge, or part of the edge, of the opening is located at a clear distance of less than 2.5bo from the critical shear perimeter [see Figure 9.2.1(A)(b)]. 1.6.3.20 Design life Period for which a structure or a structural member is intended to remain fit for use for its intended purpose with appropriate maintenance. 1.6.3.21 Design strip See Clause 6.1.4.2. 1.6.3.22 Discontinuity Abrupt change in geometry or loading, including prestress. 1.6.3.23 Direct loading Loading on a structure that includes the self-weight of its component members and externally applied loads. www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia

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1.6.3.24 D-region Portion of a member within a distance equal to the member depth (D), from a discontinuity. 1.6.3.25 Duct Conduit (plain or corrugated) to accommodate prestressing tendon(s) for post-tensioned installation. 1.6.3.26 Ductility Class Designation relating to the ductility of reinforcement (‘L’ designates ‘low’, ‘N’ designates ‘normal’, ‘E’ designates ‘earthquake’).
NOTE: For further information refer to AS/NZS 4671.

1.6.3.27 Durability Ability of a structure and its component members to perform the functions for which they have been designed, over a specified period of time, when exposed to their environment. 1.6.3.28 Effective area of a support or concentrated load for slabs in shear Area totally enclosing the actual support or load and for which the perimeter is a minimum [see Figure 9.2.1(A)]. 1.6.3.29 Effective depth Distance from the extreme compressive fibre of the concrete to the resultant tensile force in the reinforcing steel and tendons in that zone, which will be tensile at the ultimate strength condition of pure bending. 1.6.3.30 Embedded items Items, other than reinforcement and tendons, that are embedded in a concrete member or structure.
NOTE: Embedded items include pipes and conduits with their associated fittings, sleeves, permanent inserts for fixings and other purposes, prestressed anchorages, holding-down bolts and other supports.

1.6.3.31 Exposure classification Designation indicative of the most severe environment to which a concrete member is to be subjected during its design life (see Table 4.3). 1.6.3.32 Fan-shaped compression field
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Compression field that has non-parallel straight sides [see Figure 7.2.1(b)]. 1.6.3.33 Fire resistance Ability of a structure or part of it to fulfil its required functions (loadbearing and/or separating function) for a specified fire exposure, for a specified time. 1.6.3.34 Fire resistance level (FRL) Fire resistance periods for structural adequacy, integrity and insulation expressed in that order.
NOTE: Fire resistance levels for structures, parts and elements of construction are specified by the relevant authority [e.g., in the Building Code of Australia (BCA)].

1.6.3.35 Fire resistance period (FRP) Time, in minutes, for a member to reach the appropriate failure criterion (i.e., structural adequacy, integrity and/or insulation) if tested for fire in accordance with the appropriate Standard.
NOTE: For structures that must comply with the BCA requirements, the appropriate Standard is AS 1530.4.
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1.6.3.36 Fire-separating function Ability of a boundary element of a fire compartment (e.g., wall, floor or roof) to prevent fire spread by passage of flames or hot gases (integrity) or ignition beyond the exposed surface (thermal insulation) during a fire.
NOTE: When tested in accordance with AS 1530.4, prototypes of such members are exposed to fire from only one direction at a time and are assumed to be similarly exposed for the purpose of interpreting Section 5.

1.6.3.37 Fitment Unit of reinforcement commonly used to restrain from buckling the longitudinal reinforcing bars in beams, columns and piles; carry shear, torsion and diagonal tension; act as hangers for longitudinal reinforcement; or provide confinement to the core concrete.
NOTE: Also referred to commonly as a stirrup, ligature or helical reinforcement.

1.6.3.38 Fixing Material cast into concrete for the purpose of maintaining in position reinforcement, tendons, ducts, formwork, inserts or devices for lifting of members. 1.6.3.39 Flat plate Flat slab without drop panels. 1.6.3.40 Flat slab Continuous two-way solid or ribbed slab, with or without drop-panels, having at least two spans in each direction, supported internally by columns without beams and supported externally by walls or columns with or without spandrel beams, or both. 1.6.3.41 Footing Part of a structure in direct contact with and transmitting load to the supporting foundation. 1.6.3.42 Foundation Soil, subsoil or rock, whether built-up or natural, by which a structure is supported. 1.6.3.43 Grout Mixture of cement and water, with or without the addition of sand, or chemical admixtures, proportioned to produce a pourable liquid without segregation of the constituents. 1.6.3.44 Headed reinforcement
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Steel bar that achieves anchorage by means of a suitably sized head or end plate. 1.6.3.45 Helical reinforcement Unit of reinforcement that is wound in a helical fashion around the main longitudinal reinforcing bars in a column or pile restraining them from buckling and to carry shear, torsion and diagonal tension or around tendons at an anchorage to resist bursting action effects. 1.6.3.46 Hollow-core slab or wall Slab or wall having mainly a uniform thickness and containing essentially continuous voids. 1.6.3.47 Initial force Force immediately after transfer, at a stated position in a tendon. 1.6.3.48 Insulation (fire) The ability of a fire-separating member, such as a wall or floor, to limit the surface temperature on one side of the member when exposed to fire on the other side.
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1.6.3.49 Integrity (fire) Ability of a fire-separating member to resist the passage of flames or hot gases through the member when exposed to fire on one side. 1.6.3.50 Jacking force Force in a tendon measured at the jack. 1.6.3.51 Ligature (reinforcement) See fitment. 1.6.3.52 Lightweight concrete Concrete having a saturated surface-dry density in the range of 1800 kg/m 3 to 2100 kg/m 3 . 1.6.3.53 Limit state Limiting condition at which the structure ceases to fulfil its intended function. 1.6.3.54 Loadbearing function Ability of a structure or member to sustain specified actions during the fire. 1.6.3.55 Loadbearing member Member intended to support or transmit vertical loads additional to its own weight where the design axial force at mid-height of the member is greater than 0.03 f c′ Ag . 1.6.3.56 Mean strength Statistical average of a number of test results representative of the strength of a member, prototype or material. 1.6.3.57 Middle strip See Clause 6.1.4.3. 1.6.3.58 Movement joint Joint that is made between parts of a structure for the specific purpose of permitting relative movement between the parts of the structure on either side of the joint. 1.6.3.59 Node Point in a joint in a strut-and-tie model where the axes of the struts, ties and concentrated forces acting on the joint intersect.
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1.6.3.60 Nodal zone Volume of concrete around a node, which is assumed to transfer strut-and-tie forces through the node. 1.6.3.61 One-way slab Slab characterized by flexural action mainly in one direction. 1.6.3.62 Plain concrete member Member either unreinforced or containing reinforcement but assumed to be unreinforced. 1.6.3.63 Post-tensioning Tensioning of tendons after the concrete has hardened. 1.6.3.64 Prestressed concrete Concrete into which internal stresses are induced deliberately by tendons.
NOTE: It includes concrete commonly referred to as ‘partially prestressed’.
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1.6.3.65 Prestressing steel See tendon. 1.6.3.66 Pretensioning Tensioning of tendons before the concrete is placed. 1.6.3.67 Prismatic compression field Compression field that is parallel sided [see Figure 7.2.1(a)]. 1.6.3.68 Reinforcement Steel bar, wire or mesh but not tendons.
NOTE: Commonly referred to as reinforcing steel.

1.6.3.69 Ribbed slab Slab incorporating parallel ribs in one or two directions. 1.6.3.70 Shear wall Wall that is intended to resist lateral forces acting in or parallel to the plane of the wall. 1.6.3.71 Short column Column in which the additional bending moments due to slenderness can be taken as zero. 1.6.3.72 Slender column Column that does not satisfy the requirements for a short column. 1.6.3.73 Span support See Clause 6.1.4.4. 1.6.3.74 Strength grade Numerical value of the characteristic compressive strength of concrete at 28 days ( f c′ ) , used in design. 1.6.3.75 Structural adequacy (fire) Ability of a member to maintain its structural function when exposed to fire. 1.6.3.76 Strut-and-tie model Truss model made up of struts and ties connected at nodes.
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1.6.3.77 Tendon Wire, strand or bar (or any discrete group of such wires, strands or bars) that is intended to be pretensioned or post-tensioned. 1.6.3.78 Tie Tension member in a strut-and-tie model. 1.6.3.79 Torsion strip
* Strip of slab of width a, whose longitudinal axis is perpendicular to the direction of M v [see Figure 9.2.1(B)].

1.6.3.80 Transfer Time of initial transfer of prestressing forces from the tendons to the concrete.

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1.6.3.81 Transmission length Length, at transfer, over which the stress in a pretensioned tendon builds up from zero at one end to its full value. 1.6.3.82 Transverse width See Clause 6.1.4.5. 1.6.3.83 Two-way slab Slab characterized by significant flexural action in two directions at right angles to one another. 1.6.3.84 Uniform strain Strain in the reinforcement at maximum stress, corresponding to the onset of necking. 1.6.3.85 Upper characteristic strength Value of the material strength, as assessed by standard test, which is exceeded by 5% of the material. 1.7 NOTATION The symbols used in this Standard, including their definitions, are listed below. Unless a contrary intention appears, the following applies: (a) (b) (c) The symbols used in this Standard shall have the meanings ascribed to them below, with respect to the structure, or member, or condition to which a clause is applied. Where non-dimensional ratios are involved, both the numerator and denominator shall be expressed in identical units. The dimensional units for length, force and stress, in all expressions or equations, shall be taken as millimetres (mm), newtons (N) and megapascals (MPa) respectively, unless noted otherwise.
* An asterisk ( * ) placed after a symbol as a superscript (e.g., M y ) denotes a design

(d)

action effect due to the design load. Symbol Ab
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Definition = cross-sectional area of a reinforcing bar = cross-sectional area of the fitment = smallest cross-sectional area of the concrete strut at any point along its length and measured normal to the line of action of the strut (see Clauses 5.6.3 and 7.2.3); or = cross-sectional area bounded by the centre-line of the outermost fitments (see Clause 10.7.3.3)

A b.fit Ac

Ag Am Ap A pt As

= gross cross-sectional area of a member = an area enclosed by the median lines of the walls of a single cell (see Clause 8.3.3) = cross-sectional area of prestressing steel = cross-sectional area of the tendons in the zone that will be tensile under ultimate load conditions = cross-sectional area of reinforcement (see Clauses 3.4.3.2 and 13.2.2); or

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= cross-sectional area of a single anchored bar of diameter db (see Clause 13.1.2.3) A sc A sf A si A st = cross-sectional area of compressive reinforcement = area of fully anchored reinforcement crossing the interface = cross-sectional area of steel bar (tendon, wire) (see Clause 5.2.1) = area of reinforcement in the ith direction crossing a strut (see Clause 7.2.4) = cross-sectional area of longitudinal tensile reinforcement; or = cross-sectional area of reinforcement in the zone that would be in tension under the design loads if the effects of prestress and axial loads are ignored A sv A sv.min A sw At A tr A tr.min A1 A2 a = cross-sectional area of shear reinforcement = cross-sectional area of minimum shear reinforcement = cross-sectional area of the bar forming a closed fitment = area of a polygon with vertices at the centre of longitudinal bars at the corners of the cross-section (see Clause 8.3.5) = cross-sectional area of a transverse bar along the development length (see Clause 13.1.2.3) = cross-sectional area of the minimum transverse reinforcement along the development length (see Clause 13.1.2.3) = a bearing area (see Clause 12.6) = largest area of the supporting surface that is geometrically similar to and concentric with A 1 (see Clause 12.6) = a distance; or = shear span, equal to the distance between the centroids of an applied load and a support reaction in a structure (see Clause 7.2.4); or = perpendicular distance from the nearer support to the section under consideration (see Clause 9.6); or = dimension of the critical shear perimeter measured parallel to the direction of * M v [see Figure 9.2.1(B)] am
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= average axis distance (see Clause 5.2.1) = axis distance (see Clause 5.5.2) = length of a support in the direction of the span (see Clause 6.1.4.4) = distance from the section at which shear is being considered to the face of the nearest support (see Clause 8.2.7.1) = width of a rectangular cross-section or member; or = width of beam at the centroid of the bottom reinforcement (see Clause 5.4.1); or = width of ribs [see Table 5.5.2(c) and Table 5.5.2(d)]; or = smaller cross-sectional dimension of a rectangular column or the diameter of a circular column (see Table 5.6.3 and Table 5.6.4); or = wall thickness (see Table 5.7.2)

as a sup av b

bc b ef

= core dimension measured between the centre-lines of the outermost fitments measured across the width of the section (see Clause 10.7.3.3) = effective width of a compression face or flange of a member
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bf bl

= width of the shear plane (see Clause 8.4.3) = size of rectangular, or equivalent rectangular column, capital, or bracket, measured in the direction of the span for which moments are being determined (see Paragraph C4.3.2, Appendix C) = dimension of an opening (see Clause 9.2.1.2 and 9.2.1.5) = size of rectangular, or equivalent rectangular column, capital, or bracket, measured transverse to the direction of the span for which moments are being determined (see Paragraph C4.3.2, Appendix C) = effective width of a web for shear (see Clause 8.2.6) = a width of the web; or = minimum thickness of the wall of a hollow section (see Clause 8.3.3)

bo bt

bv bw c (c1 ) cd D

= cover to reinforcing steel or tendons = the smaller of the concrete covers to the deformed bar or half the clear distance to the next parallel (see Clause 13.1.2.3) = overall depth of a cross-section in the plane of bending; or = depth or breadth of the symmetrical prism as appropriate (see Clause 12.5.6)

Db Dc Ds

= overall depth of a spandrel beam = smaller column cross-sectional dimension if rectangular, or the column diameter if circular (see Clause 10.7.4.3) = overall depth of a slab or drop panel = the member depth at the theoretical cut-off point or debonding point (see Clause 8.1.10.1)

d

= effective depth of a cross-section in the plane of bending; or = nominal internal Clause 17.2.3.2) diameter of reinforcement bend or hook (see

db dc
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= nominal diameter of a bar, wire or tendon = width of the idealized strut (see Clause 7.2.4); or = core dimension measured between the centre-lines of the outermost fitments measured through the depth of the section (see Clause 10.7.3.3)

dd df do

= diameter of a prestressing duct (see Clause 8.2.6) = diameter of the bar forming the tie (see Paragraph C4.2.2, Appendix C) = distance from the extreme compressive fibre of the concrete to the centroid of the outermost layer of tensile reinforcement or tendons (not less than 0.8D for prestressed concrete members) = mean value of do , averaged around the critical shear perimeter = distance from the extreme compressive fibre of the concrete to the centroid of the tendons in that zone, which will be tensile under ultimate strength conditions = overall dimension measured between centre-lines of the outermost fitments (see Clause 10.7.3.3) = distance from the extreme compressive fibre of the concrete to the centroid of compressive reinforcement (see Clause 8.1.7) www.standards.org.au d om dp

ds d sc

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AS 3600—2009

EC e Ec E cj Ed Ep Es e

= electrical conductivity (see Clause 4.8.2) = mean value of the modulus of elasticity of concrete at 28 days = mean value of the modulus of elasticity of concrete at the appropriate age, determined in accordance with Clause 3.1.2 = design action effect (see Clauses 2.2.2 to 2.2.6) = modulus of elasticity of tendons, determined in accordance with Clause 3.3.2 = modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, determined in accordance with Clause 3.2.2 = eccentricity of prestressing force or load; or = the base of Napierian logarithms

ea F
Fc*

= an additional eccentricity (see Clause 11.5.1) = total vertical component of the external load carried through the shear span (see Clause 12.2.1) = absolute value of the design force in the compressive zone due to flexure (see Clause 8.3.6) = uniformly distributed design load, factored for strength or serviceability, as appropriate = effective design service load per unit length or area, used in serviceability design = mean value of cylinder strength (see Clause 3.1.1.2) = mean value of the in situ compressive strength of concrete at the relevant age (see Clause 3.1.1.2 and Table 3.1.2) = mean compressive strength of concrete at transfer = uniaxial tensile strength of concrete (see Clause 3.1.1.3) = measured flexural tensile strength of concrete (see Clause 3.1.1.3) = measured splitting tensile strength of concrete (see Clause 3.1.1.3) = concrete shear strength (see Clause 8.2.7.1 and 9.2.3) = characteristic minimum breaking strength (see Clause 3.3.1) = yield strength of tendons determined in accordance with Clause 3.3.1 = average confining pressure on the core cross-section taken at the level of the fitments (see Clause 10.7.3.3) = effective confining pressure applied to the core of a column (see Clause 10.7.3.3) = stress in reinforcement in the ith direction crossing a strut = characteristic yield strength of reinforcement (referred to as Re in AS/NZS 4671), determined in accordance with Clause 3.2.1 = yield strength of reinforcement used as fitments = characteristic compressive (cylinder) strength of concrete at 28 days = compressive strength of the concrete in the column (see Clause 10.8) = effective compressive strength of the concrete in the joint (see Clause 10.8)
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Fd F d.ef fcm fcmi fcp fct fct.f fct.sp fcv
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f pb f py fr f r.eff fsi fsy fsy.f f c′

′ fcc ′ fce

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′ fcs
′ f ct ′ f ct.f

= compressive strength of the concrete in the slab or beams (see Clause 10.8) = characteristic uniaxial tensile strength of concrete (see Clause 3.1.1.3) = characteristic flexural Clause 3.1.1.3) tensile strength of concrete at 28 days (see

G g gp Hw H we h hs I Ic Icr Ief Ief.max If Jt j K k k co
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= permanent action (dead load) = dead load, per unit length or area = permanent distributed load normal to the shear interface per unit length, newtons per millimetre (N/mm) (see Clause 8.4.3) = floor-to-floor unsupported height of a wall = effective height of a wall = overall depth of a joint (see Clause 10.8) = flange thickness of a ribbed slab = second moment of area of the uncracked concrete cross-section about the centroidal axis = second moment of area of a column = second moment of area of a cracked section with the reinforcement transformed to an equivalent area of concrete = an effective second moment of area (see Clause 8.5.3) = maximum effective second moment of area (see Clause 8.5.3) = second moment of area of a flexural member = a torsional modulus = time after prestressing, in days (see Clause 3.3.4.3) = a factor that accounts for the position of the bars being anchored with respect to the transverse reinforcement (see Clause 13.1.2.3) = a coefficient, ratio or factor used with and without numerical subscripts = cohesion coefficient (see Clause 8.4.3) = factor used in serviceability design to take account of the long-term effects of creep and shrinkage = effectiveness factor accounting for the arrangement of the fitments = coefficient calculated in accordance with Clause 10.4.2 = ratio of the depth, or breadth, of an anchorage bearing plate to the corresponding depth, or breadth, of the symmetrical prism (see Clause 12.5.4) = neutral axis parameter being the ratio, at ultimate strength under any combination of bending and compression, of the depth to the neutral axis from the extreme compressive fibre to d = ratio, at ultimate strength, of the depth to the neutral axis from the extreme compressive fibre to d o = centre-to-centre distance between the supports of a flexural member = effective length of a column

k cs ke km kr ku

k uo L Le

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AS 3600—2009

L ef

= effective span of a member, taken as the lesser of (L n + D) and L for a beam or slab; or = L n + D/2 for a cantilever

Ll Ln

= distance between centres of lateral restraints or from a lateral restraint to the free edge = length of clear span in the direction in which moments are being determined, measured face-to-face of supporting beams, columns or walls, or for a cantilever, the clear projection = L minus 0.7 times the sum of the values of a sup at each end of the span (see Clause 6.10.4.2) = smaller value of L o for adjoining spans (see Clause 6.10.4.5) = development length of tendons = length of the tendon from the jacking end to a point at a distance ‘a’ from that end (see Clause 3.4.2.4) = transmission length for pretensioned tendons = span between formwork supports (see Clause 17.6.2.4) = development length of a bar for a compressive stress less than the yield stress = development length of a bar for a tensile stress less than the yield stress = development length in compression, being the length of embedment required to develop the yield strength of a deformed bar in compression (see Clause 13.1.5.1) = basic development length of a deformed bar in compression (see Clause 13.1.5.2) = development length in tension, to develop the characteristic yield strength of a deformed bar in tension [see Clause 13.1.2 and Figure 13.1.2.3(A)] = the tensile lap length for either contact or non-contact splices (see Clause 13.2.2) = basic development length of a deformed bar in tension (see Clause 13.1.2.2) = width of a design strip [see Figure 6.1.4(A)] = unsupported length of a column, taken as the clear distance between the faces of members capable of providing lateral support to the column. Where column capitals or haunches are present, L u is measured to the lowest extremity of the capital or haunch = overall length of a wall = shorter effective span of a slab supported on four sides = longer effective span of a slab supported on four sides = length of the bursting zone (see Clause 7.2.4) = shorter span of a two-way slab [see Table 5.5.2(A)] = longer span of a two-way slab [see Table 5.5.2(A)] = effective length of a column under fire conditions (see Clause 5.6.3) = design bending moment at a cross-section
*

Lo
′ Lo

Lp L pa L pt Ls L sc L st L sy.c

L sy.cb L sy.t L sy.t.lap L sy.tb Lt
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Lu

Lw Lx Ly lb lx ly l 0.fi M

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M* f
M s*
* M s.1 * Mv

= design moment in the fire situation (see Table 5.6.4) = maximum bending moment at the section based on the short-term serviceability load or construction load (see Clause 8.5.3.1) = design bending moment at the serviceability limit state, calculated with ψ s = 1.0 (see Clauses 8.6.1 and 9.4.1) = design bending moment to be transferred from a slab to a support = design bending moment in a column about the major and minor axes respectively; or = positive design bending moment, at midspan in a slab, in the x and y direction respectively

* * Mx , My

* M 1* , M 2

= smaller and larger design bending moment respectively at the ends of a column = moment used in the calculation of the buckling load (N c) (see Clause 10.4.4) = bending moment causing cracking of the section with due consideration to prestress, restrained shrinkage and temperature stresses = total static moment in a span (see Clause 6.10.4.2); or = decompression moment (see Clause 8.2.7.2) = ultimate strength in bending at a cross-section of an eccentrically loaded compressive member = particular ultimate strength in bending when k uo = 0.003/(0.003 + fsy / Es) = ultimate strength in bending, without axial force, at a cross-section = minimum required strength in bending at a critical cross-section (see Clause 8.1.6.1)

Mc Mcr Mo Mu M ub M uo (M uo) min

M ux , M uy = ultimate strength in bending about the major and minor axes respectively of a column under the design axial force N * m N
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*

= number of fitments legs crossing the confinement plane (see Clause 10.7.3.3) = axial compressive or tensile force on a cross-section = design axial load in the fire situation (see Clause 5.6.3) = buckling load used in column design = ultimate strength in compression, or tension, at a cross-section of an eccentrically loaded compression or tension member respectively = ultimate strength per unit length of wall (see Clause 11.5.1)

N f*

Nc Nu

N ub N uo N uot n

= particular ultimate strength in compression of a cross-section when k uo = 0.003/(0.003 + fsy /E s) = ultimate strength in compression, without bending, of an axially loaded cross-section = ultimate strength in tension, without bending, of an axially loaded cross-section = number of bars uniformly (see Clause 13.2.4); or spaced around helical reinforcement

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AS 3600—2009

= number of laterally restrained longitudinal bars (see Clauses 10.7.3.3 and 10.7.3.4) P = force in the tendons; or = maximum force occurring Clause 12.5.4); or = applied loads (see Clause 12.2) Pe Pv p p cw pw Q q R Rb Rd Ru R u.sys r Sp s = total effective prestress force allowing for all losses of prestress = vertical component of the prestressing force = a reinforcement ratio = web reinforcement ratio for compressive reinforcement (see Clause 8.5.3.1) = a reinforcement ratio in a wall; or = web reinforcement ratio for tensile reinforcement (see Clause 8.5.3.1) = imposed action (live load) including impact, if any = imposed action (live load) per unit length or area = design relaxation of a tendon, determined in accordance with Clause 3.3.4.3 = basic relaxation of a tendon, determined in accordance with Clause 3.3.4.2 = design capacity of a member or structure (equal to φR u or φsys.R u.sys) = ultimate strength of a member (see Clause 2.2) = mean capacity of the structure (see Clause 2.2.5) = radius of gyration of a cross-section = structural performance factor (see Paragraph C2.9, Appendix C) = centre-to-centre spacing of fitments including shear, torsional or confining reinforcement, measured parallel to the longitudinal axis of a member; or = standard deviation; or = maximum spacing of transverse reinforcement within Lsy.c , or spacing of fitments, or spacing of successive turns of helical reinforcement, all measured centre-to-centre, in millimetres (see Clause 13.2.4); or
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at

the

anchorage

during

jacking

(see

= spacing of anchored shear reinforcement crossing interface (see Clause 8.4.3) sb sL T T
*

= clear distance between bars of the non-contact lapped splice (see Figure 13.2.2) = clear distance between bars of the non-contact lapped splice (see Figure 13.2.2) = a temperature; or = force resultant of transverse tensile stresses (see Clause 12.5.4) = torsional moment at a cross-section = bursting force calculated at the ultimate limit state (see Clause 7.2.4) = bursting force calculated at the serviceability state (see Clause 7.2.4) = bursting (or splitting) force across a strut caused at the time of cracking of the strut (see Clause 7.2.4)
© Standards Australia

Tb*
* Tb.s

T b.cr

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Tu T uc T us T u.max Tw t td tf th t nom tw u ue ut V* Vo Vt

= ultimate torsional strength = ultimate torsional strength of a beam without torsional reinforcement and in the presence of shear (see Clause 8.3.5) = ultimate torsional strength of a beam with torsional reinforcement (see Clause 8.3.5) = ultimate torsional strength of a beam limited by web crushing failure (see Clause 8.3.3) = vertical component of the force carried by the secondary struts (see Clause 12.2) = time = difference between the actual effective thickness of the slab and the effective thickness specified in Table 5.5.1, for the required FRP (see Clause 5.8.2) = thickness of topping or flange anchored by shear reinforcement (see Clause 8.4.4) = hypothetical thickness of a member used in determining creep and shrinkage, taken as 2A g /ue = nominal thickness of topping applied (see Clause 5.8.2) = thickness of a wall = length of the critical shear perimeter (see Clause 9.2.1.5) = exposed perimeter of a member cross-section plus half the perimeter of any closed voids contained therein, used to calculate t h = perimeter of the polygon defined for A t (see Clauses 8.3.5 and 8.3.6) = design shear force at a cross-section = shear force which would occur at a section when the bending moment at that section was equal to the decompression moment M o = shear force, which, in combination with the prestressing force and other ′ action effects at the section, would produce a principal tensile stress of f ct at either the centroidal axis or the intersection of flange and web, whichever is the more critical (see Clause 8.2.7.2) = ultimate shear strength = ultimate shear strength limited by web crushing failure = ultimate shear strength of a beam or slab provided with minimum shear reinforcement (see Clauses 8.2.9 and 9.2.4 respectively) = ultimate shear strength excluding shear reinforcement (see Clause 8.2.7) = ultimate shear strength of a slab with no moment transfer (see Clause 9.2.3) = contribution by shear reinforcement to the ultimate shear strength of a beam or wall (see Clauses 8.2.10 and 11.6.4) = average clear spacing between adjacent tied longitudinal bars (see Clause 10.7.3.3); or = width of loaded area (see Figure 12.2.1) or node [see Figure 7.2.4 (A)] = a dimension [see Figure 9.2.1(A)] = shorter overall dimension of a rectangular part of a cross-section www.standards.org.au Accessed by NEWCREST MINING LIMITED on 14 Jul 2010

Vu V u.max V u.min V uc V uo V us w

X x

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AS 3600—2009

Y y y1 Z z

= a dimension [see Figure 9.2.1(A)] = larger overall dimension of a rectangular part of a cross-section = larger overall dimension of a closed fitment (see Clause 9.2.1.5) = section modulus of the uncracked cross-section, referred to the extreme fibre at which flexural cracking occurs (see Clause 8.1.6.1) = projection of the inclined compressive strut normal to the shear span (see Clause 7.2.4); or = internal moment lever arm of the section (see Clause 8.4.2)

α

= coefficient; or = angle of divergence between bottled shape compression fields and idealized parallel sided strut (see Clause 7.2.4)

αb αc αn αs α tot αv αx, αy β

= coefficient for beams (see Clause 8.1.6.1) = coefficient (see Clause 10.3.1) = coefficient (see Clause 10.6.4) = correlation factor (see Clause 10.4.3) = sum in radians of the absolute values of successive angular deviations of the prestressing tendon over the length (L pa) (see Clause 3.4.2.4) = angle between the inclined shear reinforcement and the longitudinal tensile reinforcement (see Clause 8.2.10) = short and long span bending moment coefficients respectively, for slabs supported on four sides (see Clause 6.10.3.2) = an effective compression strength factor (see Clause 2.2.3); or = fixity factor (see Clause 10.5.4); or = a ratio (see Clauses 8.4.2 and 8.5.3.1); or = a factor with or without alphanumeric subscripts (see Clause 8.2.7)

βd βh
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= a factor (see Clause 10.4.3) = a ratio (see Clause 9.2.1.5) = factor to account for the effect of the anchorage of ties on the effective compressive strength of a nodal zone (see Clause 7.4.2) = an estimate, in radians per metre (rad/m), of the angular deviation due to wobble effects (see Clause 3.4.2.4) = strut efficiency factor (see Clause 7.2.2) = short and long span bending moment coefficients respectively, for slabs supported on four sides (see Clause 6.10.3.2) = the ratio, under design bending or design combined bending and compression, of the depth of the assumed rectangular compressive stress block to k u d = column end Clause 10.5.3 restraint coefficients, determined in accordance with

βn βp βs βx , β y γ γ 1, γ 2 γi Δ

= angle between the axis of a strut and the bars in the ith direction of reinforcement crossing that strut (see Clause 7.2.4) = a deflection
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Δσ p δ, δ b, δs ε ε cc ε cs
* ε cs

= change in the stress due to the change in length of the prestressed tie (see Clause 7.3.2) = moment magnifiers for slenderness effects (see Clause 10.4) = a strain = strain due to concrete creep (see Clauses 3.1.8.1 and 3.4.3.3) = design shrinkage strain, determined in accordance with Clause 3.1.7.1 = final design shrinkage strain of concrete = drying shrinkage strain, determined in accordance with Clause 3.1.7.2 = autogenous shrinkage strain, determined in accordance with Clause 3.1.7.2 = final autogenous Clause 3.1.7.2 shrinkage strain, determined in accordance with

ε csd ε cse
* ε cse

ε csd.b
* ε csd.b

= basic drying shrinkage strain, determined in accordance with Clause 3.1.7.2 = final drying basic shrinkage strain, determined in accordance with Clause 3.1.7.2 = strain at maximum stress of a prestressing tendon = uniform strain at maximum stress, corresponding to the onset of necking = angle measured between the axis of the strut and the axis of a tie passing through a common node (see Clauses 7.2.2 and 12.2); or = angle between tie leg and confinement plane (see Clause 10.7.3.3)

ε pu ε su θ

θv λ λ uc μ

= angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member (see Clause 8.2.10) = a factor (see Clause 13.1.2.3) = a ratio of loads (see Clause 10.4.3) = friction curvature coefficient (see Clause 3.4.2.4); or = coefficient of friction (see Clause 8.4.3); or = structural ductility factor (see Appendix C)

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ν ρ ρp

= Poisson’s ratio for concrete, determined in accordance with Clause 3.1.5 = density of concrete, in kilograms per cubic metre (kg/m3 ), determined in accordance with Clause 3.1.3 = transverse compressive pressure, in megapascals, at the ultimate limit state along the development length perpendicular to the plane of splitting (see Clause 13.1.2.3) = volumetric ratio of the fitments relative to the volume of the core (see Clause 10.7.3.3) = sustained stress in the concrete at the level of the centroid of the tendons, calculated using the initial prestressing force prior to any time-dependent losses and the sustained portions of all the service loads (see Clause 3.4.3.3) = average intensity of effective prestress in concrete = compressive stress due to prestress, at the extreme fibre where cracking occurs (see Clause 8.2.7.2)

ρs σ ci

σ cp σ cp.f

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AS 3600—2009

σ cs σo σ pa σ p.ef σ pi σ pj σ pu σ sc σ scr σ scr.1

= maximum shrinkage-induced tensile stress on the uncracked section at the extreme fibre at which cracking occurs (see Clause 8.5.3.1) = a constant sustained stress (see Clause 3.1.8.1) = stress in the tendon at a distance ‘a’, measured from the jacking end (see Clause 3.4.2.4) = effective stress in the tendon after allowing for all losses (see Clause 8.1.8) = stress in the tendon immediately after transfer = stress in the tendon at the jacking end (see Clause 3.4.2.4) = maximum stress that would be reached in a tendon at ultimate strength of a flexural member = a compressive stress being developed in a bar in compression (see Clause 13.1.5.4) = tensile steel stress at the serviceability limit state for a beam in flexure or in tension (see Clause 8.6.1) or for a slab in flexure (see Clause 9.4.1) = tensile stress in reinforcement at a cracked section, due to the short-term load combination for the serviceability limit states, calculated with ψs = 1.0, when direct loads are applied (see Clause 8.6.1) = tensile stress in reinforcement (see Clause 13.1.2.4) = design shear stress acting on the interface (see Clause 8.4.2) = unit shear strength (see Clause 8.4.3) = capacity reduction factor for design using linear elastic analysis (see Clause 2.2.2) = stress reduction factor for design using linear stress analysis (see Clause 2.2.3) = strength reduction factor for design using strut-and-tie analysis (see Clause 2.2.4) = system strength reduction factor for design using non-linear methods of analysis (see Clauses 2.2.5 and 2.2.6) = design creep coefficient at any time t (see Clause 3.1.8.3) = final design creep coefficient (see Clause 3.1.8.3) = basic creep coefficient of concrete, determined in accordance with Clause 3.1.8.2 = factor for reduction of imposed (live) floor loads due to area (refer to AS/NZS 1170.1) = combination imposed action (live load) factor used in assessing the design load for strength (refer to AS/NZS 1170.0) = short-term imposed action (live load) factor used in assessing the design load for serviceability (refer to AS/NZS 1170.0) = long-term imposed action (live load) factor used in assessing the design load for serviceability (refer to AS/NZS 1170.0) = dimension of node [see Figure 7.2.4(A)]

σ st τ
*

τu φ φs φ st φ sys ϕ cc
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* ϕ cc

ϕ cc.b ψa ψc ψs ψl Ω

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SE C T I O N 2 D E S IG N PRO CE D U RE S, ACT I ONS AN D L OADS
2.1 DESIGN PROCEDURES 2.1.1 Design for strength and serviceability Concrete structures shall be designed for ultimate strength and serviceability limit states in accordance with the general principles and procedures for design as set out in AS/NZS 1170.0 and the specific requirements of Clauses 2.2 and 2.3. Notwithstanding the requirements of Clauses 2.2 and 2.3, it shall be permissible to carry out design checks for strength and serviceability by testing a structure or a component member in accordance with Appendix B. 2.1.2 Design for earthquake actions Where structures are required by AS 1170.4 to be designed for earthquake actions they shall comply with that Standard, this Standard and the provisions of Appendix C of this Standard. Values for the structural ductility factor (μ) and the structural performance factor (Sp) for concrete members and structures complying with this Standard shall be as given in Paragraph C3 of Appendix C. Structures designed assuming a structural ductility factor (μ) greater than 3 fall outside the scope of AS 1170.4.
NOTE: AS 1170.4 suggests in this situation that structures be designed in accordance with NZS 1170.5. In this situation, concrete structures should be designed and detailed in accordance with NZS 3101 and this will involve the use of Ductility Class E reinforcement.

2.1.3 Design for robustness Concrete structures shall be designed to be robust in accordance with the procedures and criteria given in Section 6 of AS/NZS 1170.0. 2.1.4 Design for durability and fire resistance Concrete structures shall be designed to be— (a) (b)
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durable in accordance with the procedures and criteria given in Section 4; and fire resistant in accordance with the procedures and criteria given in Section 5.

2.1.5 Material properties The properties of materials used in the design shall be in accordance with Section 3. When evaluating the behaviour of a concrete structure, member or cross-section, the values of concrete properties used in the calculation shall be appropriate to the age of the concrete, rate of loading and expected variations of material properties. 2.2 DESIGN FOR STRENGTH 2.2.1 General Strength checks for concrete structures and their component members shall be carried out using the procedures specified in Clauses 2.2.2 to 2.2.6, and methods of structural analysis specified in Section 6, as appropriate to the strength check procedures being used. It shall be permissible to use different strength check procedures for different members in a structure, and for the structure as a whole, provided it can be shown that all external actions and forces and calculated internal stress resultants are consistent with the requirements of equilibrium and compatibility for the entire structure.
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AS 3600—2009

2.2.2 Strength check procedure for use with linear elastic methods of analysis, with simplified analysis methods and for statically determinate structures The strength check procedure for use in conjunction with— (a) (b) (c) linear elastic methods of analysis of indeterminate structures and members; simplified methods of analysis of indeterminate structures and members; and static analysis of determinate structures,

shall be carried out as follows: (i) It shall be confirmed that the design capacity is equal to or greater than the design action effect, for all critical cross-sections and regions— Rd ≥ Ed where R d = design capacity (equal to φR u ) E d = design action effect (ii) The design capacity, R d = φR u , shall be obtained using the appropriate capacity reduction factor (φ), given in Table 2.2.2, and the ultimate strength (R u), determined in accordance with the relevant sections of this Standard using characteristic values for the material strengths. . . . 2.2.2

(iii) The design action effect (E d), shall be determined for the critical combination of factored actions specified in AS/NZS 1170.0 and Clause 2.4 by one of the following methods of analysis: (A) (B) (C) (D) Linear elastic analysis in accordance with Clause 6.2. Linear elastic analysis incorporating secondary bending moments due to lateral joint displacement in accordance with Clause 6.3. One of the simplified methods of analysis in accordance with Clauses 6.9 and 6.10. Equilibrium analysis of a statically determinate structure.

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TABLE 2.2.2 CAPACITY REDUCTION FACTORS (φ)
Type of action effect (a) Axial force without bending: (i) (ii) (b) Tension Compression 0.8 0.6 Capacity reduction factor (φ)

Bending without axial tension or compression— (i) (ii) for members with Class N reinforcement only for members with Class L reinforcement 0.6 ≤ (1.19 − 13k uo/12) ≤ 0.8 0.6 ≤ (1.19 − 13k uo/12) ≤ 0.64 φ + [(0.8−φ) (N u/N uot)] and φ is obtained from Item (b)

(c) (d)

Bending with axial tension Bending with axial compression, where— (i) (ii) N u ≥ Nub N u < Nub

0.6 0.6 + [(φ−0.6) (1−N u/Nub )] and φ is obtained from Item (b) 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6

(e) (f) (g) (h) (i)

Shear Torsion Bearing Bending, shear and compression in plain concrete Bending, shear and tension in fixings

2.2.3 Strength check procedure for use with linear elastic stress analysis The strength check procedure for use with a linear elastic stress analysis of a structure or member shall be made as follows: (a) The structure or member shall be analysed for the critical combination of factored actions, as specified in AS/NZS 1170.0 and Clause 2.4, by linear stress analysis, in accordance with Clause 6.4, assuming the concrete to be uncracked, and using accepted principles of mechanics. The calculated principal compressive stresses shall not exceed the following value: φ s β 0.9 f c′

(b)
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. . . 2.2.3

where φ s = stress reduction factor with values taken from Table 2.2.3 β = an effective compressive strength factor, to be evaluated as follows: (i) In regions not containing effective confining reinforcement—
′ β = 1.0 when the principal tensile stress does not exceed f ct , otherwise β = 0.6

(ii)

In regions where effective confining reinforcement is provided, β shall be evaluated by rational calculation taking account of the amount of confining steel and the details used, but shall not exceed 2.

(c)

Reinforcement and/or tendons shall be provided to carry all of the internal tensile forces, with stresses not exceeding φ sfsy and φ sf py respectively, where values for the stress reduction factor (φ s) are in accordance with Table 2.2.3. www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia

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AS 3600—2009

(d)

In determining the areas of steel reinforcement, it shall be permissible to reduce the peak stresses by averaging the stresses over an area appropriate to the size of the member. The stress development of the reinforcement and tendons shall be determined in accordance with Clauses 13.1 and 13.3 respectively. TABLE 2.2.3 STRESS REDUCTION FACTORS (φ s)
Material Concrete in compression Steel in tension Class N Class L Tendons 0.8 0.64 0.8 Stress reduction factor (φ s ) 0.6

(e)

2.2.4 Strength check procedure for use with strut-and-tie analysis The strength check procedure for use with strut-and-tie analysis shall be carried out as follows: (a) (b) The strut-and-tie model shall satisfy the requirements of Section 7. The forces acting on all struts and ties and nodes shall be determined for the critical combination of factored actions as specified in AS/NZS 1170.0 and Clause 2.4 by an analysis of the strut-and-tie model in accordance with Section 7. The compressive force in any concrete strut shall not exceed the design strength of that strut determined in accordance with Clause 7.2.3. The strength reduction factor (φst) to be used in determining the design strength shall be in accordance with Table 2.2.4. The tensile force in any tie shall not exceed the design strength of the tie determined in accordance with Clause 7.3.2 where the strength reduction factor (φ st) is given in Table 2.2.4. The reinforcement and/or tendons in the ties shall be anchored in accordance with Clause 7.3.3. The design strength of nodes shall be calculated in accordance with Clause 7.4.2 and shall not be exceeded. The strength reduction factor (φ st) shall be in accordance with Table 2.2.4. TABLE 2.2.4 STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTORS (φst) FOR DESIGN USING STRUT-AND-TIE ANALYSIS
Material Concrete in compression Steel in tension Strength reduction factor (φ st) 0.6 0.8

(c)

(d)

(e) (f)
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2.2.5 Strength check procedure for use with non-linear analysis of framed structures The strength check procedure for use with non-linear analysis of framed structures at collapse shall be carried out as follows: (a) It shall be confirmed that the design capacity of the structure is equal to or greater than the design action effect— Rd ≥ Ed where R d = design capacity of the structure E d = design action effect (b) (c) The design action effect (Ed) is the critical combination of factored actions as specified in AS/NZS 1170.0 and Clause 2.4. The design capacity of the structure (Rd = φ sys Ru.sys) shall be obtained using the appropriate system strength reduction factor (φ sys), given in Table 2.2.5, and the mean capacity of the structure (R u.sys) determined for the same combination of actions adopted in Item (b) to evaluate E d, by using non-linear frame analysis as specified in Clause 6.5, with mean values of material properties. TABLE 2.2.5 SYSTEM STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTORS (φsys) (For application with Clauses 2.2.5 and 2.2.6)
Type of failure For structural systems in which the deflections and local deformations at high overload are an order of magnitude greater than those for service conditions; and yielding of the reinforcement and/or the tendon occurs well before the peak load is reached In all other cases System strength reduction factor (φ sys )

. . . 2.2.5

0.7

0.5 (see Note)

NOTE: Larger values than 0.5 may be used if it can be shown that, at high overload, adequate warning is given of impending collapse.

2.2.6 Strength check procedure for use with non-linear stress analysis The strength check procedure for use with non-linear stress analysis at collapse shall be carried out as follows: (a) It shall be confirmed that the design capacity of the structure or the component member is equal to or greater than the design action effect⎯ Rd ≥ Ed where R d = design capacity of the structure or component E d = design action effect on the structure or the design action effects for a component (b) The design action effect (Ed) shall be the critical combination of factored actions (or action effects) as specified in AS/NZS 1170.0 and Clause 2.4. . . . 2.2.6

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AS 3600—2009

(c)

The design capacity of the structure (or component) (R d = φ sys R u.sys) shall be obtained using the appropriate system strength reduction factor (φsys) given in Table 2.2.5, and the mean capacity of the structure (or component) (R u.sys) which shall be determined for the same combination of actions adopted for Ed , by non-linear stress analysis as specified in Clause 6.6, with mean values of material properties.

2.3 DESIGN FOR SERVICEABILITY 2.3.1 General Design checks shall be carried out for all appropriate service conditions to ensure the structure will perform in a manner appropriate for its intended function and purpose.
NOTE: Design limits given or implied in Clauses 2.3.2 and 2.3.3 are based on previous design experience, and reflect requirements for normal structures. In special situations other limits may be appropriate. For further guidance refer to Appendix C of AS/NZS 1170.0.

2.3.2 Deflection The deflection of beams and slabs under service conditions shall be controlled as follows: (a) A limit for the calculated deflection of the member shall be chosen and shall be appropriate to the structure and its intended use. The chosen value shall be not greater than the value calculated from the appropriate deflection-to-span ratio given in Table 2.3.2. The member shall be designed so that, under the design load for serviceability, the deflections, determined either by calculation or controlled by limiting the span-todepth ratios in accordance with Clause 8.5 for beams and Clause 9.3 for slabs, do not exceed the deflection limit.

(b)

For unbraced frames and multistorey buildings subject to lateral loading, an appropriate limit for the inter-storey lateral drift shall be chosen, which does not exceed 1/500 of the storey height. The structure shall be designed so that, under the design lateral load for serviceability, the calculated inter-storey lateral drift does not exceed the chosen value.

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TABLE 2.3.2 LIMITS FOR CALCULATED VERTICAL DEFLECTIONS OF BEAMS AND SLABS
Type of member All members Members supporting masonry partitions Deflection to be considered The total deflection The deflection that occurs after the addition or attachment of the partitions The deflection that occurs after the addition or attachment of the finish The imposed action (live load and dynamic impact) deflection Total deflection Deflection limitation (Δ/Lef ) for spans (Notes 1 and 2) 1/250 1/500 where provision is made to minimize the effect of movement, otherwise 1/1000 Manufacturer’s specification but not more than 1/500 Deflection limitation (Δ/Lef ) for cantilevers (Note 4) 1/125 1/250 where provision is made to minimize the effect of movement, otherwise 1/500 Manufacturer’s specification but not more than 1/250 1/400

Members supporting other brittle finishes

Members subjected to vehicular or pedestrian traffic Transfer members

1/800

1/500 where provision is made to minimize the effect of deflection of the transfer member on the supported structure, otherwise 1/1000

1/250

NOTES: 1 In general, deflection limits should be applied to all spanning directions. This includes, but is not limited to, each individual member and the diagonal spans across each design panel. For flat slabs with uniform loadings, only the column strip deflections in each direction need be checked. If the location of masonry partitions or other brittle finishes is known and fixed, these deflection limits need only be applied to the length of the member supporting them. Otherwise, the more general requirements of Note 1 should be followed. Deflection limits given may not safeguard against ponding. For cantilevers, the values of Δ/L ef given in this Table apply only if the rotation at the support is included in the calculation of Δ. Consideration should be given by the designer to the cumulative effect of deflections, and this should be taken into account when selecting a deflection limit.

2

3 4 5 6
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When checking the deflections of transfer members and structures, allowance should be made in the design of the supported members and structure for the deflection of the supporting members. This will normally involve allowance for settling supports and may require continuous bottom reinforcement at settling columns.

2.3.3 Cracking 2.3.3.1 General Cracking in concrete structures shall be controlled so that structural performance, durability and appearance of the structure are not compromised. 2.3.3.2 Control of cracking The requirements for cracking set out in Clause 2.3.3.1 shall be deemed to be satisfied by designing the structure and members to conform to the following requirements: (a) (b) Flexural cracking in concrete beams and slabs under service conditions shall be controlled in accordance with Clauses 8.6, 9.4.1, 9.4.2, 9.4.4 or 9.4.5, as appropriate. Cracking caused by shrinkage and temperature in concrete slabs shall be controlled in accordance with Clause 9.4.3.

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AS 3600—2009

(c) (d) (e)

Cracking in concrete walls under service conditions shall be controlled in accordance with Clause 11.7.2. Cracking in D-regions under service conditions shall be controlled in accordance with Clause 12.7. Pre-hardening cracking shall be controlled by appropriate specification and construction measures so that the durability, serviceability and/or the behaviour of the structure or member is not adversely affected.

2.3.4 Vibration Vibration in concrete structures and members shall be controlled so that the serviceability and structural performance are not adversely affected. 2.4 ACTIONS AND COMBINATIONS OF ACTIONS 2.4.1 Actions and loads The minimum actions and loads used in the design shall be those set out in AS/NZS 1170.0. 2.4.2 Combinations of actions and loads The combinations of actions, loads and forces used in the design shall be in accordance with AS/NZS 1170.0. Where applicable, the prestressing effect shall be included with a load factor of unity in all load combinations for both ultimate and serviceability design except for the case of permanent action plus prestressing force at transfer, when the more severe of— 1.15G + 1.15P; and 0.9G + 1.15P shall be used.
NOTE: See also Clause 6.2.6.

2.4.3 Construction effects In determining the critical design conditions for strength and serviceability, account shall be taken of the conditions during construction, and in particular— (a) (b)
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the construction sequence; the influence of the schedule for stripping of formwork; and the method of back-propping, and its effect on the loads applied during construction.

(c)

2.4.4 Arrangements of vertical loads on continuous beams, frames and floor systems When design checks are carried out for continuous beams and continuous floor systems, for two-dimensional framed structures and for three-dimensional framed structures and floor systems, alternative arrangements of the vertical loads shall be considered in order to determine the critical load combinations. Variations in the load intensity on individual spans shall be considered, including partial loading as specified in AS/NZS 1170.1, together with variations in the loading patterns, whereby some spans are loaded and others unloaded. The loading arrangements to be considered shall include at least the following: (a) (b) The factored permanent action (dead load), without variations in pattern. For factored imposed action (live load), where the pattern of loaded and unloaded spans is fixed, the full factored imposed action (live load) applied in the specified pattern.

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(c)

For imposed action (live load), where the pattern of loaded and unloaded spans is variable, as follows: (i) For continuous beams and two-dimensional frames and floor systems— (A) (B) (C) (ii) the factored imposed action (live load) on alternate spans; the factored imposed action (live load) on any two adjacent spans; and the factored imposed action (live load) on all spans.

For three-dimensional framed structures and floor systems, patterned variations of the factored imposed action (live load) shall be applied in chequerboard arrangements, including the principles of Items (A), (B) and (C) of Item (i) above, to determine the peak design action effects at each critical section.

(iii) Notwithstanding Items (i) and (ii), for beams and slabs at the strength limit state, for which the imposed action (live load) (Q) is less than three-quarters of the permanent action (dead load) (G), the factored imposed action (live load) on all spans.
NOTE: The load arrangements listed are the minimum to be considered for design. In particular, for deflection or vibration-sensitive structures and slender floor systems, additional load arrangements need to be considered.

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SE C T I O N

3

D E S IG N PRO PE RT IE S MA T E R I A L S

O F

3.1 PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE 3.1.1 Strength 3.1.1.1 Characteristic compressive strength The characteristic compressive strength of concrete at 28 days ( f c′ ) shall be either— (a) (b) taken as equal to the specified strength grade, provided the appropriate curing is ensured and that the concrete complies with AS 1379; or determined statistically from compressive strength tests carried out in accordance with AS 1012.9.

The characteristic compressive strengths of the standard strength grades are 20 MPa, 25 MPa, 32 MPa, 40 MPa, 50 MPa, 65 MPa, 80 MPa and 100 MPa. 3.1.1.2 Mean in situ compressive strength In the absence of more accurate data, the mean value of the in situ compressive strength (fcmi ) shall be taken as 90% of the mean value of the cylinder strength (fcm ) or shall be taken as those given in Table 3.1.2. 3.1.1.3 Tensile strength The uniaxial tensile strength (fct) is the maximum stress that concrete can withstand when subjected to uniaxial tension. The uniaxial tensile strength shall be determined from either the measured flexural tensile strength (fct.f ) or from the measured splitting tensile strength (f ct.sp) using— fct = 0.6f ct.f (a) (b) or fct = 0.9f ct.sp where fct.f and fct.sp are determined statistically from— flexural strength tests carried out in accordance with AS 1012.11; or indirect tensile strength tests carried out in accordance with AS 1012.10,

respectively.
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In the absence of more accurate data, the characteristic flexural tensile strength of concrete ′ ′ ( f ct.f ) and the characteristic uniaxial tensile strength of concrete ( f ct ) shall be taken as—
′ ′ ′ ′ f ct.f = 0.6 f c and f ct = 0.36 f c at 28 days and standard curing,

and where the mean and upper characteristic values are obtained by multiplying these values by 1.4 and 1.8, respectively. 3.1.2 Modulus of elasticity The mean modulus of elasticity of concrete at the appropriate age (Ecj) shall be either— (a) taken as equal to— (i) (ii)

(ρ )× (0.043 (ρ )× (0.024
1.5 1.5

f cmi

)

(in megapascals)

when fcmi ≤ 40 MPa; or when fcmi > 40 MPa,

f cmi + 0.12

)

(in megapascals)

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(b) (c)

determined by test in accordance with AS 1012.17; and for Standard strength grades at 28 days determined from Table 3.1.2. TABLE 3.1.2 CONCRETE PROPERTIES AT 28 DAYS fc′ (MPa) f cmi (MPa) E c (MPa) 20 22 24 000 25 28 26 700 32 35 30 100 40 43 32 800 50 53 34 800 65 68 37 400 80 82 39 600 100 99 42 200

3.1.3 Density The density of concrete (ρ) shall be determined by test in accordance with either AS 1012.12.1 or AS 1012.12.2. For normal-weight concrete, the density may be taken as 2400 kg/m 3 . 3.1.4 Stress-strain curves The stress-strain curve for concrete shall be either— (a) (b) assumed to be of curvilinear form defined by recognized simplified equations; or determined from suitable test data.

For design purposes, the shape of the in situ uniaxial compressive stress-strain curve shall be modified so that the maximum stress is 0.9 f c′ . 3.1.5 Poisson’s ratio Poisson’s ratio for concrete (ν) shall be either— (a) (b) taken as equal to 0.2; or determined by test in accordance with AS 1012.17.

3.1.6 Coefficient of thermal expansion The coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete shall be either— (a) (b)
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taken as equal to 10 × 10−6/°C, consideration being given to the fact that this value has a range of ±20%; or determined from suitable test data.

3.1.7 Shrinkage 3.1.7.1 Calculation of design shrinkage strain The design shrinkage strain of concrete (ε cs) shall be determined— (a) (b) (c) from measurements on similar local concrete; by tests after eight weeks of drying modified for long-term value, in accordance with AS 1012.13; or by calculation in accordance with Clause 3.1.7.2.

3.1.7.2 Design shrinkage strain When the design shrinkage strain of concrete (εcs) is to be calculated, it shall be determined as the sum of the chemical (autogenous) shrinkage strain (εcse) and the drying shrinkage strain (εcsd)— ε cs = ε cse + ε csd
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AS 3600—2009

The autogenous shrinkage strain shall be taken as—
* ε cse = ε cse × 1.0 − e −0.1t

(

)

. . . 3.1.7.2(2)

* where t is the time (in days) after setting and ε cse is the final autogenous shrinkage strain given by— * ε cse = (0.06 f c′ − 1.0 ) × 50 × 10 −6

. . . 3.1.7.2(3)

At any time t (in days) after the commencement of drying, the drying shrinkage strain shall be taken as— ε csd = k1 k 4ε csd.b

. . . 3.1.7.2(4)

and k 1 is obtained from Figure 3.1.7.2 and k4 is equal to 0.7 for an arid environment, 0.65 for an interior environment, 0.6 for a temperate inland environment and 0.5 for a tropical or near-coastal environment. The basic drying shrinkage strain (ε csd.b ) is given by—
* ε csd.b = (1.0 − 0.008 f c′ ) × ε csd.b

. . . 3.1.7.2(5)

* where the final drying basic shrinkage strain ( ε csd.b ) depends on the quality of the local aggregates and shall be taken as 800 × 10 −6 for Sydney and Brisbane, 900 × 10 −6 for Melbourne and 1000 × 10−6 elsewhere.
* Based on a value of ε csd.b = 1000 × 10 −6 , this method gives the typical design shrinkage strains shown in Table 3.1.7.2.

NOTE: Concrete exposed to early drying undergoes shrinkage due to capillary suction. This can result in cracking and poor service performance, particularly of exposed slabs. The amount of shrinkage from suction depends on the ambient conditions and the concrete mix, and can exceed the combined shrinkage from other causes. Therefore, it is important to prevent excessive drying of concrete between the commencement of casting and the application of curing at the completion of finishing.

Consideration shall be given to the fact that ε cs has a range of ±30%.

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FIGURE 3.1.7.2 SHRINKAGE STRAIN COEFFICIENT (k 1) FOR VARIOUS VALUES OF t h

TABLE 3.1.7.2 TYPICAL FINAL DESIGN SHRINKAGE STRAINS AFTER 30 YEARS
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* ε cs × 10 −6

Final design shrinkage strain fc′ (MPa) Arid environment t h (mm) 50 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 990 950 890 830 730 630 490 100 870 840 790 740 650 570 460 200 710 680 650 610 560 500 420 400 550 530 510 490 460 420 380 50 920 880 830 770 680 590 480 Interior environment t h (mm) 100 810 780 740 690 620 540 450 200 660 640 610 580 530 480 410 400 510 500 480 460 440 410 370 50 850 820 780 720 640 560 460

(

)

Temperate inland environment t h (mm) 100 750 720 690 650 580 520 430 200 610 590 570 540 500 450 400 400 470 460 450 440 410 390 360

Tropical, near-coastal and coastal environment t h (mm) 50 720 690 660 620 560 500 420 100 630 610 590 550 510 460 400 200 400 510 400 500 390 490 390 470 380 440 370 410 360 370 340

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3.1.8 Creep 3.1.8.1 General The creep strain at any time (t) caused by a constant sustained stress (σ o) shall be calculated from— ε cc = ϕ cc σ / Ec

. . . 3.1.8.1

where Ec = mean modulus of elasticity of the concrete at 28 days ϕ cc = design creep coefficient at time (t) determined in accordance with Clause 3.1.8.3 3.1.8.2 Basic creep coefficient The basic creep coefficient of concrete (ϕcc.b) is the mean value of the ratio of final creep strain to elastic strain for a specimen loaded at 28 days under a constant stress of 0.4 f c′ and shall be— (a) (b) (c) determined from measurements on similar local concrete; or determined by tests in accordance with AS 1012.16; or taken as the value given in Table 3.1.8.2. TABLE 3.1.8.2 BASIC CREEP COEFFICENT
Characteristic strength ( fc′ ) , MPa Basic creep coefficient (ϕ cc.b) 20 5.2 25 4.2 32 3.4 40 2.8 50 2.4 65 2.0 80 1.7 100 1.5

3.1.8.3 Design creep coefficient The design creep coefficient for concrete at any time, t, (ϕ cc) shall be determined from the basic creep coefficient (ϕ cc.b) by any accepted mathematical model for creep behaviour, calibrated such that ϕcc.b is also predicted by the chosen model. In the absence of more accurate methods, ϕcc at any time shall be taken as— ϕ cc = k2 k 3 k 4 k5 ϕ cc.b
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. . . 3.1.8.3

where k2 and k3 are obtained from Figure 3.1.8.3(A) and Figure 3.1.8.3(B) respectively; k 4 = 0.70 for an arid environment, 0.65 for an interior environment, 0.60 for a temperate inland environment and 0.50 for a tropical or near-coastal environment; k5 is a modification factor for high strength concrete and shall be taken as— k 5 = 1.0 k 5 = (2.0 − α 3 ) − 0.02(1.0 − α 3 ) f c′

when f c′ ≤ 50 MPa ; or when 50 MPa < f c′ ≤ 100 MPa ;

the factor α 3 = 0.7/(k 4 α 2); and α 2 is defined in Figure 3.1.8.3(A). Consideration shall be given to the fact that ϕ cc has a range of approximately ±30%. This range is likely to be exceeded if— (a) (b) the concrete member is subjected to prolonged periods of temperature in excess of 25°C; or the member is subject to sustained stress levels in excess of 0.5 f c′ .

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* The final design creep coefficients ϕ cc (after 30 years) predicted by this method for concrete first loaded at 28 days are given in Table 3.1.8.3.

( )

FIGURE 3.1.8.3(A) COEFFICIENT (k 2)
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FIGURE 3.1.8.3(B) MATURITY COEFFICIENT (k 3)
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TABLE 3.1.8.3 FINAL CREEP COEFFICIENTS (AFTER 30 YEARS) FOR CONCRETE FIRST LOADED AT 28 DAYS
* Final creep coefficient ϕcc

( )
Tropical, nearcoastal and coastal environment t h (mm) 400 2.80 2.27 1.87 1.60 1.38 1.22 1.11 100 3.44 2.79 2.30 1.97 1.61 1.33 1.15 200 2.78 2.25 1.86 1.59 1.38 1.23 1.14 400 2.33 1.90 1.56 1.33 1.23 1.14 1.11

f c′ (MPa)

Arid environment t h (mm) 100 200 3.90 3.15 2.60 2.23 1.75 1.40 1.14 400 3.27 2.64 2.18 1.89 1.53 1.29 1.11

Interior environment t h (mm) 100 4.48 3.62 2.98 2.56 1.95 1.50 1.15 200 3.62 2.93 2.41 2.07 1.66 1.36 1.14 400 3.03 2.46 2.02 1.73 1.46 1.25 1.11

Temperate inland environment t h (mm) 100 4.13 3.34 2.75 2.36 1.84 1.45 1.15 200 3.34 2.70 2.23 1.91 1.59 1.32 1.14

25 32 40 50 65 80 100

4.82 3.90 3.21 2.75 2.07 1.56 1.15

3.2 PROPERTIES OF REINFORCEMENT 3.2.1 Strength and ductility For the purposes of design, the characteristic yield strength of reinforcement (f sy) shall be taken as not greater than the value specified in Table 3.2.1 for the appropriate type of reinforcement (see also Clause 17.2.1.1). The ductility of the reinforcement shall be characterized by its uniform strain (εsu ) and tensile-to-yield stress ratio and designated as low (L) or normal (N) Ductility Class as given in Table 3.2.1. For the purposes of design, values of these parameters for each Ductility Class shall comply with AS/NZS 4671.
NOTE: In AS/NZS 4671, ε su is referred to as A gt, expressed as a percentage, and f sy is referred to as R e.

TABLE 3.2.1 YIELD STRENGTH AND DUCTILITY CLASS OF REINFORCEMENT
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Reinforcement Type Bar plain to AS/NZS 4671 Bar deformed to AS/NZS 4671 Welded wire mesh, plain, deformed or indented to AS/NZS 4671 Designation grade R250N D500L (fitments only) D500N D500L D500N

Characteristic Uniform yield strength (f sy ) strain MPa (ε su ) 250 500 500 500 500 0.05 0.015 0.05 0.015 0.05

Ductility Class N L N L N

NOTE: Reference should be made to AS/NZS 4671 for explanation to designations applying to 500 MPa steels.

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3.2.2 Modulus of elasticity The modulus of elasticity of reinforcement (Es) for all stress values not greater than the yield strength (fsy ) shall be either— (a) (b) taken as equal to 200 × 10 3 MPa; or determined by test.

3.2.3 Stress-strain curves A stress-strain curve for reinforcement shall be either— (a) (b) assumed to be of a form defined by recognized simplified equations; or determined from suitable test data.

3.2.4 Coefficient of thermal expansion The coefficient of thermal expansion of reinforcement shall be either— (a) (b) taken as equal to 12 × 10 −6 /°C; or determined from suitable test data.

3.3 PROPERTIES OF TENDONS 3.3.1 Strength The following applies: (a) The characteristic minimum breaking strength (fpb) for commonly used tendons shall be as specified in Table 3.3.1. For tendons of dimensions not covered in Clause 3.3, refer to AS/NZS 4672.1. The yield strength of tendons (f py) shall be taken either as the 0.1% proof stress as specified in AS/NZS 4672.1, or determined by test data. In the absence of test data it shall be taken as follows: (i) (ii) For wire used in the as-drawn condition .................................................0.80f pb. For stress-relieved wire .........................................................................0.83f pb. For hot-rolled bars (super grade) ............................................................0.81f pb. For hot-rolled ribbed bars ......................................................................0.89f pb.

(b)

(iii) For all grades of strand ..........................................................................0.82f pb. (iv) (v)
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TABLE 3.3.1 TENSILE STRENGTH OF COMMONLY USED WIRE STRAND AND BAR
Nominal diameter mm As-drawn wire, AS/NZS 4672.1 Stress-relieved wire, AS/NZS 4672.1 7 wire ordinary strand, AS/NZS 4672.1 5.0 7.0 5.0 7.0 9.5 12.7 15.2 15.2 15.2 18.0 26 29 32 36 40 56 75 Area mm 2 19.6 38.5 19.9 38.5 55.0 98.6 140 143 165 223 562 693 840 995 1232 2428 4371 Characteristic minimum breaking load kN 34.7 64.3 33.8 64.3 102 184 250 261 300 380 579 714 865 1025 1269 2501 4502 Characteristic minimum breaking strength (fpb ) MPa 1700 1670 1700 1670 1850 1870 1790 1830 1820 1700 1030 1030 1030 1030 1030 1030 1030

Material type and Standard

7 wire compacted strand, AS/NZS 4672.1 Hot-rolled bars, AS/NZS 4672.1 (Super grade only)

3.3.2 Modulus of elasticity The modulus of elasticity of commonly used tendons (E p) shall be either— (a) taken as equal to— (i) (ii) for as-drawn wire, to AS/NZS 4672.1........................................... 205 ±10 GPa; for stress-relieved steel wire, to AS/NZS 4672.1 .......................... 205 ±10 GPa; for hot-rolled high tensile alloy steel bars, to AS/NZS 4672.1... 205 ±10 GPa; or

(iii) for stress-relieved steel strand, to AS/NZS 4672.1 ...................... 200 ±5 GPa; or (iv) (b)
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determined by test.

NOTE: Consideration should be given to the fact that the modulus of elasticity of tendons may vary by ±10% and will vary more when a multi-strand or multi-wire tendon is stressed as a single cable. This will influence the calculated extension.

3.3.3 Stress-strain curves A stress-strain curve for tendons shall be determined from appropriate test data. 3.3.4 Relaxation of tendons 3.3.4.1 General This Clause applies to the relaxation, at any age and stress level, of low-relaxation wire, low-relaxation strand, and alloy-steel bars. 3.3.4.2 Basic relaxation The basic relaxation of a tendon (R b) after one thousand hours at 20°C and 0.8f pb shall be determined in accordance with AS/NZS 4672.1.

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3.3.4.3 Design relaxation The design relaxation of a tendon (R) shall be determined from—
R = k 4 k 5 k 6 Rb

. . . 3.3.4.3

where k 4 = a coefficient dependent on the duration of the prestressing force = log [5.4(j) 1/6] j = time after prestressing, in days k 5 = a coefficient, dependent on the stress in the tendon as a proportion of f pb, determined from Figure 3.3.4.3 sk 6 = a function, dependent on the average annual temperature (T) in degrees Celsius, taken as T/20 but not less than 1.0 When determining the design relaxation, consideration shall be given to the effects of curing at elevated temperatures, if applicable.

FIGURE 3.3.4.3 COEFFICIENT k 5

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3.4 LOSS OF PRESTRESS IN TENDONS 3.4.1 General The loss of prestress in tendons, at any given time, shall be taken to be the sum of the immediate loss of prestress and the time-dependent loss of prestress, calculated in accordance with Clauses 3.4.2 and 3.4.3 respectively. For structures designed to operate above 40°C, special calculations, based on appropriate test data, shall be made.
NOTE: Tendons in structural members subject to elevated temperatures permanently or in a high temperature environment will have significantly higher losses of prestress. Reference to specialist literature is recommended to establish the effect of elevated temperatures on the behaviour of the materials.

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3.4.2 Immediate loss of prestress 3.4.2.1 General The immediate loss of prestress shall be estimated by adding the calculated losses of prestress due to elastic deformation of concrete, friction, anchoring and other immediate losses as are applicable. 3.4.2.2 Loss of prestress due to curing conditions Where curing of a prestressed member is carried out at ambient conditions, the design relaxation shall be as determined by Clause 3.3.4.3. Where curing of a prestressed member is carried out at elevated temperature (such as steam curing), a part or all of the design relaxation, as determined from Clause 3.3.4.3, shall be deemed to be part of the immediate loss of prestress. 3.4.2.3 Loss of prestress due to elastic deformation of concrete Calculation of the immediate loss of prestress due to elastic deformation of the concrete at transfer shall be based on the value of modulus of elasticity of the concrete at that age. 3.4.2.4 Loss of prestress due to friction The stress variation along the design profile of a tendon due to friction in the jack, the anchorage and the duct shall be assessed in order to obtain an estimate of the prestressing forces at the critical sections considered in the design. The extension of the tendon shall be calculated allowing for the variation in tension along its length, as follows: (a) Friction in the jack and anchorage The loss of prestress due to friction in the jack and anchorage shall be determined for the type of jack and anchorage system to be used. Friction along the tendon Friction loss shall be calculated from an analysis of the forces exerted by the tendon on the duct. In the absence of more detailed calculations the stress in the tendon at a distance (a) measured from the jacking end (σ pa) shall be taken as— − μ (α tot + β p Lpa ) . . . 3.4.2.4 σ pa = σ pj e where
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(b)

σ pj = stress in the tendon at the jacking end e μ = base of Napierian logarithms = friction curvature coefficient for different conditions, which, in the absence of specific data and when all tendons in contact in the one duct are stressed simultaneously, shall be taken as— (i) for greased-and-wrapped coating, 0.15

(ii) for bright and zinc-coated metal sheathing, 0.15 to 0.20 (iii) for bright and zinc-coated flat metal ducts, 0.20 α tot = sum in radians of the absolute values of successive angular deviations of the prestressing tendon over the length of the tendon from the jacking end to a point at distance (a) from that end (L pa) βp = an estimate, in radians per metre (rad/m), of the angular deviation due to wobble effects, which, as a first approximation, shall be taken as—

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(i)

for sheathing containing tendons other than bars and having an internal diameter— ≤50 mm: 0.024 to 0.016 rad/m >50 mm but ≤90 mm: 0.016 to 0.012 rad/m >90 mm but ≤140 mm: 0.012 to 0.008 rad/m;

(ii) (iii) (iv)

for flat metal ducts containing bars: 0.024 rad/m to 0.016 rad/m;

tendons

other

than

for sheathing containing bars and having an internal diameter of 50 mm or less: 0.016 rad/m to 0.008 rad/m; and for bars of any coating: 0.008 rad/m. diameter in a greased-and-wrapped

L pa = length of the tendon from the jacking end to a point at a distance (a) from that end The magnitude of the friction due to duct curvature and wobble used in the design shall be verified during the stressing operation. 3.4.2.5 Loss of prestress during anchoring In a post-tensioned member, allowance shall be made for loss of prestress when the prestressing force is transferred from the tensioning equipment to the anchorage. This allowance shall be checked on the site and any correspondingly required adjustment shall be made. 3.4.2.6 Loss of prestress due to other considerations Where applicable, loss of prestress due to the following shall be taken into account in design: (a) (b) (c) (d)
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Deformation of the forms for precast members. Differences in temperature between stressed tendons and the actual stressed structures during heat treatment of the concrete. Changes in temperature between the time of stressing the tendons and the time of casting concrete. Deformations in the construction joints of precast structures assembled in sections. Permanently elevated temperatures in excess of 40°C.

(e)

3.4.3 Time-dependent losses of prestress 3.4.3.1 General The total time-dependent loss of prestress shall be estimated by adding the calculated losses of prestress due to shrinkage of the concrete, creep of the concrete, tendon relaxation, and other considerations as are applicable. 3.4.3.2 Loss of prestress due to shrinkage of the concrete The loss of stress in the tendon due to shrinkage of the concrete shall be taken as E p εcs , modified to allow for the effects of reinforcement, provided the shrinkage restraint effects of the reinforcement are included in the serviceability design of the member, where ε cs is determined in accordance with Clause 3.1.7.2. Where reinforcement is distributed throughout the member so that its effect on shrinkage is mainly axial, the loss of prestress in the tendons may be taken as:

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AS 3600—2009

Epε cs 1 + 15 As / Ag
3.4.3.3 Loss of prestress due to creep of the concrete

. . . 3.4.3.2

The loss of prestress due to creep of the concrete shall be calculated from an analysis of the creep strains in the concrete. In the absence of more detailed calculations and provided the sustained stress in the concrete at the level of the tendons at no time exceeds 0.5 f c′ , the loss of stress in the tendon due to creep of the concrete may be taken as E p εcc, in which ε cc is given by— ε cc = 0.8ϕ cc (σ ci / E c )

. . . 3.4.3.3

where ϕ cc = design creep coefficient calculated in accordance with Clause 3.1.8.3 σ ci = sustained stress in the concrete at the level of the centroid of the tendons, calculated using the initial prestressing force prior to any time-dependent losses and the sustained portions of all the service loads 3.4.3.4 Loss of prestress due to tendon relaxation The loss of stress in a tendon due to relaxation of the tendon in the member shall be determined by modifying the percentage loss of stress due to the design relaxation of the tendon (R) to take into account the effects of shrinkage and creep. In the absence of more detailed calculations, the percentage loss of stress in the tendon in the member shall be taken as—
⎛ the loss of stress due to creep and shrinkage ⎞ ⎟ R ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ σ pi ⎠ ⎝

. . . 3.4.3.4

where σ pi = stress in the tendon immediately after transfer 3.4.3.5 Loss of prestress due to other considerations Account shall be taken, if applicable, of— (a)
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losses due to deformations in the joints of precast structures assembled in sections; and losses due to the effects of any increase in creep caused by frequently repeated loads.

(b)

3.5 MATERIAL PROPERTIES FOR NON-LINEAR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS Where the structure is to be analysed in design in accordance with Clause 6.5 and 6.6, mean values of all relevant material properties shall be used in the form of the stress-strain curve for the material.

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SECT ION
4.1 GENERAL

4

DES IG N

F OR

DURAB I L I T Y

The requirements of this Section apply to plain, reinforced and prestressed concrete structures and members with a design life of 50 years ±20%.
NOTES: 1 More stringent requirements would be appropriate for structures with a design life in excess of 50 years (e.g., monumental structures), while some relaxation of the requirements may be acceptable for structures with a design life less than 50 years (e.g., temporary structures). Durability is a complex topic and compliance with these requirements may not be sufficient to ensure a durable structure.

2

4.2 METHOD OF DESIGN FOR DURABILITY Durability shall be allowed for in design by determining the exposure classification in accordance with Clause 4.3 and, for that exposure classification, complying with the appropriate requirements for concrete quality and curing, in accordance with Clauses 4.4 and 4.5. In addition— (a) (b) (c) (d) members subject to abrasion from traffic (e.g., pavements and floors) shall satisfy the requirements of Clause 4.6; members subject to cycles of freezing and thawing shall satisfy the requirements of Clause 4.7; members subject to aggressive soils shall satisfy Clause 4.8; members susceptible to damage due to alkali aggregate reaction (AAR) shall be assessed and appropriate management measures shall be taken; and
NOTE: Guidance on appropriate management measures may be found in HB 79.

(e)

members containing reinforcement and/or tendons, the chemical content restrictions of the concrete shall be in accordance with Clause 4.9 and the cover to reinforcement and tendons shall be in accordance with Clause 4.10.

4.3 EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION 4.3.1 General
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The following are applicable: (a) (b) The exposure classification for a surface of a member shall be determined from Table 4.3 and Figure 4.3. For determining concrete quality requirements in accordance with Clauses 4.4 to 4.8 as appropriate, the exposure classification for the member shall be taken as the most severe exposure of any of its surfaces. For determining cover requirements for corrosion protection in accordance with Clause 4.10.3, the exposure classification shall be taken as the classification for the surface from which the cover is measured. Members that do not contain reinforcement shall have an exposure classification of A1, unless the environment is aggressive to the concrete [see also Clause 4.2, Items (a), (b), (c) and (d)].

(c)

(d)

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4.3.2 Concession for exterior exposure of a single surface Where the exterior exposure is essentially only one surface of a member, concrete of the next lower grade than would otherwise be required by Clause 4.4 may be used, provided the cover from that surface is increased by— (a) (b) 20 mm from the value required by Clause 4.10.3.2; or 15 mm from the value required by Clause 4.10.3.3. TABLE 4.3 EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATIONS
Exposure classification reinforced or prestressed concrete members (see Note 1)

Surface and exposure environment

1

Surface of members in contact with the ground: (a) Members protected by a damp-proof membrane (b) Residential footings in non-aggressive soils (c) Other members in non-aggressive soils (d) Members in aggressive soils: (i) Sulfate bearing (magnesium content 50 km from coastline) environment being: (i) (ii) Non-industrial and arid climatic zone (see Note 3) Non-industrial and temperate climatic zone A1 A2 B1 B1 B1 B2

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(iii) Non-industrial and tropical climatic zone (iv) Industrial (see Note 4) and any climatic zone (b) (c) 4 Near-coastal (1 km to 50 km from coastline), any climatic zone Coastal (see Note 5) and any climatic zone

Surfaces of members in water: (a) In freshwater (b) In soft or running water B1 U (continued)

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TABLE 4.3 (continued)
Exposure classification reinforced or prestressed concrete members (see Note 1)

Surface and exposure environment

5

Surfaces of maritime structures in sea water: (a) Permanently submerged (b) In spray zone (see Note 6) (c) In tidal/splash zone (see Note 7) B2 C1 C2 U

6

Surfaces of members in other environments, i.e., any exposure environment not specified in Items 1 to 5 above (see Note 8)

NOTES: 1 In this context, reinforced concrete includes any concrete containing metals that rely on the concrete for protection against environmental degradation. Plain concrete members containing metallic embedments should be treated as reinforced members when considering durability. Severity of sulfate attack depends on the type of sulfate. For example, magnesium sulfate is more aggressive than sodium sulfate. The use of sulfate-resisting cement and concrete would be adequate for sodium sulfate conditions. For the magnesium sulfate conditions, specific consideration should be given to the cement and concrete that are likely to resist this type of sulfate. The climatic zones referred to are those given in Figure 4.3, which is based on the Bureau of Meteorology map, Major seasonal rainfall zones of Australia, Commonwealth of Australia, 2005. Industrial refers to areas that are within 3 km of industries that discharge atmospheric pollutants. For the purpose of this Table, the coastal zone includes locations within 1 km of the shoreline of large expanses of saltwater. Where there are strong prevailing winds or vigorous surf, the distance should be increased beyond 1 km and higher levels of protection should be considered. The spray zone is the zone from 1 m above wave crest level. The tidal/splash zone is the zone 1 m below lowest astronomical tide (LAT) and up to 1 m above highest astronomical tide (HAT) on vertical structures, and all exposed soffits of horizontal structures over the sea. Further guidance on measures appropriate in exposure classification U may be obtained from AS 3735. In this Table, classifications A1, A2, B1, B2, C1 and C2 represent increasing degrees of severity of exposure, while classification U represents an exposure environment not specified in this Table but for which a degree of severity of exposure should be appropriately assessed. Protective surface coatings may be taken into account in the assessment of the exposure classification.

2

3 4 5

6 7

8 9

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FIGURE 4.3 CLIMATIC ZONES REFERRED TO IN TABLE 4.3

4.4 REQUIREMENTS FOR CONCRETE FOR EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATIONS A1, A2, B1, B2, C1 AND C2
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Members subject to exposure classifications A1, A2, B1, B2, C1 and C2 shall have minimum f c′ as specified in Table 4.4, column 2, and be cured as specified in Table 4.4, column 3, or have a minimum average compressive strength of the concrete at the time of stripping of forms or removal from moulds as specified in Table 4.4, column 4. All concrete subject to exposure classifications B2, C1 or C2 shall be specified as special class as per AS 1379 and include in the specified parameters the exposure classification and any limitations on concrete quality.

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TABLE 4.4 MINIMUM STRENGTH AND CURING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONCRETE
Column 1 Exposure classification A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2 Column 2 Minimum fc′ (MPa) 20 25 32 40 50 50 Cure continuously for at least 7 days Column 3 Minimum initial curing requirement (see Clause 17.1.5.1) Cure continuously for at least 3 days Column 4 Minimum average compressive strength at the time of stripping of forms or removal from moulds (MPa) 15 20 25 32

4.5 REQUIREMENTS FOR CONCRETE FOR EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION U Members subject to exposure classification U shall have the concrete quality, cover to reinforcement/tendons, and other parameters specified, as appropriate, to ensure durability under the particular exposure environment. 4.6 ABRASION In addition to the other durability requirements of this Section, concrete for members subject to abrasion from traffic shall have a characteristic compressive strength not less than the applicable value given in Table 4.6. TABLE 4.6 STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS FOR ABRASION
Minimum characteristic compressive strength ( fc′) MPa Footpaths and residential driveways
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Member and/or traffic

20 25

Commercial and industrial floors not subject to vehicular traffic Pavements or floors subject to: (a) (b) (c) Pneumatic-tyred traffic Non-pneumatic-tyred traffic Steel-wheeled traffic

32 40 To be assessed but not less than 40

NOTE: f c′ refers to the characteristic compressive strength of the wearing surface.

4.7 FREEZING AND THAWING In addition to the other durability requirements of this Section, where the surface exposure includes exposure to cycles of freezing and thawing, concrete in the member shall— (a) have an f c′ not less than— (i) (ii)
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32 MPa for occasional exposure (5.5 4.5–5.5 4–4.5 16 NOTES: 1 2 EC e is saturated electrical conductivity in deciSiemens per metre. Guidance on concrete in saline environments can be found in CCAA T56. Exposure classification A2 B1 B2 Minimum fc′ 25 32 40 Minimum cover (mm) 45 50 55

4.9 RESTRICTIONS ON CHEMICAL CONTENT IN CONCRETE Certain chemical constituents (e.g., chlorides) can have deleterious effects on the durability of concrete. For this reason, chemical admixtures added to concrete to be used in structures or members designed in accordance with this Standard shall comply with AS 1478.1 and chemical content in concrete shall comply with AS 1379. 4.10 REQUIREMENTS FOR COVER TO REINFORCING STEEL AND TENDONS 4.10.1 General The cover to reinforcing steel and tendons shall be the greatest of the values determined from Clauses 4.8, 4.10.2 and 4.10.3, as appropriate, unless exceeded by the requirements for fire resistance given in Section 5. 4.10.2 Cover for concrete placement
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Designers shall specify appropriate covers to ensure the concrete can be satisfactorily placed and compacted around the reinforcement, tendons or ducts, or any combination of these, in accordance with the requirements of Clause 17.1.3. In the determination of an appropriate cover, consideration shall be given to— (a) (b) (c) the size and shape of the member; the size, type and configuration of the reinforcement and, if present, the tendons or ducts; and the aggregate size, the workability of the concrete and the direction of concrete placement.

Where the presence of ducts is not a consideration, covers to reinforcement or tendons greater than their nominal size or the maximum nominal aggregate size, whichever is larger, shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements of the first two paragraphs of the Clause.

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4.10.3 Cover for corrosion protection 4.10.3.1 General For corrosion protection, the cover shall be not less than the appropriate value given in Clauses 4.10.3.2 to 4.10.3.7. 4.10.3.2 Standard formwork and compaction Where concrete is cast in formwork complying with AS 3610 and compacted in accordance with Clause 17.1.3 of this Standard, the cover shall be not less than the value given in Tables 4.8.1, 4.8.2 and 4.10.3.2, as appropriate to the exposure classification and f c′ . TABLE 4.10.3.2 REQUIRED COVER WHERE STANDARD FORMWORK AND COMPACTION ARE USED
Required cover, mm Exposure classification 20 MPa A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2 20 (50) — — — — Characteristic strength 25 MPa 20 30 (60) — — — 32 MPa 20 25 40 (65) — —

( fc′)
≥ 50 MPa 20 20 25 35 50 65

40 MPa 20 20 30 45 (70)

NOTE: Bracketed figures are the appropriate covers when the concession given in Clause 4.3.2, relating to the strength grade permitted for a particular exposure classification, is applied.

4.10.3.3 Required cover where repetitive procedures or intense compaction are used in rigid formwork Where concrete members are cast in rigid formwork under repetitive procedures, with demonstrated process control systems including supervision, the cover shall be not less than the value given in Tables 4.8.1, 4.8.2 and 4.10.3.3, as appropriate to the exposure classification and f c′ . Cover to screeded surfaces of members shall be in accordance with Table 4.10.3.2.

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TABLE 4.10.3.3 REQUIRED COVER WHERE REPETITIVE PROCEDURES AND INTENSE COMPACTION OR SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE ARE USED IN RIGID FORMWORK
Required cover, mm Exposure classification 20 MPa A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2 20 (45) — — — — Characteristic strength 25 MPa 20 30 (45) — — — 32 MPa 20 20 30 (50) — —

( fc′)
≥ 50 MPa 20 20 20 25 45 60 20 20 25 35 (60)

40 MPa

NOTE: Bracketed figures are the appropriate covers when the concession given in Clause 4.3.2, relating to the strength grade permitted for a particular exposure classification, is applied.

4.10.3.4 Required cover where self-compacting concrete is used Where concrete members are cast with self-compacting concrete, the cover shall be not less than the value given in Tables 4.8.1, 4.8.2 and 4.10.3.3. Screeded surfaces of members shall be in accordance with Table 4.10.3.2. 4.10.3.5 Cast against ground Where concrete is cast on or against ground and compacted in accordance with Clause 17.1.3, the cover to a surface in contact with the ground shall be as given in Table 4.10.3.2 but increased by— (a) (b) 10 mm if the concrete surface is protected by a damp-proof membrane; or 20 mm otherwise.

4.10.3.6 Structural members manufactured by spinning or rolling Where structural members are manufactured by spinning or rolling concrete, the cover for the corrosion protection shall be as specified in the appropriate Standard.
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NOTE: For example, refer to AS 4058 and AS/NZS 4065.

4.10.3.7 Embedded items cover Embedded items, as defined in Clause 14.2, shall be protected from corrosion or deterioration. The cover to embedded items that are not corrosion resistant shall be as given in Table 4.10.3.2 and Table 4.10.3.3, as applicable. Metals such as aluminium shall not be embedded in structural concrete unless effectively coated, covered, or treated to prevent chemical action between the metal and the concrete and electrolytic action between the metal and steel.

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SE C T I ON
5.1 SCOPE

5

DE S IG N

F OR

F I RE

RE S IST A N CE

This Section specifies the requirements for reinforced and prestressed concrete members used in buildings to meet the fire resistance levels (FRLs) required by the Building Code of Australia (BCA). 5.2 DEFINITIONS For the purpose of this Section, the definitions below apply. 5.2.1 Average axis distance When reinforcement is arranged in several layers as shown in Figure 5.2.1, and where it consists of either reinforcement or prestressing tendons with the same characteristic strength fsy and f py respectively, the average axis distance (a m ) may be determined by— am = As1 a1 + As 2 a 2 + ..... + Asn a n ∑ Asi a i = As1 + As2 + ..... + Asn ∑ Asi

. . . 5.2.1

where A si = cross-sectional area of steel bar (tendon, wire) ‘i’ a i = axis distance of steel bar (tendon, wire) ‘i’ from the nearest exposed surface When reinforcement consists of steels with different characteristic strength, Asi should be replaced by A sif syi (or Asi fpyi ) in the above equation. Where reinforcement and prestressing tendons are used simultaneously (e.g., in a partially prestressed member), the axis distances of reinforcement and prestressing tendons shall be determined separately.

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FIGURE 5.2.1 DIMENSIONS USED TO CALCULATE AVERAGE AXIS DISTANCE

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5.2.2 Axis distance Distance from the centre-line axis of a longitudinal bar or tendon to the nearest surface exposed to fire (see Figure 5.2.2).

NOTE: Axis distances are nominal values and no allowance for tolerance need be added.

FIGURE 5.2.2 SECTIONS THROUGH STRUCTURAL MEMBERS SHOWING AXIS DISTANCE, a

5.2.3 Fire resistance Ability of a structure or part of it to fulfil its required functions (loadbearing and/or separating function) for a specified fire exposure, for a specified time. 5.2.4 Fire resistance level (FRL) Fire resistance periods for structural adequacy, integrity and insulation, expressed in that order.
NOTE: Fire resistance levels for structures, parts and elements of construction are specified by the relevant authority, e.g., in the Building Code of Australia (BCA).

5.2.5 Fire resistance period (FRP) Time, in minutes, for a member to reach the appropriate failure criterion (i.e., structural adequacy, integrity and/or insulation) if tested for fire in accordance with the appropriate Standard.
NOTE: Where the Building Authority references the Building Code of Australia, the appropriate Standard is AS 1530.4.
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5.2.6 Fire-separating function Ability of a boundary element of a fire compartment (e.g., wall, floor or roof) to prevent fire spread by passage of flames or hot gases (integrity) or ignition beyond the exposed surface (thermal insulation) during a fire.
NOTE: When tested in accordance with AS 1530.4, prototypes of such members are exposed to fire from only one direction at a time and are assumed to be similarly exposed for the purpose of interpreting Section 5.

5.2.7 Insulation (fire) The ability of a fire-separating member, such as a wall or floor, to limit the surface temperature on one side of the member when exposed to fire on the other side. 5.2.8 Integrity (fire) Ability of a fire-separating member to resist the passage of flames or hot gases through the member when exposed to fire on one side.

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5.2.9 Structural adequacy (fire) Ability of a member to maintain its structural function when exposed to fire. 5.3 DESIGN PERFORMANCE CRITERIA 5.3.1 General performance criteria A member shall be designed to have a fire resistance period (FRP) for structural adequacy, integrity and insulation of not less than the required fire resistance level (FRL). If applicable, the criteria for integrity shall be considered to be satisfied if the member meets the criteria for both insulation and structural adequacy for that period. The FRP for a member shall be established by either one of the following methods: (a) Determined from the tabulated data and figures given in this Section. Unless stated otherwise within this Section, when using the tabulated data or figures no further checks are required concerning shear and torsion capacity or anchorage details. Predicted by methods of calculation. In these cases, checks shall be made for bending, and where appropriate, shear, torsion and anchorage capacities.
NOTE: Eurocode 2, Part 1.2 provides a method of calculation to predict the FRP of a member.

(b)

5.3.2 General rules for the interpretation of tabulated data and figures Linear interpolation between values given in the Tables and Figures in this Section is permitted. Values in the tables provide minimum dimensions for fire resistance. Some values of the axis distance of the reinforcement or tendons will result in covers less than those required for durability or compaction and are provided only to allow interpolation within the Table or Figure. 5.3.3 Increase in axis distance for prestressing tendons The required axis distance for reinforcing bars shown in the Tables and Figures in this Section shall be increased by 10 mm where prestressing tendons are used. 5.3.4 Dimensional limitations to achieve fire-rating Where hollow-core slabs or walls are required to achieve a FRL, the thickness of concrete between adjacent voids and the thickness of concrete between any part of a void and the nearest surface shall be not less than the greater of one fifth the required effective thickness of the slab or wall and 25 mm.
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Where ribbed slabs are required to achieve a FRL, the ribs shall be spaced at not greater than 1500 mm centre-to-centre. 5.3.5 Joints Joints between members or between adjoining parts shall be constructed so that the FRL of the whole assembly is not less than that required for the member. 5.3.6 The effect of chases In concrete members subject to fire, chases shall be kept to a minimum. The effect of chases on the FRPs of walls shall be taken into account in accordance with the requirements of Clause 5.7.4. The effect of chases in other members shall be taken into account using a rational method of analysis.

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5.3.7 Increasing FRPs by the addition of insulating materials The FRP for insulation and structural adequacy of a concrete member may be increased by the addition to the surface of an insulating material, to provide increased thickness to the member or greater insulation to the longitudinal reinforcement or tendons, or both, in accordance with the requirements of Clause 5.8. For slabs, the FRPs may be increased by the addition of toppings and/or the application of insulating materials to the soffit. For walls, the FRPs may be increased by the application of insulating materials to the face exposed to fire. In either case, other methods (e.g., addition of insulation materials in hollow cores) may be used. Any increase afforded shall be determined in accordance with Clause 5.8. 5.4 FIRE RESISTANCE PERIODS (FRPs) FOR BEAMS 5.4.1 Structural adequacy for beams incorporated in roof or floor systems The FRP for structural adequacy for a beam incorporated in a roof or floor system is given by— (a) (b) Table 5.4.1(A) or Figure 5.4.1(A) for simply supported beams; or Table 5.4.1(B) or Figure 5.4.1(B) for continuous beams; provided the beam— (i) (ii) has the upper surface integral with or protected by a slab complying with Clause 5.5; is proportioned has a web of uniform width, or one which tapers uniformly over its depth; and

(iii) so that— (A) (B) the beam width (b), measured at the centroid of the lowest level of longitudinal bottom reinforcement; and the average axis distance to the longitudinal bottom reinforcement

are not less than the values for that period given in the appropriate table or figure.
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For the purpose of this Clause, a beam shall be considered continuous if, under imposed actions, it is designed as flexurally continuous at one or both ends.

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TABLE 5.4.1(A) FIRE RESISTANCE PERIODS (FRPs) FOR STRUCTURAL ADEQUACY FOR SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAMS
FRP for structural adequacy (min) 30 60 90 120 180 240 Minimum dimensions (mm) Possible combinations of a m and b Combination 1 am 25 40 55 65 80 90 b 80 120 150 200 240 280 Combination 2 am 20 35 45 60 70 80 b 120 160 200 240 300 350 Combination 3 am 15 30 40 55 65 75 b 160 200 300 300 400 500 Combination 4 am 15 25 35 50 60 70 b 200 300 400 500 600 700

LEGEND: a m = average axis distance b = width of the beam at the centroid of the bottom reinforcement NOTES: 1 In beams with only one layer of bottom reinforcement, the axis distance to the side of the beam for the corner bars including tendons or wires, shall be increased by 10 mm, except, where the value of b is greater than that given in Combination 4, no increase is required. For prestressing tendons, the axis distance shall be increased as given in Clause 5.3.3.

2

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FIGURE 5.4.1(A) FIRE RESISTANCE PERIODS (FRPs) FOR STRUCTURAL ADEQUACY FOR SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAMS
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TABLE 5.4.1(B) FIRE RESISTANCE PERIODS (FRPs) FOR STRUCTURAL ADEQUACY FOR CONTINUOUS BEAMS
FRP for structural adequacy (min) 30 60 90 120 180 240 Minimum dimensions (mm) Possible combinations of a s and b Combination 1 am 15 25 35 45 60 75 b 80 120 150 200 240 280 Combination 2 am 12 12 25 35 50 60 b 160 200 250 300 400 500 Combination 3 am — — — 35 50 60 b — — — 450 550 650 Combination 4 am — — — 30 40 50 b — — — 500 600 700

LEGEND: a m = average axis distance b = width of the beam at the centroid of the bottom reinforcement NOTES: 1 In beams with only one layer of bottom reinforcement, the axis distance to the side of the beam for the corner bars including tendons or wires, shall be increased by 10 mm, except where the value of b is greater than that given in Combination 4 no increase is required. For prestressing tendons, the axis distance shall be increased as given in Clause 5.3.3.

2

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FIGURE 5.4.1(B) FIRE RESISTANCE PERIODS (FRPs) FOR STRUCTURAL ADEQUACY FOR CONTINUOUS BEAMS

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5.4.2 Structural adequacy for beams exposed to fire on all sides The FRP for structural adequacy for a beam of approximately rectangular cross-section, which can be exposed to fire on all four sides, is given by— (a) (b) Table 5.4.1(A) or Figure 5.4.1(A) for simply supported beams; or Table 5.4.1(B) or Figure 5.4.1(B) for continuous beams, provided in each case the beam is proportioned so that— (i) (ii) the total depth of the beam is not less than the least value of b for that period; the cross-sectional area of the beam is not less than twice the area of a square with a side equal to b determined as for Item (a); and

(iii) the average axis distance is not less than the value for that period determined using the minimum dimension of the beam for b in the relevant Table and applies to all longitudinal reinforcement or tendons. 5.5 FIRE RESISTANCE PERIODS (FRPs) FOR SLABS 5.5.1 Insulation for slabs The FRP for insulation for a slab is given in Table 5.5.1 provided the effective thickness of the slab is not less than the corresponding value given in the Table. The effective thickness of the slab to be used in Table 5.5.1 shall be taken as— (a) (b) (c) for solid slabs, the actual thickness; or for hollow-core slabs, the net cross-sectional area divided by the width of the crosssection; or for ribbed slabs, the thickness of the solid slab between the webs of adjacent ribs. TABLE 5.5.1 FIRE RESISTANCE PERIODS (FRPs) FOR INSULATION FOR SLABS
FRP for insulation min 30 60 90
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Effective thickness mm 60 80 100 120 150 175

120 180 240

5.5.2 Structural adequacy for slabs The FRP for structural adequacy for a slab shall be given by— (a) for solid or hollow-core slabs supported on beams or walls [see Table 5.5.2(A)], provided the slab is proportioned such that, for the appropriate support conditions, the average axis distance to the bottom reinforcement and tendons is not less than the value for that period given in the Table; for flat slabs, including flat plates [see Table 5.5.2(B)], if, for the appropriate support conditions, the average axis distance to the bottom layer of reinforcement and tendons from the soffit of the rib is not less than the value given in the Table and— (i) the axis distance is determined in accordance with the amount of moment redistribution used in the analysis; and www.standards.org.au (b)

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(ii) (c)

at least 20% of the total top reinforcement in each direction over intermediate supports is continuous over the full span and placed in the column strip,

for one-way ribbed slabs, see Table 5.5.2(A) for the appropriate support conditions, if the slab is proportioned so that— (i) the width of the ribs and the axis distance to the lowest layer of the longitudinal bottom reinforcement in the slabs comply with the requirements for beams given in Clause 5.4.1; and the axis distance to the bottom reinforcement in the slab between the ribs is not less than that given in Table 5.5.2(A),

(ii) (d)

for two-way ribbed slabs, see Table 5.5.2(C) or Table 5.5.2(D) as appropriate for the support conditions. The slabs shall be proportioned so the width and the average axis distance to the longitudinal bottom reinforcement in the ribs, and the axis distance to the bottom reinforcement in the slab between the ribs, and the axis distance of the corner bar to the side face of the rib, is not less than that value plus 10 mm.

For the purpose of this Clause, a slab shall be considered continuous if, under imposed actions, it is designed as flexurally continuous at one or both ends. TABLE 5.5.2(A) FIRE RESISTANCE PERIODS (FRPs) FOR STRUCTURAL ADEQUACY FOR SOLID AND HOLLOW-CORE SLABS SUPPORTED ON BEAMS OR WALLS AND FOR ONE-WAY RIBBED SLABS
Axis distance (a s ) to lowest layer of reinforcement (mm) FRP for structural adequacy (min) Simply supported slabs Two-way One-way 10 20 30 40 55 65 l y/l x ≤ 1.5 10 10 15 20 30 40 1.5 < l y/l x ≤ 2 10 15 20 25 40 50 10 10 15 20 30 40 Continuous slabs (one-way and two-way)

30 60 90 120 180 240 NOTES: 1
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l y = longer span of a two-way slab l x = shorter span of a two-way slab The axis distance for simply supported two-way slabs applies only if the slabs are supported at all four edges. In other cases, the slab shall be treated as a one-way slab. For prestressing tendons, the axis distance shall be increased as given in Clause 5.3.3.

2 3

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TABLE 5.5.2(B) FIRE RESISTANCE PERIODS (FRPs) FOR STRUCTURAL ADEQUACY FOR FLAT SLABS INCLUDING FLAT PLATES
FRP for structural adequacy (min) 30 60 90 120 180 240 NOTES: 1 2 a s = axis distance to the reinforcement in the lowest layer. For prestressing tendons, the axis distance shall be increased as given in Clause 5.3.3. Minimum dimensions (mm) Slab thickness 150 180 200 200 200 200 Axis distance (a s ) 10 15 25 35 45 50

TABLE 5.5.2(C) FIRE RESISTANCE PERIODS (FRPs) FOR STRUCTURAL ADEQUACY FOR TWO-WAY SIMPLY SUPPORTED RIBBED SLABS
Minimum dimensions (mm) FRP for structural adequacy (min) Possible combinations of axis distance (as ) and width of ribs (b) Combination 1 as 30 60 90 120 180 240 NOTES:
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Combination 2 as — 25 40 55 70 75 b — 120 160 190 260 350

Combination 3 as — 15 30 40 60 70 b — ≥200 ≥250 ≥300 ≥410 ≥500

Flange thickness (h s) and axis distance (a s ) in flange as 10 10 15 20 30 40 hs 80 80 100 120 150 175

b 80 100 120 160 220 280

15 35 45 60 75 90

1 2

The axis distance is measured to the lowest layer of the longitudinal reinforcement. For prestressing tendons, the axis distance shall be increased as given in Clause 5.3.3.

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TABLE 5.5.2(D) FIRE RESISTANCE PERIODS (FRPs) FOR STRUCTURAL ADEQUACY FOR TWO-WAY CONTINUOUS RIBBED SLABS
Minimum dimensions (mm) FRP for structural adequacy (min) as 30 60 90 120 180 240 NOTES: 1 2 The axis distance is measured to the lowest layer of the longitudinal reinforcement. For prestressing tendons, the axis distance shall be increased as given in Clause 5.3.3. 10 25 35 45 60 70 Possible combinations of axis distance (as ) and width of ribs (b) Combination 1 b 80 100 120 160 310 450 Combination 2 as — 15 25 40 50 60 b — 120 160 190 600 700 Combination 3 as — 10 15 30 — — b — ≥200 ≥250 ≥300 — — Flange thickness (h s) and axis distance (a s ) in flange as 10 10 15 20 30 40 hs 80 80 100 120 150 175

5.6 FIRE RESISTANCE PERIODS (FRPs) FOR COLUMNS 5.6.1 Insulation and integrity for columns FRPs for insulation and integrity are required for columns only where columns form part of a wall required to have a separating function. In this situation the column shall comply with the appropriate criteria for walls given in Clause 5.7.1. 5.6.2 Structural adequacy for columns The fire resistance period (FRP) for structural adequacy for a column shall be determined using Clause 5.6.3, except— (a) (b) for columns in a braced structure where Clause 5.6.4 may be used; and where the ratio of the longer cross-section dimension of the column is equal to or greater than 4 times the shorter cross-section dimension, Clause 5.7.2 may be used.

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In the situation of Item (b), the case of a wall exposed on two faces shall be adopted and the column shall be reinforced with two layers of longitudinal reinforcement, one layer located adjacent to each face and the two layers shall be structurally restrained together. 5.6.3 Calculation method to determine structural adequacy for columns The FRP for structural adequacy for a column shall be as given by Table 5.6.3 provided the column is proportioned so that the value for the smaller cross-sectional dimension and the average axis distance to the longitudinal reinforcement are not less than the values for that period. The value of the load level shall be taken as 0.7 or calculated as follows:
N f* Nu

. . . 5.6.3

where
N f* = design axial load in the fire situation

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N u = ultimate strength in compression, or tension, at a cross-section of an eccentrically loaded compression or tension member respectively Where As ≥ 0.02Ac and the required FRP is greater than 90 min, the bars shall be distributed along all the faces of the column. Dimension b in Table 5.6.3 for columns exposed on one side applies only to columns that lie flush with a wall having the same FRP as the column or to columns protruding from the wall provided the part within the wall is able to carry the whole load. Openings in the wall shall be not nearer to the column than the minimum dimension b for the column for the FRP. In all other cases, the column shall be treated as a column exposed on more than one side. When using Table 5.6.3 the effective length of the column under fire conditions shall be less than 3 m and the maximum eccentricity shall be limited to 0.15b. For columns where the effective length falls outside these limits, reference shall be made to alternative design approaches noted in Clause 5.3.1.
NOTE: The effective length of a column under fire conditions (l0.fi ) may be assumed to be equal to the effective length at normal temperature in all cases. For braced building structures where the required FRP is greater than 30 min, the effective length may be taken as 0.5L u for all cases.

TABLE 5.6.3 FIRE RESISTANCE PERIODS (FRPs) FOR STRUCTURAL ADEQUACY OF COLUMNS
Minimum dimensions (mm) Combinations for column exposed on more than one side
* Nf = 0.2 Nu * Nf = 0.5 Nu * Nf = 0.7 Nu

FRP for structural adequacy (min)

Column exposed on one side
* Nf = 0.7 Nu

as 30 60 90
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b 200 200 200 300 250 350 350

as 25 36 31 45 38 45 40 63 75

b 200 200 300 300 400 350 450 350 450

as 32 27 46 40 53 40 57 51 70

b 200 300 250 350 350 450 350 450 450

as 25 25 25 35 55 70

b 155 155 155 175 230 295

25 25 31 25 40 35 61

120 180 240 NOTES: 1 2 a s = axis distance

b = smaller cross-sectional dimension of a rectangular column or the diameter of a circular column. For prestressing tendons, the axis distance shall be increased as given in Clause 5.3.3.

5.6.4 Alternative method to determine structural adequacy for braced columns The FRP for structural adequacy for a column given in Table 5.6.4 shall be used, provided— (a) the column is in a braced structure; and

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(b)

the column is proportioned so that the value for the smaller cross-sectional dimension and the axis distance to the longitudinal reinforcement are not less than the values for that period. TABLE 5.6.4 FIRE RESISTANCE PERIODS (FRPs) FOR STRUCTURAL ADEQUACY OF BRACED COLUMNS

FRP for structural adequacy (min)

Minimum dimensions (mm) Reinforcement ratio (p) as 0.01 25 Combinations of (a s) and (b) η = 0.2 b 150 as 25 η = 0.3 b 150 as 30 25 η = 0.5 b 200 250 150 as 30 25 30 25 0.10 25 150 25 150 25 150 30 25 0.01 30 25 150 200 150 40 25 35 25 0.10 25 150 30 25 0.01 40 25 200 250 150 200 200 40 25 45 25 40 25 0.01 50 25 250 350 200 300 200 250 400 500 300 450 300 400 50 25 45 25 50 25 60 25 50 25 50 25 200 300 150 200 150 200 300 400 200 300 200 300 400 550 300 550 250 400 500 550 450 600 450 550 50 25 45 30 60 30 60 50 60 45 450 600 450 600 550 600 500 600 500 600 (continued) Note 3 75 600 Note 3 40 25 35 25 40 25 50 25 45 25 40 25 25 300 500 250 350 200 400 500 550 300 550 250 550 550 40 25 50 30 40 25 50 40 50 45 60 45 60 50 60 350 550 300 600 550 600 500 600 500 600 550 600 500 600 600 25 η = 0.7 b 300 350 200 250 200 300 500

30

0.05

25

150

25

150

25

60

0.05

25

90

0.05

35 25

0.10

25

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120

0.05

45 25

0.10

40 25

0.01

50 25

180

0.05

45 25

0.10

35 25

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TABLE 5.6.4 (continued)
FRP for structural adequacy (min) Minimum dimensions (mm) Reinforcement ratio (p) as 60 0.01 25 240 0.05 45 25 0.10 45 25 550 450 500 400 500 25 55 25 40 30 600 550 600 500 600 60 600 Note 3 70 600 Note 3 Combinations of (a s) and (b) η = 0.2 b 500 as 40 η = 0.3 b 550 as 75 η = 0.5 b 600 Note 3 as η = 0.7 b

LEGEND: a s = axis distance b = smaller cross-sectional dimension of a rectangular column or the diameter of a circular column η = N*

0.7 Ac f c′ + As f sy
NOTES: 1

(

f

)

The first order eccentricity under fire conditions (e) is given by e = M* f /N* f at the fire condition, where M* f is the design moment in the fire situation, and N* f is the design axial load in the fire situation e/b has been taken as ≤0.025 with e max = 100 mm. The slenderness of the column under fire conditions has been taken as ≤30. This is applicable to the majority of columns in normal buildings. Requires a width greater than 600 mm and assessment for buckling. For prestressing tendons, the axis distance shall be increased as given in Clause 5.3.3.

2 3 4

5.7 FIRE RESISTANCE PERIODS (FRPs) FOR WALLS 5.7.1 Insulation for walls The FRP for insulation for a wall given in Table 5.7.1 may be used, provided the effective thickness of the wall is not less than the corresponding value given in the Table. The effective thickness of the wall to be used in Table 5.7.1 shall be taken as follows:
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(a) (b)

For solid walls, the actual thickness. For hollow-core walls, the net cross-sectional area divided by the length of the cross-section. TABLE 5.7.1 FIRE RESISTANCE PERIODS (FRPs) FOR WALLS FOR INSULATION
FRP for insulation min 30 60 90 120 180 240 Effective thickness mm 60 80 100 120 150 175

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5.7.2 Structural adequacy for walls The FRP for structural adequacy for a wall given in Table 5.7.2 shall be used, provided the effective thickness of the wall is not less than the corresponding value given in the Table. For walls where the lateral support at the top of the wall is provided on one side only by a member not required by the relevant authority to have an FRL then structural adequacy will be considered to be achieved by satisfying Clause 5.7.1. TABLE 5.7.2 FIRE RESISTANCE PERIODS (FRPs) FOR STRUCTURAL ADEQUACY FOR WALLS
Minimum dimensions (mm) Combinations of a s and b FRP for structural adequacy (min)
* Nf = 0.35 Nu * Nf = 0.7 Nu

Wall exposed on one side as 30 60 90 120 180 240 LEGEND: a s = axis distance b = wall thickness 10 10 20 25 40 55 b 100 110 120 150 180 230

Wall exposed on two sides as 10 10 10 25 45 55 b 120 120 140 160 200 250

Wall exposed on one side as 10 10 25 35 50 60 b 120 130 140 160 210 270

Wall exposed on two sides as 10 10 25 35 55 60 b 120 140 170 220 270 350

NOTE: For prestressing tendons, the axis distance shall be increased as given in Clause 5.3.3.

5.7.3 Effective height limitations for walls For walls required to have a FRL, the ratio of the effective height to thickness shall not exceed 40, where the effective height is determined from Clause 11.4. This latter restriction shall not apply to walls where the lateral support at the top of the wall is provided by an element not required by the relevant authority to have a FRL. 5.7.4 Other requirements for walls
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5.7.4.1 Recesses for services in walls The effect of recesses for services on the FRP for structural adequacy, integrity and insulation of a wall shall be ignored if the thickness of wall remaining under the bottom of the recess is not less than half the wall thickness and the total recessed area, within any 5 m 2 of wall face, is not more than 10 000 mm2 on one or both faces of the wall. If the above limits are exceeded, the wall thickness (b) used to determine FRP shall be taken as the overall thickness less the depth of the deepest recess. 5.7.4.2 Effect of chases on structural adequacy of walls The effect of chases on the FRP for structural adequacy of walls shall be taken into account as follows: (a) For walls spanning one way, where— (i) the chase direction is parallel to the span direction—ignored;

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(ii)

the chase direction is perpendicular to the span direction and of a length not greater than four times the wall thickness or 0.4 times the overall length of the wall, whichever is greater—ignored; or

(iii) the chase is perpendicular to the span direction and of a length greater than four times the wall thickness or 0.4 times the overall length of the wall— accounted for by using a slenderness ratio for the wall based on the reduced wall thickness. (b) For walls spanning two ways (panel action), where— (i) there is either a vertical chase with a length not greater than half the wall height (Hw), or a horizontal chase with a length not greater than half the wall length (Lw)—ignored; and the length of a vertical chase is greater than half the wall height (Hw), or the length of a horizontal chase is greater than half the wall length (Lw)—accounted for by using a slenderness ratio for the wall based on the reduced wall thickness, or the chase may be regarded as an unsupported edge and the panel designed as two sub-panels.

(ii)

5.7.4.3 Effect of chases on integrity and insulation of walls The effect of chases on the FRP for integrity and insulation of walls shall be taken into account as follows: (a) Where— (i) (ii) the depth of the chase is not greater than 30 mm; and the cross-sectional area of the chase, on a plane perpendicular to the plane of the wall face and at right angles to the centre-line of the chase, is not greater than 1000 mm 2 ; and

(iii) the total face area of chases within any 5 m2 of wall face is not greater than 100 000 mm 2 on one or both wall faces, the effect shall be ignored. (b) For cases other than those in Item (a) above, the effects shall be taken into account in accordance with the normal rules for insulation and integrity of walls, except that slenderness ratios shall be based on the reduced wall thickness. RESISTANCE PERIODS (FRPs) BY USE OF

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5.8 INCREASE OF FIRE INSULATING MATERIALS

5.8.1 Increase of FRP by the addition of insulating materials 5.8.1.1 General The FRP for insulation and structural adequacy of a concrete member may be increased by the addition to the surface of an insulating material, to provide increased thickness to the member, or greater insulation to the longitudinal reinforcement or tendons, or both. 5.8.1.2 Acceptable forms of insulation Acceptable forms of insulation include the following: (a) (b) Slabs of 1 part cement to 4 parts vermiculite (by volume) concrete or of 1 part cement to 4 parts perlite (by volume) concrete, appropriately bonded to the concrete. Gypsum-vermiculite plaster or gypsum-perlite plaster, both mixed in the proportion of 0.16 m 3 of aggregate to 100 kg of gypsum, in the form of either slabs appropriately bonded to the concrete, or as a sprayed or trowelled application applied in situ. www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia

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(c)

Any other fire-protective building board or material, which has been demonstrated to be suitable for the purpose in a standard fire-resistance test.

5.8.1.3 Thickness of insulating material The minimum thickness of insulating material added to attain the required FRL shall be determined by testing in accordance with AS 1530.4. In the absence of such testing and only for the materials specified in Clause 5.8.1.2, the minimum thickness of insulating material to be added may be taken as the difference between the required cover or effective thickness specified in this Section and the actual cover or effective thickness, whichever governs, multiplied by— (a) (b) 0.75, for materials specified in Clauses 5.8.1.2(a) and (b); or an appropriate factor for materials specified in Clause 5.8.1.2(c), where the factor is derived from tests in which the difference calculated above lies within the range of insulation thickness tested; and the thickness thus calculated rounded to the nearest 5 mm above.

(c)

5.8.1.4 Reinforcement in sprayed or trowelled insulating materials Where the thickness of sprayed or trowelled insulating materials exceeds 10 mm, it shall be reinforced to prevent detachment during exposure to fire. 5.8.2 Increase of insulation period of slabs by application of toppings The FRP for insulation of a slab may be increased by incorporating an integral or a separately applied topping of thickness given by the following equation: t nom = kt d + 10 where t nom = nominal thickness of topping applied k = 1.0 for a topping of plain concrete = 0.8 for a topping of concrete made from lightweight aggregate complying with AS 2758.1 = 0.6 for a topping of gypsum (including jointed gypsum block) having a wearing overlay td
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. . . 5.8.2

= difference between the actual effective thickness of the slab and the effective thickness specified in Table 5.5.1, for the required FRP

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SEC T I ON
6.1 GENERAL

6

ME T H O D S O F ANA L YS I S

ST RU CT U RA L

6.1.1 Basis for structural analysis Methods of analysis for concrete structures shall take into account the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) The strength and deformational properties of the member materials. The equilibrium requirements for all forces acting on and within the structure. The requirements of compatibility of deformations within the structure. The support conditions and, where appropriate, interaction of the structure with the foundation and other connecting or adjacent structures.

6.1.2 Interpretation of the results of analysis Irrespective of the method chosen for the structural analysis, the simplifications, idealizations and assumptions implied in the analysis shall be considered in relation to the real, three-dimensional nature of the structure when the results of the analysis are interpreted.
NOTE: Users of software packages for analysis should ensure the package is appropriate for the analysis being undertaken.

6.1.3 Methods of analysis For the purpose of complying with the requirements for strength, serviceability and robustness specified in Section 2, it shall be permissible to determine the action effects and deformations in a reinforced or prestressed structure and its component members using the following methods, as appropriate: (a) (b) (c) (d)
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Static analysis for determinate structures. Linear elastic analysis, in accordance with Clause 6.2. Linear elastic frame analysis incorporating secondary bending moments due to lateral joint displacement, in accordance with Clause 6.3. Linear elastic stress analysis of members and structures, in accordance with Clause 6.4. Non-linear frame analysis, in accordance with Clause 6.5. Non-linear stress analysis of members and structures, in accordance with Clause 6.6. Plastic methods of analysis for slabs and frames, in accordance with Clause 6.7. Strut-and-tie method of analysis, in accordance with Clause 6.8. Structural model tests designed and evaluated in accordance with the principles of mechanics. The following simplified methods of analysis: (i) (ii) The idealized frame method given in Clause 6.9. The simplified methods given in Clause 6.10.

(e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j)

NOTE: Clause 2.2 allows different strength check procedures and different methods of analysis to be used for different members in a structure and for the structure.

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6.1.4 Geometrical properties For the purpose of this Section, the definitions below apply. 6.1.4.1 Column strip That portion of the design strip extending transversely from the centre-line of the supports— (a) (b) for an interior column strip, one quarter of the distance to the centre-line of each adjacent and parallel row of supports; or for an edge column strip, to the edge of the slab and one quarter of the distance to the centre-line of the next interior and parallel row of supports,

but of total width not greater than L/2 [see Figure 6.1.4(A)]. 6.1.4.2 Design strip That part of a two-way slab system, which is supported, in the direction of bending being considered, by a single row of supports and which in each span extends transversely from the centre-line of the supports— (a) (b) for an interior design strip, halfway to the centre-line of each adjacent and parallel row of supports; or for an edge design strip, to the edge of the slab and halfway to the centre-line of the next interior and parallel row of supports [see Figure 6.1.4(A)].

6.1.4.3 Middle strip The portion of the slab between two column strips or between a column strip and a parallel supporting wall [see Figure 6.1.4(A)]. 6.1.4.4 Span support The length of a support in the direction of the span (a sup) taken as— (a) (b) for beams or for flat slabs without either drop panels or column capitals, the distance from the centre-line of the support to the face of the support; or for flat slabs with drop panels or column capitals or both, the distance from the centre-line of the support to the intersection with the plane of the slab soffit of the longest line, inclined at an angle of 45° to the centre-line of the support, which lies entirely within the surfaces of the slab and the support, as shown in Figure 6.1.4(B).
NOTE: For the purpose of Item (b), circular or polygonal columns may be regarded as square columns with the same cross-sectional area.

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6.1.4.5 Transverse width The width of the design strip (L t) measured perpendicular to the direction of bending being considered [see Figure 6.1.4(A)].

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FIGURE 6.1.4(A) WIDTHS OF STRIPS FOR TWO-WAY SLAB SYSTEMS

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FIGURE 6.1.4(B) SPAN SUPPORT AND SPAN LENGTHS FOR FLAT SLABS

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AS 3600—2009

6.2 LINEAR ELASTIC ANALYSIS 6.2.1 General This Clause applies to the analysis of indeterminate continuous beams and framed structures in which secondary geometric effects are insignificant. 6.2.2 Span length The span length of flexural members shall be taken as the distance centre-to-centre of supports. 6.2.3 Critical sections for negative moments The critical section for a maximum negative bending moment may be taken at 0.7 times the length of a support in the direction of the span (asup ) from the centre-line of the support. 6.2.4 Stiffness The stiffnesses of members shall be chosen to represent the conditions at the limit state being analysed. The effect of haunching and other variations of cross-section along the axis of a member shall be considered and, where significant, taken into account in the determination of the member stiffness. Any assumptions regarding the relative stiffness of members shall be applied consistently throughout the analysis. 6.2.5 Deflections Deflection calculations shall take into account the effects of cracking, tension stiffening, shrinkage, creep, and relaxation of tendons. Calculations in accordance with the requirements of Clauses 8.5 and 9.3 shall be deemed to satisfy this requirement. Where appropriate, consideration shall be given to deformations that may result from deflection of the formwork or settlement of the supporting props during construction. 6.2.6 Secondary bending moments and shears resulting from prestress The secondary bending moments and shears and the associated deformations that are produced in an indeterminate structure by prestressing shall be taken into account in the design calculations for serviceability. The secondary bending moments and shears due to the effects of prestress may be determined by elastic analysis of the unloaded uncracked structure.
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In design calculations for strength, the secondary bending moments and shears due to prestress shall be included with a load factor of 1.0 when the design moments and shears for the load combinations given in Clause 2.4 are calculated. For the special case of permanent action (dead load) plus prestress at transfer, the load factors given by Clause 2.4 shall apply. 6.2.7 Moment redistribution in reinforced and prestressed members for strength design 6.2.7.1 General requirements In design calculations for strength of statically indeterminate members, the elastically determined bending moments at any interior support may be reduced or increased by redistribution, provided an analysis is undertaken to show there is adequate rotation capacity in critical moment regions to allow the assumed distribution of bending moments to be achieved.

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The analysis shall take into account— (a) the stress-strain curves of the steel reinforcement and tendons as defined in Clauses 3.2.3 and 3.3.3, respectively, assuming that fracture of the reinforcement and tendon occur at εsu and ε pu ; static equilibrium of the structure after redistribution of the moments; and the properties of the concrete as defined in Clause 3.1.

(b) (c)

6.2.7.2 Deemed-to-comply approach for reinforced and prestressed members The requirement of Clause 6.2.7.1 shall be deemed to be met if the following requirements are satisfied: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) All of the main reinforcement in the member shall be Ductility Class N. The bending moment distribution before redistribution shall be determined in accordance with elastic analysis. Where the neutral axis parameter (k u) is less than or equal to 0.2 in all peak moment regions, the redistribution of the moment at a support shall not exceed 30%. Where k u exceeds 0.2 in one or more peak moment regions, but does not exceed 0.4, the redistribution shall not exceed 75 (0.4−k u )%. The positive bending moment shall be adjusted to maintain equilibrium. Where k u exceeds 0.4 in any peak moment region, no redistribution shall be made. Static equilibrium of the structure after redistribution of the moments shall be used to evaluate all action effects for strength design.
The values of k u are calculated for cross-sections that have been designed on the basis of the redistributed moment diagram. The amount of redistribution is measured as a percentage of the bending moment before redistribution. Extra checks should be made on ductility and the possibility of punching shear failures.

NOTES: 1 2 3

6.3 ELASTIC ANALYSIS BENDING MOMENTS 6.3.1 General
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OF

FRAMES

INCORPORATING

SECONDARY

This Clause applies to the elastic analysis of frames not restrained by bracing or shear walls, or both, for which the relative displacement at the ends of compressive members is less than L u/250 under the design load for strength. 6.3.2 Analysis An elastic analysis incorporating secondary bending moments shall comply with the requirements of Clause 6.2 and the following: (a) (b) The effect of lateral joint displacements shall be taken into account. For strength design of a regular rectangular framed structure, the cross-sectional stiffness of the flexural members and columns may be taken as 0.4EcI f and 0.8E cIc respectively. For very slender members, the change in bending stiffness of a member due to axial compression shall be considered.

(c)

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6.4 LINEAR ELASTIC STRESS ANALYSIS 6.4.1 General This Clause applies to the linear elastic stress analysis of structures and parts of structures using numerical methods, including finite element analysis. 6.4.2 Analysis The analysis shall comply with the requirements of Clause 6.1.1. The results of the analysis shall be interpreted in accordance with the requirements of Clause 6.1.2. 6.4.3 Sensitivity of analysis to input data and modelling parameters Checks shall be made to investigate the sensitivity of the results of a linear elastic stress analysis to variations in input data and modelling parameters. 6.5 NON-LINEAR FRAME ANALYSIS 6.5.1 General This Clause applies to the non-linear analysis of framed structures at service load, at overload, and at collapse. Non-linear analysis shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements of Clauses 6.1.1, 6.1.2 and 6.1.4. 6.5.2 Non-linear material effects The analysis shall take into account all relevant non-linear and inelastic effects in the materials, such as— (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) non-linear relationship between stress and strain for the reinforcement, the tendons and the concrete; cracking of the concrete; the tension stiffening effect in the concrete between adjacent tensile cracks; creep and shrinkage of the concrete; and relaxation of tendons.

6.5.3 Non-linear geometric effects Equilibrium of the structure in the deformed condition shall be considered whenever joint displacements or lateral deflections within the length of members significantly affect the action effects or overall structural behaviour.
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6.5.4 Values of material properties When non-linear frame analysis is used as the basis for design, the calculations shall be undertaken using the mean values of all relevant material properties, such as concrete strength, initial elastic moduli and yield stress, and yield strain of the steel reinforcement and tendons. Additional analysis shall be considered using other values of material properties to allow for variability of material properties and the effects of non-proportionality in non-linear analysis. 6.5.5 Sensitivity of analysis to input data and modelling parameters Checks shall be made to investigate the sensitivity of the results of a non-linear frame analysis to variations in input data and modelling parameters.

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6.6 NON-LINEAR STRESS ANALYSIS 6.6.1 General This Clause applies to the non-linear stress analysis of structures and parts of structures using numerical methods, including finite element analysis. 6.6.2 Analysis The analysis shall comply with the requirements of Clause 6.1.1. The results of the analysis shall be interpreted in accordance with the requirements of Clause 6.1.2. 6.6.3 Non-linear material and geometric effects The analysis shall take into account all relevant non-linear and inelastic effects, such as— (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) non-linear relation between stress and strain for the reinforcement, the tendons and the concrete; cracking of the concrete; the tension stiffening effect in the concrete between adjacent tensile cracks; creep and shrinkage of the concrete; relaxation of tendons; and geometric non-linear effects.

6.6.4 Values of material properties When non-linear stress analysis is used as the basis for design, the calculations shall be undertaken using the mean values of all relevant material properties chosen taking account of the effect of non-proportionality of the results, such as concrete strength, initial elastic moduli, and yield stress and yield strain of the steel reinforcement. Additional analysis shall be considered using other values of material properties to allow for variability. 6.6.5 Sensitivity of analysis to input data and modelling parameters Checks shall be made to investigate the sensitivity of the results of a non-linear stress analysis to variations in input data and modelling parameters. 6.7 PLASTIC METHODS OF ANALYSIS 6.7.1 General
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This Clause applies to the plastic collapse analysis of frames and one-way and two-way slabs. The method may be used provided Ductility Class N reinforcement is used throughout for flexural reinforcement. Where plastic methods are used in the strength design of structures, the reinforcement shall be arranged with due regard to the serviceability requirements of the structure. 6.7.2 Methods for beams and frames Plastic methods of analysis may be used for the strength design of continuous beams and frames in accordance with Clause 2.2.2, provided it is shown that the high-moment regions possess sufficient moment-rotation capacity to achieve the plastic redistribution implied in the analysis. 6.7.3 Methods for slabs 6.7.3.1 Lower-bound method for slabs The design bending moments obtained using lower-bound theory shall satisfy the requirements of equilibrium and the boundary conditions applicable to the slab.

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6.7.3.2 Yield line method for slabs A yield line analysis for strength design of a slab shall satisfy the following requirements: (a) (b) The design bending moments shall be obtained from calculations based on the need for a mechanism to form over the whole or part of the slab at collapse. The mechanism that gives rise to the most severe design bending moments shall be used for the design of the slab.

6.8 ANALYSIS USING STRUT-AND-TIE MODELS 6.8.1 General When strut-and-tie modelling is used in the analysis of a concrete structure or local region, the relevant requirements of Section 7 shall be satisfied. 6.8.2 Sensitivity of analysis to input data and modelling parameters Checks shall be made to investigate the sensitivity of the results of a strut-and-tie analysis to variations in geometry and modelling parameters. 6.9 IDEALIZED FRAME METHOD OF ANALYSIS 6.9.1 General This Clause applies to the analysis of multistorey buildings of reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete that can be represented as a framework of line members with a regular layout. The Clause also applies to the analysis of framed structures with a regular layout incorporating two-way slab systems as specified in Clause 6.9.5. 6.9.2 Idealized frames The building framework may be analysed as a series of idealized, approximately parallel, two-dimensional frames running in one main direction, and a second series of such frames running in the transverse direction. Each idealized frame shall consist of the footings, the rows of vertical (or near-vertical) members and the horizontal (or near-horizontal) members they support at each floor level. The analyses for vertical, horizontal and other loads shall be carried out for each idealized frame in accordance with Clause 6.2, 6.3 or 6.4 and the general requirements of Clauses 6.1.1 and 6.1.2.
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The critical section for maximum negative bending moment in a floor of the idealized frame may be taken at 0.7 times the span support (asup ) from the centre-line of the support. 6.9.3 Analysis for vertical loads The arrangement of vertical loads to be considered in the analysis of an idealized frame shall be in accordance with Clause 2.4.4. In the analysis of a frame for vertical loads, the frame may be analysed in its entirety. Alternatively, it shall be permissible to deal with one storey at a time, in accordance with the following: (a) To determine the moments and shears in a floor due to vertical loading, the floor together with the columns above and below may be isolated and analysed, the columns being assumed fixed at the remote ends. The bending moment and shear at a given support may be determined on the assumption the floor is fixed at the support one span away, provided that the floor continues beyond that point. To determine the forces and moments in columns due to vertical loading, each level of columns may be considered together with the floors and columns above and below, the columns being assumed fixed against rotation and translation at their remote ends and the floors being assumed fixed at the adjacent supports.
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Any change in length of the beams and slabs due to axial force and any deflection due to shear force may be neglected. The effect of any change in length of columns, due to axial shortening on the actions in the floor system, shall be considered in the analysis. In order to provide for imposed actions (live loads) acting on part of a span— (i) when the live load reduction factor ψ a = 1, the minimum shear force due to imposed actions (live load) in any section of a member shall be taken as at least one quarter of the maximum shear force due to imposed actions (live load) in the member when subjected to uniformly distributed imposed actions (live loads); and when ψ a 2.0 values of L y/L x 0.020 2.69 0.024 2.29 0.028 2.46 0.024 — 0.039 2.31 0.034 2.13 0.035 — 0.046 2.12 0.049 —

0.021 0.025 0.029 0.032 0.034 0.036 0.039 0.041 0.042 2.31 2.22 2.14 2.10 2.06 2.03 2.00 2.00 2.00

0.027 0.030 0.033 0.035 0.037 0.039 0.041 0.042 0.042 2.20 2.14 2.10 2.06 2.04 2.02 2.00 2.00 2.00

3

0.024 0.028 0.034 0.038 0.043 0.047 0.056 0.061 0.070 2.22 2.17 2.09 2.03 1.97 1.93 1.86 1.81 1.80

4

0.032 0.035 0.037 0.038 0.039 0.040 0.042 0.042 0.042 2.09 2.05 2.03 2.01 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00

5

0.024 0.028 0.035 0.042 0.049 0.056 0.071 0.085 0.125 — — — — — — — — —

6

0.031 0.036 0.041 0.046 0.050 0.053 0.060 0.064 0.070 2.13 2.07 2.01 1.96 1.92 1.89 1.83 1.80 1.80

7

0.039 0.044 0.048 0.052 0.055 0.058 0.063 0.066 0.070 2.04 1.97 1.93 1.89 1.86 1.84 1.80 1.80 1.80

8

0.033 0.039 0.047 0.054 0.061 0.067 0.082 0.093 0.125 — — — — — — — — —

9

0.044 0.052 0.059 0.066 0.073 0.079 0.091 0.100 0.125 — — — — — — — — —

6.10.3.3 Torsional moment at exterior corners The torsional moment at the exterior corners of a slab shall be deemed to be resisted by complying with the requirements of Clause 9.1.3.3, Item (e).
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6.10.3.4 Load allocation For calculating shear forces in the slab or the forces applied to the supporting walls or beams in the absence of more accurate calculations, it may be assumed that the uniformly distributed load on the slab is allocated to the supporting beams or walls as shown in Figure 6.10.3.4, provided— (a) (b) (c) the reactions apply directly when all edges are continuous; when one edge is discontinuous, the reactions on all continuous edges are increased by 10% and the reaction on the discontinuous edge can be reduced by 20%; and when adjacent edges are discontinuous, the reactions are adjusted for elastic shear considering each span separately.

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FIGURE 6.10.3.4 ALLOCATION OF LOAD

6.10.4 Simplified method for reinforced two-way slab systems having multiple spans 6.10.4.1 General For multiple-span reinforced two-way slab systems, including solid slabs with or without drop panels, slabs incorporating ribs in two directions (waffle slabs) and beam-and-slab systems including thickened-slab bands, bending moments and shear forces in both directions may be determined in accordance with this Clause provided— (a) (b) (c) (d) there are at least two continuous spans in each direction; the support grid is rectangular, except that individual supports may be offset up to a maximum of 10% of the span in the direction of the offset; in any portion of the slab enclosed by the centre-lines of its supporting members, the ratio of the longer span to the shorter span is not greater than 2.0; in the design strips in each direction, successive span lengths do not differ by more than one third of the longer span and in no case is an end-span longer than the adjacent interior span; lateral forces on the structure are resisted by shear walls or braced frames; vertical loads are essentially uniformly distributed; the imposed action (live load) (q) does not exceed twice the permanent action (dead load) (g); the reinforcement is arranged in accordance with Clause 9.1.3.4 or Clause 8.1.10.6, as applicable; and Ductility Class L reinforcement is not used as the flexural reinforcement.

(e) (f) (g)
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(h) (i)

6.10.4.2 Total static moment for a span The total static moment (M o) for a span of the design strip shall be taken as not less than—
Mo = Fd L t Lo 8
2

. . . 6.10.4.2

where F d = uniformly distributed design load per unit area, factored for strength L t = width of the design strip

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L o = L minus 0.7 times the sum of the values of asup at each end of the span [see Figure 6.1.4(B)] 6.10.4.3 Design moments The design moments in a span shall be determined by multiplying the total static moment (M o) by the relevant factor given in Tables 6.10.4.3(A) or 6.10.4.3(B), as appropriate. These design moments may be modified by up to 10% provided the total static moment (M o) for the span in the direction considered is not reduced. The section under negative moment shall be designed to resist the larger of the two interior negative design moments determined for the spans framing into a common support, unless an analysis is made to distribute the unbalanced moment in accordance with the stiffness of the adjoining members. TABLE 6.10.4.3(A) DESIGN MOMENT FACTORS FOR AN END-SPAN
Type of slab system and edge rotation restraint Flat slabs with exterior edge unrestrained Flat slabs with exterior edge restrained by columns only Flat slabs with exterior edge restrained by spandrel beams and columns Flat slabs with exterior edge fully restrained Beam-and-slab construction Exterior negative moment factor 0.0 0.25 0.30 0.65 0.15 Positive moment factor 0.60 0.50 0.50 0.35 0.55 Interior negative moment factor 0.80 0.75 0.70 0.65 0.75

TABLE 6.10.4.3(B) DESIGN MOMENT FACTORS FOR AN INTERIOR SPAN
Type of slab system All types
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Negative moment factor 0.65

Positive moment factor 0.35

6.10.4.4 Transverse distribution of the design bending moment The design negative and positive bending moments shall be distributed to the column strip and middle strip in accordance with Clause 6.9.5.3. 6.10.4.5 Moment transfer for shear in flat slabs For the purpose of shear design, the bending moment, transferred from the slab to the * support ( M v ), shall be taken as the unbalanced bending moment at that support.
* At an interior support, M v shall be taken as not less than—

′ 0.06 [(1.2 g + 0.75q ) Lt (Lo ) − 1.2 gLt (Lo ) ]
2 2

. . . 6.10.4.5

where
′ Lo = smaller value of L o for the adjoining spans

At an exterior support, the actual moment shall be taken.

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6.10.4.6 Shear forces in beam-and-slab construction In beam-and-slab construction, the shear forces in the supporting beams may be determined by using the allocation of load given in Clause 6.10.3.4. 6.10.4.7 Openings in slabs Only openings that comply with the requirements of Clauses 6.9.5.5(a) and 6.9.5.5(b) shall be permitted in slabs.

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SECT ION
7.1 GENERAL

7

STRUT-AN D-T I E

MOD E L L I N G

It shall be permissible to use strut-and-tie models to represent the conditions at overload and at failure in non-flexural members and in non-flexural regions of members, as a basis both for strength design and for evaluating strength. A strut-and-tie model shall consist of compression elements (struts) and tension elements (ties) that are connected together at nodes to form a load-resisting structural system. Strut-and-tie models shall satisfy the following requirements: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) Loads shall be applied at nodes, and the struts and ties shall be subjected only to axial force. The model shall provide load paths to carry the loads and other actions to the supports or into adjacent regions. The model shall be in equilibrium with the applied loads and the reactions. In determining the geometry of the model, the dimensions of the struts, ties, and nodal zones shall be taken into account. Ties shall be permitted to cross struts. Struts shall cross or intersect only at nodes. For reinforced concrete members at a node point, the angle between the axes of any strut and any tie shall be not less than 30°. For prestressed concrete members at a node point, the angle between the axes of any strut and any tie with a tendon acting as the reinforcement shall be not less than 20°.

7.2 CONCRETE STRUTS 7.2.1 Types of struts Struts shall be of prismatic, fan or bottle shape, depending on the geometry of the compression field, as shown in Figure 7.2.1. Prismatic struts shall be used only where the compressive stress field cannot diverge. 7.2.2 Strut efficiency factor
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For prismatic struts, the strut efficiency factor (βs) that is used to determine the design strength shall be taken as 1.0. For fan- and bottle-shaped compression fields that are unconfined, the strut efficiency factor shall be taken as— βs = 1 1.0 + 0.66 cot 2 θ

(within the limits 0.3 ≤ βs ≤ 1.0)

. . . 7.2.2

The angle (θ) is measured between the axis of the strut and the axis of a tie passing through a common node (see Figure 7.2.2). Where more than one tie passes through a node, or where the angle (θ) is different for nodes at each end of a strut, the smallest value of θ shall be used in determining βs.

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FIGURE 7.2.1 TYPES OF STRUTS

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FIGURE 7.2.2 DEFINITION OF θ

7.2.3 Design strength of struts The design strength of a concrete strut shall be taken as— φ st β s 0.9 f c′ Ac

. . . 7.2.3

where A c = smallest cross-sectional area of the concrete strut at any point along its length and measured normal to the line of action of the strut βs = an efficiency factor given in Clause 7.2.2 The value of the strength reduction factor (φ st ) shall be obtained from Table 2.2.4. Longitudinal reinforcement may be used to increase the strength of a strut. Such reinforcement shall be placed parallel to the axis of the strut, located within the strut and enclosed in ties or spirals satisfying Clause 10.7. The longitudinal reinforcement shall be properly anchored. The strength of a longitudinally reinforced strut may be calculated as for a prismatic, pin-ended short column of similar geometry.
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7.2.4 Bursting reinforcement in bottle-shaped struts
* The design bursting force at both the serviceability limit state Tb.s and ultimate limit state

( ) shall be calculated using an equilibrium model consistent with the bottle shape shown
Tb*

( )

in Figure 7.2.4(A). The divergence angle (α) for the bottle-shaped strut shall be assessed for each situation but shall be not less than— (a) (b) tan α = 1/2 .............................................................................for serviceability; and tan α = 1/5 ........................................................................................... for strength.
′ Tb.cr = 0.7bl b f ct

The bursting force across the strut at cracking shall be taken as— . . . 7.2.4(1)

where b = lb = www.standards.org.au width of rectangular cross section or member length of the bursting zone [see Figure 7.2.4(A)]
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If the calculated bursting force Tb* is greater than 0.5Tb.cr , then transverse reinforcement shall be provided in either— (i) (ii) two orthogonal directions at angles γ 1 and γ 2 to the axis of the strut [see Figure 7.2.4(B)]; or one direction at an angle γ 1 to the axis of the strut, where γ 1 shall be not less than 40° and shall satisfy the following— (A) for serviceability

( )

∑A
(B)
φst

si

f si sin γ i ≥ max Tb* , Tb.cr

(

)

. . . 7.2.4(2)

for strength

∑A

si f sy

sin γ i ≥ Tb*

. . . 7.2.4(3)

In the above expressions, Asi is the area of reinforcement in directions 1 and 2 crossing a strut at an angle γ1 to the axis of the strut [see Figure 7.2.4(B)] and fsi is the serviceability limit stress in the reinforcement as specified in Clause 12.7. The transverse reinforcement shall be evenly distributed throughout the length of the bursting zone (l b), which is given by— lb = z 2 + a 2 − d c

. . . 7.2.4(4)

and a, d c and z are the shear span, the width of the idealized strut, and the projection of the inclined compressive strut normal to the shear span respectively [see Figure 7.2.4(A)].

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FIGURE 7.2.4(A) MODEL OF BURSTING FORCES IN BOTTLE-SHAPED STRUTS

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FIGURE 7.2.4(B) BURSTING REINFORCEMENT

7.3 TIES 7.3.1 Arrangement of ties Ties shall consist of reinforcing steel and/or prestressing tendons. The reinforcement and/or tendons shall be evenly distributed across the nodal regions at each end of the tie, and arranged such that the resultant tensile force coincides with the axis of the tie in the strutand-tie model. 7.3.2 Design strength of ties The design strength of a tie shall be taken as φ st [Ast fsy + A p(σ p.ef + Δσ p )] where (σ p.ef + Δσ p ) shall not exceed f py . The value of φst shall be obtained from Table 2.2.4. 7.3.3 Anchorage of ties To provide adequate anchorage at each end of the tie, the reinforcement or tendon shall be extended beyond the node to achieve the design strength of the tie at the node and anchored in accordance with Clause 13.1. At least 50% of the development length shall extend beyond the nodal zone.
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Alternatively, anchorage of reinforcement may be achieved by a welded or mechanical anchorage, located entirely beyond the nodal zone. 7.4 NODES 7.4.1 Types of nodes Three types of node are distinguished by the arrangement of the entering struts and ties, and the confinement thus provided, as follows: (a) (b) (c) CCC—there are only struts entering the node. CCT—there are two or more struts and a single tension tie entering the node. CTT—there are two or more tension ties entering the node.

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7.4.2 Design strength of nodes Where confinement is not provided to the nodal region, the design strength of the node shall be such that the principal compressive stress on any nodal face, determined from the normal and shear stresses on that face, is not greater than φst ß n 0.9f′ c where— (a) (b) (c) for CCC nodes βn = 1.0; or for CCT nodes βn = 0.8; or for CTT nodes βn = 0.6.

The value of the strength reduction factor (φ st ) shall be taken from Table 2.2.4. Where confinement is provided to the nodal region, the design strength of the node may be determined by tests or calculation, considering the confinement, but shall not exceed a value corresponding to a maximum compressive principal stress on any face of φst 1.8 f′ c. 7.5 ANALYSIS OF STRUT-AND-TIE MODELS In the analysis of a strut-and-tie model to determine the internal forces in the struts and ties, the requirements of Clause 6.1.1 shall be satisfied, and Clauses 6.1.2 and 6.8.2 shall be complied with. 7.6 DESIGN BASED ON STRUT-AND-TIE MODELLING 7.6.1 Design for strength When strut-and-tie modelling is used for strength design, the requirements of Clause 2.2.4 shall be satisfied. 7.6.2 Serviceability checks When design for strength is based on strut-and-tie modelling, separate checks shall be undertaken to ensure that the design requirements for serviceability are satisfied.

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SE C T I ON 8 S T R E N G T H

D E S IG N O F B E A M S FO R A N D SE RV ICE AB I L I T Y

8.1 STRENGTH OF BEAMS IN BENDING 8.1.1 General The strength of a beam cross-section under bending shall be determined using Clauses 8.1.2 to 8.1.10 and the material properties given in Section 3. Beam properties for T-beams and L-beams shall be as given in Clause 8.8. This Clause does not apply to non-flexural members covered by Section 12. 8.1.2 Basis of strength calculations Calculations for strength of cross-sections in bending shall incorporate equilibrium and strain-compatibility considerations and be consistent with the following assumptions: (a) (b) (c) (d)
1

Plane sections normal to the axis remain plane after bending, except for unbonded tendons (see Clause 8.1.8). The concrete has no tensile strength. The distribution of compressive stress is determined from a stress-strain relationship for the concrete in accordance with Clause 3.1.4 (see Note 1). The strain in compressive reinforcement does not exceed 0.003.
If a curvilinear stress-strain relationship is used, then— (a) (b) Clause 3.1.4 places a limit on the value of the maximum concrete stress; and the strain in the extreme compression fibre may be adjusted to obtain the maximum bending strength.

NOTES:

2

These rules apply to reinforced and bonded prestressed concrete members.

8.1.3 Rectangular stress block Clause 8.1.2 shall be deemed to be satisfied for the concrete assuming that— (a) (b)
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the maximum strain in the extreme compression fibre is taken as 0.003; and a uniform compressive stress of α 2 f c′ acts on an area bounded by— (i) (ii) the edges of the cross-section; and a line parallel to the neutral axis under the loading concerned, and located at a distance γk u d from the extreme compressive fibre, where— α 2 = 1.0 − 0.003 f c′ γ 2 = 1.0 − 0.003 f c′ block assumptions.

(within the limits 0.67 ≤ α2 ≤ 0.85) (within the limits 0.67 ≤ γ ≤ 0.85)

. . . 8.1.3(1) . . . 8.1.3(2)

NOTE: The modification of 0.9 f c′ given in Clause 3.1.4 is included in the rectangular stress

8.1.4 Dispersion angle of prestress In the absence of a more exact calculation, the dispersion angle of the prestressing force from the anchorage shall be assumed to be 60° (i.e., 30° either side of the centre-line). 8.1.5 Design strength in bending The design strength in bending of a section shall be taken as not greater than φM uo , where φ is determined from Item (b) of Table 2.2.2.
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Sections with k uo greater than 0.36 shall be used only when— (a) (b) the structural analysis is carried out in accordance with Clauses 6.2 to 6.6; and compressive reinforcement of at least 0.01 times the area of concrete in compression is used and restrained as specified in Clauses 8.1.10.7 and 8.1.10.8, as appropriate.

8.1.6 Minimum strength requirements 8.1.6.1 General The ultimate strength in bending (M uo ) at critical sections shall be not less than (M uo ) min , the minimum required strength in bending at a critical cross-section, and is given by—

(M uo )min where Z

′ = 1.2 [ Z f ct.f + Pe / Ag + Pe e]

(

)

. . . 8.1.6.1(1)

= section modulus of the uncracked cross-section, referred to the extreme fibre at which flexural cracking occurs

′ f ct.f = characteristic flexural tensile strength of the concrete

Pe e

= total effective prestress force allowing for all losses of prestress = eccentricity of the prestressing force (P e), measured from the centroidal axis of the uncracked section

This requirement may be waived at critical sections of a statically indeterminate member, provided it can be demonstrated this will not lead to sudden collapse of a span or a reduced collapse load. For reinforced concrete cross-sections, this requirement shall be deemed to be satisfied for the direction of bending being considered if tensile reinforcement (Ast) is provided such that—
′ Ast ≥ [α b ( D/d ) 2 f ct.f /f sy ] bw d

. . . 8.1.6.1(2)

where For rectangular sections: α b = 0.20 For T-sections and L-sections with the web in tension:
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1/ 4

⎛b ⎞⎛ ⎛b D ⎞ α b = 0.20 + ⎜ ef − 1⎟ ⎜ 0.4 s − 0.18 ⎟ ≥ 0.20 ⎜ ef ⎜b ⎟ ⎜b D ⎠ ⎝ w ⎠⎝ ⎝ w

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

For T-sections and L-sections with the flange in tension:
⎛b ⎞⎛ ⎛b D ⎞ α b = 0.20 + ⎜ ef − 1⎟ ⎜ 0.25 s − 0.08 ⎟ ≥ 0.20 ⎜ ef ⎜b ⎟ ⎜b D ⎠ ⎝ w ⎠⎝ ⎝ w ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
2/3

8.1.6.2 Prestressed beams at transfer The strength of a prestressed beam at transfer shall be checked using the load combinations specified in Clause 2.4 and a strength reduction factor (φ) for the section of 0.6. This requirement shall be deemed to be satisfied if the maximum compressive stress in the concrete, under the loads at transfer, does not exceed 0.5f cp for a rectangular distribution of stress or 0.6fcp for a triangular distribution of stress.

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8.1.7 Stress in reinforcement and bonded tendons at ultimate strength The stress in the reinforcement at ultimate strength shall be taken as not greater than fsy . In the absence of a more accurate calculation and provided the minimum effective stress in the tendons is not less than 0.5f pb, the maximum stress that would be reached in bonded tendons at ultimate strength (σ pu ) shall be taken as— k k ⎛ σ pu = f pb ⎜1 − 1 2 ⎜ γ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

. . . 8.1.7(1)

where k 1 = 0.4 generally; or if f py /f pb ≥ 0.9, k 1 = 0.28; and k2 = 1 Apt f pb + ( Ast − Asc ) f sy bef d p f c′

[

]

Compressive reinforcement may be taken into account only if dsc , the distance from the extreme compressive fibre of the concrete to the centroid of compressive reinforcement, is not greater than 0.15d p , in which case k2 shall be taken as not less than 0.17. 8.1.8 Stress in tendons not yet bonded Where the tendon is not yet bonded, the stress in the tendon at ultimate strength (σ pu ) shall be determined from the formula given in Item (a) below if the span-to-depth ratio is 35 or less, or from the formula given in Item (b) below if the span-to-depth ratio is greater than 35, but in no case shall σ pu be taken greater than f py: (a) σ pu = σ p.ef + 70 + σ pu = σ p.ef + 70 + f c′ bef d p 100 Apt f c′ bef d p 300 Apt ≤ σ p.ef + 400 ≤ σ p.ef + 200

. . . 8.1.8(1)

(b)

. . . 8.1.8(2)

where σ p.ef is the effective stress in the tendon after allowing for all losses. 8.1.9 Spacing of reinforcement and tendons
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The minimum clear distance between parallel bars (including bundles of bars), ducts and tendons shall be such that the concrete can be properly placed and compacted in accordance with Clause 17.1.3. The maximum spacing of longitudinal reinforcement and tendons shall be determined in accordance with Clause 8.6(b). 8.1.10 Detailing of flexural reinforcement and tendons 8.1.10.1 General procedure for detailing reinforcement and tendons The design for flexural strength and detailing of flexural reinforcement and pretensioned tendons at termination shall be extended from the theoretical cut-off point, or debonding point, by a length of 1.0D + Lsy.t, or 1.0D + L pt, respectively, where D is the member depth at the theoretical cut-off point or debonding point. Prestressing effects and the contribution to strength of post-tensioned tendons shall be disregarded over a length of the tendon from the point of termination equal to the development length (Lp).

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Clauses 8.1.10.2 to 8.1.10.8 do not apply to tendons. Clause 8.1.10.9 applies to tendons only.
NOTE: When detailing flexural reinforcement, designers should be cautious in D-regions and design accordingly.

8.1.10.2 Distribution of reinforcement Tensile reinforcement shall be well distributed in zones of maximum concrete tension, including those portions of flanges of T-beams, L-beams and I-beams over a support. 8.1.10.3 Continuation of negative moment reinforcement Not less than one third of the total negative moment tensile reinforcement required at a support shall be extended a distance equal to the overall depth of the cross-section (D) beyond the point of contra-flexure. 8.1.10.4 Anchorage of positive moment reinforcement Anchorage of positive moment reinforcement shall comply with the following requirements: (a) At a simple support: (i) Sufficient positive moment reinforcement shall be anchored for a length (L st) such that the anchored reinforcement shall develop a tensile force of— (A) (B) V * cot θ v/φ; plus the longitudinal torsion tensile force calculated in accordance with Clause 8.3.6, where V * is the design shear force at a distance, d cot θ v from the anchor point; plus any other longitudinal tensile forces in the reinforcement.

(C)

The anchor point shall be taken either halfway along the length of the bearing, or determined by calculating the width of the compressive strut in accordance with Clause 7.2, taking account of both shear and torsion, and allowing for the truss angle being used. The truss angle (θ v ) is as defined in Clause 8.2.10, and L sy.t is determined from Clause 13.1.2. (ii) Not less than one half of the tensile reinforcement required at midspan shall extend past the face of the support for a length of 12d b or an equivalent anchorage; or not less than one third of the tensile reinforcement required at midspan shall extend past the face of the support for a length of 8d b plus D/2.

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(b)

At a continuous or flexurally restrained support not less than one quarter of the total positive moment reinforcement required at midspan shall continue past the near face of the support.

8.1.10.5 Shear strength requirements near terminated flexural reinforcement If tensile reinforcement is terminated, the effect on the shear strength shall be assessed in accordance with the principles of ‘strut-and-tie modelling’. This requirement shall be deemed to be satisfied if any one of the following conditions is met: (a) (b) (c) Not more than a quarter of the maximum tensile reinforcement is terminated within any distance 2D. At the cut-off point, φV u ≥ 1.5V * . Stirrups are provided to give an area of shear reinforcement of Asv + Asv.min for a distance equal to the overall depth of the cross-section (D) along the terminated bar from the cut-off point, where Asv and Asv.min are determined in accordance with Clause 8.2.
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8.1.10.6 Deemed to comply arrangement of flexural reinforcement For continuous reinforced beams analysed using simplified methods of analysis, as detailed in Clause 6.10, the following deemed to comply arrangement shall be used and shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements of Clauses 8.1.10.3 to 8.1.10.5: (a) Of the negative moment tensile reinforcement provided at the support— (i) (ii) not less than one quarter shall extend over the whole span; not less than one half shall extend 0.3L n or more beyond the face of the support; and

(iii) the remainder, if any, shall extend 0.2L n or more beyond the face of the support. Where adjacent spans are unequal, the extension of negative reinforcement beyond each face of the common support shall be based on the longer span. (b) Of the positive moment tensile reinforcement provided at midspan— (i) (ii) not less than one half shall extend into a simple support for a length of 12d b; not less than one quarter shall extend into a support where the beam is continuous or flexurally restrained; and

(iii) the remainder, if any, shall extend to within 0.1L n from the face of the support. (c) To comply with shear requirements, not more than a quarter of the maximum tensile reinforcement shall be terminated within any distance 2D.

8.1.10.7 Restraint of compressive reinforcement Compressive reinforcement required for strength in beams shall be adequately restrained by fitments in accordance with Clause 10.7.4. 8.1.10.8 Bundled bars Groups of parallel longitudinal bars bundled to act as a unit shall— (a) (b) (c) have not more than four bars in any one bundle; be tied together in contact; and be enclosed within stirrups or fitments.

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Within the span of a flexural member, individual bars in a bundle shall be terminated so that the points of termination are staggered by a distance greater than or equal to 40 times the diameter of the larger bar within the bundle. The unit of bundled bars shall be treated as an equivalent single bar of diameter derived from the total area of the bars in the bundle. 8.1.10.9 Detailing of tendons In prestressed members— (a) detailing of tendons for termination, anchorage and debonding shall be based on a hypothetical bending-moment diagram formed by uniformly displacing the calculated positive and negative bending moment envelopes a distance (D) along the beam from each side of the relevant section of maximum moment; anchorages and stress development, as appropriate, shall be provided for all tendons in accordance with Clause 12.5 and Section 13; at a simple support of a pretensioned member, at least one third of the tendons required at the section of maximum positive moment shall be continued to the end of the member without debonding; and

(b) (c)

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(d)

for horizontal curvature of tendons, the designer shall assess the bursting and/or splitting capacity of the beam.

8.2 STRENGTH OF BEAMS IN SHEAR 8.2.1 General This Clause applies to reinforced and prestressed beams subjected to any combination of shear force, bending moment and axial force. When torsion acts in conjunction with shear force, the requirements given in Clause 8.3 also shall apply. This Clause does not apply to non-flexural members covered by Section 12. 8.2.2 Design shear strength of a beam The design shear strength of a beam shall be taken as φV u where— (a) (b) (c) V u = V uc + V us , taking account of Clauses 8.2.3 to 8.2.6, where V uc is determined from Clause 8.2.7 and V us is determined from Clauses 8.2.9 and 8.2.10; or V u is calculated by means of a method based on strut-and-tie modelling in accordance with Section 7; or where design for shear and torsion interaction is required in accordance with Clause 8.3, V uc shall be calculated in accordance with Clause 8.2.7.4.

8.2.3 Tapered members In members that are tapered along their length, the components of inclined tension or compressive forces shall be taken into account in the calculation of shear strength. 8.2.4 Maximum transverse shear near a support The maximum transverse shear near a support shall be taken as the shear at— (a) (b) the face of the support; or a distance of do from the face of the support, provided— (i) (ii) diagonal cracking can not take place at the support or extend into it; there are no concentrated loads closer than 2do from the face of the support; the transverse shear reinforcement required at d o from the support is continued unchanged to the face of the support.

(iii) the value of β3 in Clauses 8.2.7.1 and 8.2.7.2 is taken to be equal to one; and (iv)
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In both Items (a) and (b) above, longitudinal tensile reinforcement required at d o from the face of the support shall be continued into the support and shall be fully anchored past that face. 8.2.5 Requirements for shear reinforcement The following requirements for shear reinforcement shall apply: (a) Where V * ≤ 0.5φV uc , no shear reinforcement is required, except that where the overall depth of the beam exceeds 750 mm, minimum shear reinforcement (A sv.min ) shall be provided in accordance with Clause 8.2.8. Where 0.5φV uc < V * ≤ φV u.min , minimum shear reinforcement (Asv.min ) shall be provided in accordance with Clause 8.2.8. for beams, if V * ≤ φV uc and D does not exceed the greater of 250 mm and half the width of the web; and
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(b)

The minimum shear reinforcement requirements of Items (a) and (b) may be waived— (i)

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(ii)

for slabs to which this Clause applies, if V * ≤ φV uc .

Where V * > φV u.min shear reinforcement shall be provided in accordance with Clause 8.2.10. 8.2.6 Shear strength limited by web crushing In no case shall the ultimate shear strength (V u ) be taken as greater than—
Vu.max = 0.2 f c′ bv d o + Pv

. . . 8.2.6

where bv = (b w − 0.5Σd d) Σd d = sum of the diameters of the grouted ducts, if any, in a horizontal plane across the web Pv = vertical component of the prestressing force at the section under consideration

8.2.7 Shear strength of a beam excluding shear reinforcement 8.2.7.1 Reinforced beams The ultimate shear strength (V uc) of a reinforced beam, excluding the contribution of shear reinforcement, shall be calculated from the following equation:
⎛ A Vuc = β1 β 2 β3 bv d o f cv ⎜ st ⎜b d ⎝ v o ⎞1 / 3 ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

. . . 8.2.7.1

where for members where the cross-sectional area of shear reinforcement provided (Asv ) is equal to or greater than the minimum area specified in Clause 8.2.8— β1 = 1.1(1.6 − d o/1000) ≥ 1.1 otherwise— β1 = 1.1(1.6 − d o/1000) ≥ 0.8 β2 = 1, for members subject to pure bending; or = 1 − (N * /3.5A g ) ≥ 0 = 1 + (N /14A g )
*

for members subject to axial tension; or for members subject to axial compression

β3 = 1, or may be taken as—
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2do/a v but not greater than 2, provided the applied loads and the support are orientated so as to create diagonal compression over the length (a v ) a v = distance from the section at which shear is being considered to the face of the nearest support fcv = f c′ 1 / 3 ≤ 4 MPa

A st = cross-sectional area of longitudinal reinforcement provided in the tensile zone and fully anchored at the cross-section under consideration 8.2.7.2 Prestressed beams The ultimate shear strength (V uc) of a prestressed beam, excluding the contribution of shear reinforcement, shall be taken as not greater than the lesser of the values obtained from the following, unless the cross-section under consideration is cracked in flexure, in which case only Item (a) shall apply:

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(a)

Flexure-shear cracking:
Vuc = β1 β 2 β 3 bv d o f cv ⎡ Ast + Apt ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ bv d o ⎦

(

)

1/ 3

+ Vo + Pv

. . . 8.2.7.2(1)

where β1, β2, β3, fcv and A st are as given in Clause 8.2.7.1 except that in determining β2, N * is taken as the value of the axial force excluding prestress V o = shear force which would occur at the section when the bending moment at that section was equal to the decompression moment (Mo ) given by— M o = Zσ cp.f σ cp.f = compressive stress due to prestress, at the extreme fibre where cracking occurs For statically determinate structures:
Vo = Mo M* /V*

. . . 8.2.7.2(2)

where M * and V * are the bending moment and shear force respectively, at the section under consideration, due to the design loading for strength. Where the prestress and the applied moment both produce tension on the same extreme fibre of a member, V o shall be taken as zero. For statically indeterminate structures, secondary shear forces and bending moments, due to prestress, shall be taken into account when determining Mo and V o. (b) Web-shear cracking: V uc = V t + P v where V t = shear force, which, in combination with the prestressing force and other action effects at the section, would produce a principal tensile stress of ′ f ct at either the centroidal axis or the intersection of flange and web, whichever is the more critical 8.2.7.3 Secondary effects on V uc
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. . . 8.2.7.2(3)

Where stresses due to secondary effects such as creep, shrinkage and differential temperature are significant, they shall be taken into account in the calculation of V uc both for reinforced and prestressed concrete beams. 8.2.7.4 Reversal of loads and members in torsion Where loading cases occur that result in cracking in a zone usually in compression, the value of V uc obtained from Clause 8.2.7.1 or 8.2.7.2 may not apply and V uc shall be assessed or be taken as zero. 8.2.8 Minimum shear reinforcement The minimum area of shear reinforcement (Asv.min ) provided in a beam shall be given by—
Asv.min = 0.06 f c′ bv s / f sy.f ≥ 0.35bv s / f sy.f

. . . 8.2.8

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8.2.9 Shear strength of a beam with minimum reinforcement The ultimate shear strength of a beam provided with minimum shear reinforcement (Asv.min ), (V u.min ) shall be taken as—
Vu.min = Vuc + 0.10 f c′ bv d o ≥ Vuc + 0.6bv d o

. . . 8.2.9

8.2.10 Contribution to shear strength by the shear reinforcement The contribution to the ultimate shear strength by shear reinforcement in a beam (V us ) shall be determined from the following equations: (a) For perpendicular shear reinforcement—
Vus = Asv f sy.f d o / s cot θ v

(

)

. . . 8.2.10(1)

(b)

For inclined shear reinforcement—
Vus = Asv f sy.f d o / s ( sin α v cotθ v + cos α v )

(

)

. . . 8.2.10(2)

where, for both Items (a) and (b)— θv = angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member and shall be taken as either— (i) 45°; or

(ii) chosen in the range of 30° to 60° except that the minimum value of θ v shall be taken as varying linearly from 30°, when V * = φV u.min to 45°, when V * = φV u.max αv = angle between the inclined shear reinforcement and the longitudinal tensile reinforcement

8.2.11 Hanging reinforcement Loads applied to a member other than at the top chord of the member shall be transferred to the top chord, within the load application region, by the provision of hanging reinforcement of area consistent with strut-and-tie modelling. 8.2.12 Detailing of shear reinforcement 8.2.12.1 Types Shear reinforcement shall comprise one or more—
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(a) (b)

stirrups or fitments making an angle of between 45° and 90° with the longitudinal bars; and welded wire mesh placed to have wires perpendicular to the axis of the beam.

8.2.12.2 Spacing Shear reinforcement shall be spaced longitudinally not further apart than 0.5D or 300 mm, whichever is less. Where V * ≤ φV u.min , the spacing may be increased to 0.75D or 500 mm, whichever is less. The maximum transverse spacing across the width of the member shall not exceed the lesser of 600 mm and D. 8.2.12.3 Extent Shear reinforcement, of area not less than that calculated as being necessary at any crosssection, shall be provided for a distance (D) from that cross-section in the direction of decreasing shear. The first fitment at each end of a span shall be positioned not more than 50 mm from the face of the adjacent support.
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Shear reinforcement shall extend as close to the compression face and the tension face of the member as cover requirements and the proximity of other reinforcement and tendons will permit. Bends in bars used as fitments shall enclose a longitudinal bar with a diameter not less than the diameter of the fitment bar. The enclosed bar shall be in contact with the fitment bend. 8.2.12.4 Anchorage of shear reinforcement The anchorage of shear reinforcement transverse to the longitudinal flexural reinforcement may be achieved by a hook or cog complying with Clause 13.1.2.7 or by welding of the fitment to a longitudinal bar or by a welded splice.
NOTE: The type of anchorage used should not induce splitting or spalling of the concrete cover.

Notwithstanding the above, fitment cogs are not to be used when the fitment cog is located within 50 mm of any concrete surface. 8.2.12.5 End anchorage of mesh Where mesh is used as shear reinforcement, the ends shall be anchored— (a) (b) in accordance with Clause 8.2.12.4, if the wires are bent at least to the dimensions of a standard fitment hook; or by embedding two or more transverse wires at least 25 mm within the compressive zone.

8.3 STRENGTH OF BEAMS IN TORSION 8.3.1 General This Clause applies to reinforced and prestressed beams subjected to any combination of torsion, flexure and shear. It does not apply to non-flexural members covered by Section 12. 8.3.2 Secondary torsion Where torsional strength is not required for the equilibrium of the structure and the torsion in a member is induced solely by the angular rotation of adjoining members, it shall be permissible to disregard the torsional stiffness in the analysis and torsion in the member, if the torsion reinforcement requirements of Clauses 8.3.7 and the detailing requirements of Clause 8.3.8 are satisfied. 8.3.3 Torsional strength limited by web crushing
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To prevent web crushing under the combined action of torsion and flexural shear, beams shall be proportioned so that the following inequality is satisfied:
T* V* + ≤1 φ Tu . max φ Vu.max

. . . 8.3.3

where V u.max is calculated from Clause 8.2.6 and
Tu.max. = 0.2 f c′ J t

The torsional modulus (J t) may be taken as— = 0.33x2y for solid rectangular sections; = 0.33Σx 2y for solid T- shaped, L- shaped, or I-shaped sections; and = 2A m b w for thin walled hollow sections, A m being the area enclosed by the median lines of the walls of a single cell and b w being a minimum thickness of the wall of a hollow section www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia

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8.3.4 Requirements for torsional reinforcement In the calculation of T * and V * in Items (a) and (b), the elastic uncracked stiffness shall be used. Requirements for torsional reinforcement shall be determined from the following: (a) Torsional reinforcement is not required if— (i) (ii) T * < 0.25φT uc; or
T* V* + ≤ 0.5; or φTuc φVuc

. . . 8.3.4(1) . . . 8.3.4(2)

(iii) the overall depth does not exceed the greater of 250 mm and half the width of the web; and
T* V* + ≤1 φTuc φ V uc

. . . 8.3.4(3)

where T uc and V uc are calculated in accordance with Clauses 8.3.5 and 8.2.7 respectively. (b) If Item (a) above is not satisfied, torsional reinforcement consisting of transverse closed fitments and longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided, in addition to any other reinforcement, such that—
T* ≤1 φTus

. . . 8.3.4(4)

where T us is calculated in accordance with Clause 8.3.5. At least the minimum torsional reinforcement required by Clause 8.3.7 shall be provided in addition to any other fitments. Longitudinal torsional reinforcement shall comply with Clause 8.3.6 and both transverse and longitudinal torsional reinforcement shall comply with Clause 8.3.7. Shear reinforcement shall be provided with V uc assessed in accordance with Clause 8.2.7.4. 8.3.5 Torsional strength of a beam
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For the purpose of Clause 8.3.4, the ultimate strength of a beam in pure torsion (T uc or T us) shall be determined from the following: (a) For a beam without closed fitments, the ultimate strength in pure torsion (T uc) shall be calculated from—
Tuc = J t 0.3 f c′

(

)

(1 + 10σ cp / f c′ )

. . . 8.3.5(1)

(b)

For a beam with closed fitments, the ultimate strength in pure torsion (T us) shall be calculated from—
Tus = f sy.f ( Asw / s ) 2 At cot θ v

. . . 8.3.5(2)

where A t = area of a polygon with vertices at the centre of longitudinal bars at the corners of the cross-section 8.3.6 Longitudinal torsional reinforcement Longitudinal torsional reinforcement shall be provided to resist the following design tensile forces, taken as additional to any other design tensile forces:
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(a)

In the flexural tensile zone, a force of—
⎛A ⎞ 0.5 f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟ u t cot 2 θ v ; and ⎝ s ⎠

. . . 8.3.6(1)

(b)

In the flexural compressive zone, a force of—
⎛A ⎞ 0.5 f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟ u t cot 2 θ v − Fc* ; but not less than zero, ⎝ s ⎠

. . . 8.3.6(2)

where θv ut = angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member (see Clause 8.2.10) = perimeter of the polygon defined for A t

Fc* = absolute value of the design force in the compressive zone due to flexure

8.3.7 Minimum torsional reinforcement Where torsional reinforcement is required as specified in Clause 8.3.4— (a) (b) longitudinal torsional reinforcement shall be provided in accordance with Clause 8.3.6; and minimum transverse reinforcement shall be provided to satisfy the greater of— (i) (ii) the minimum shear reinforcement required by Clause 8.2.8 in the form of closed ties or fitments; and a torsional capacity equal to 0.25T uc .

8.3.8 Detailing of torsional reinforcement Torsional reinforcement shall be detailed in accordance with Clause 8.2.12.4 and the following: (a) (b) Torsional reinforcement shall consist of both closed fitments and longitudinal reinforcement. A closed fitment shall be capable of developing full yield stress in each leg and capable of transferring the yield force to an adjacent leg, unless a more refined analysis shows that over part of the fitment full yield stress is not required. The spacing (s) of the closed fitments shall be not greater than the lesser of 0.12u t and 300 mm. The longitudinal reinforcement shall be placed as close as practicable to the corners of the cross-section and, in all cases, at least one longitudinal bar shall be provided at each corner of the closed fitments.

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(c)

8.4 LONGITUDINAL SHEAR IN COMPOSITE AND MONOLITHIC BEAMS 8.4.1 General This Clause applies to the transfer of longitudinal shear forces, across interface shear planes through webs and flanges of— (a) (b) composite beams constructed of precast concrete sections and cast in situ toppings or flanges; and beams constructed monolithically.

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8.4.2 Design shear stress The design shear stress (τ* ) acting on the interface shall be taken as follows: τ * = βV */(zb f ) where z = internal moment lever arm of the section For a shear plane that passes through a region in compression— β = ratio of the compressive force in the member (calculated between the extreme compressive fibre and the shear plane) and the total compression force in the section For a shear plane that passes through a region in tension— β = ratio of the tensile force in the longitudinal reinforcement (calculated between the extreme tensile fibre and the shear plane) and the total tension force in the section 8.4.3 Shear stress capacity The design shear stress at the shear interface shall not exceed φτ u where—
⎛ Asf f sy g p ⎞ ⎟ ′ τu = μ⎜ ⎜ sb + b ⎟ + k co bf f ct f f ⎠ ⎝ ≤ lesser of (0.2 f c′ , 10 MPa )

. . . 8.4.2

. . . 8.4.3

where τu gp μ bf fsy
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= unit shear strength = permanent distributed load normal to the shear interface per unit length, newtons per millimetre (N/mm) = coefficient of friction given in Table 8.4.3

k co = cohesion coefficient given in Table 8.4.3 = width of the shear plane, in millimetres (mm) A sf = area of fully anchored shear reinforcement crossing the interface (mm2 ) = yield strength of shear reinforcement not exceeding 500 MPa = spacing of anchored shear reinforcement crossing interface s

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TABLE 8.4.3 SHEAR PLANE SURFACE COEFFICIENTS
Surface condition of the shear plane A smooth surface, as obtained by casting against a form, or finished to a similar standard A surface trowelled or tamped, so that the fines have been brought to the top, but where some small ridges, indentations or undulations have been left; slip-formed and vibro-beam screeded; or produced by some form of extrusion technique A surface deliberately roughened— (a) (b) (c) (d) by texturing the concrete to give a pronounced profile; by compacting but leaving a rough surface with coarse aggregate protruding but firmly fixed in the matrix; by spraying when wet, to expose the coarse aggregate without disturbing it; or by providing mechanical shear keys. 0.9 0.5 0.9 0.4 Coefficients µ 0.6 k co 0.1

0.6

0.2

Monolithic construction

NOTE: Where a beam is subjected to high levels of differential shrinkage, temperature effects, tensile stress or fatigue effects across the shear plane, the values of µ and kco in the above Table do not apply.

8.4.4 Shear plane reinforcement Where reinforcement is required to increase the longitudinal shear strength, the reinforcement shall consist of shear reinforcement anchored to develop its full strength at the shear plane. Shear and torsional reinforcement already provided, and which crosses the shear plane, may be taken into account for this purpose. The centre-to-centre spacing (s) of the shear reinforcement shall not exceed the maximum spacing— s max = 3.5t f where t f = thickness of topping or flange anchored by the shear reinforcement 8.4.5 Minimum thickness of structural components
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. . . 8.4.4

The average thickness of structural components subject to interface shear shall be not less than 50 mm with a minimum local thickness not less than 30 mm. 8.5 DEFLECTION OF BEAMS 8.5.1 General The deflection of a beam shall be determined in accordance with Clause 8.5.2 or Clause 8.5.3. Alternatively, for reinforced beams, the effective-span to effective-depth ratio shall comply with Clause 8.5.4. 8.5.2 Beam deflection by refined calculation The calculation of the deflection of a beam by refined calculation shall make allowance for the following: (a) (b) Cracking and tension stiffening. Shrinkage and creep properties of the concrete.
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(c) (d) (e)

Expected load history. Expected construction procedure. Deflection of formwork or settlement of props during construction, particularly when the beam formwork is supported on suspended floors or beams below.

8.5.3 Beam deflection by simplified calculation 8.5.3.1 Short-term deflection The short-term deflections due to external loads and prestressing, which occur immediately on their application, shall be calculated using the value of Ecj determined in accordance with Clause 3.1.2 and the value of the effective second moment of area of the member (Ief ). This value of I ef may be determined from the values of Ief at nominated cross-sections as follows: (a) (b) For a simply supported span, the value at midspan. In a continuous beam— (i) (ii) (c) for an interior span, half the midspan value plus one quarter of each support value; or for an end span, half the midspan value plus half the value at the continuous support.

For a cantilever, the value at the support.

For the purpose of the above determinations, the value of Ief at each of the cross-sections nominated in Items (a) to (c) above is given by—
I ef = I cr + (I − I cr ) M cr / M s*

(

)

3

≤ I ef.max

. . . 8.5.3.1(1)

where Ief.max = maximum effective second movement of area and is taken as I, for reinforced sections when p = Ast/bd ≥ 0.005 and prestressed sections = 0.6 I, for reinforced sections when p = Ast/bd < 0.005 b = width of the cross-section at the compression face
M s*
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= maximum bending moment at the section, based on the short-term serviceability load or the construction load
′ = Z f ct.f − σ cs + P / Ag + Pe ≥ 0

Mcr

(

)

Z

= section modulus of the uncracked section, referred to the extreme fibre at which cracking occurs

′ f ct.f = characteristic flexural tensile strength of concrete

σ cs = maximum shrinkage-induced tensile stress on the uncracked section at the extreme fibre at which cracking occurs. In the absence of more refined calculation, σ cs may be taken as— = 2.5 p w − 0.8 pcw * Es ε cs 1 + 50 p w pw = web reinforcement ratio for tensile reinforcement = (Ast + Apt)/b wd

p cw = web reinforcement ratio for compressive reinforcement = Asc/b wd

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* ε cs = final design shrinkage strain of concrete

Where appropriate, σ cs shall be increased to account for axial tension induced by restraint to shrinkage by the support to the beams. Alternatively, as a further simplification but only for reinforced members, Ief may bes taken as—
I ef = [(5 − 0.04 f c′ ) p + 0.002] bef d 3 ≤ [0.1 / β 2 / 3 ] bef d 3 when p ≥ 0.001 ( f c′ ) I ef = [ 0.055 ( f c′ )
1/ 3



2/3

. . . 8.5.3.1(2)

(

1/ 3

)/ β

2/3

− 50 p ] bef d 3 ≤ [0.06 / β 2 / 3 ] bef d 3 when p < 0.001 ( f c′ )

1/ 3



2/3

. . . 8.5.3.1(3) where β = b ef /b w ≥ 1 p = A st/bef d at midspan 8.5.3.2 Long-term deflection For reinforced and prestressed beams, that part of the deflection that occurs after the short-term deflection shall be calculated as the sum of— (a) the shrinkage component of the long-term deflection, determined from the design shrinkage strain of concrete (ε cs) (see Clause 3.1.7) and the principles of mechanics; and the additional long-term creep deflections, determined from the design creep coefficient of concrete (ϕcc) (see Clause 3.1.8) and the principles of mechanics.

(b)

In the absence of more accurate calculations, the additional long-term deflection of a reinforced beam due to creep and shrinkage may be calculated by multiplying the shortterm deflection caused by the sustained loads by a multiplier, kcs , given by— k cs = [2 − 1.2 ( Asc / Ast )] ≥ 0.8

. . . 8.5.3.2

where A sc is the area of steel in the compressive zone of the cracked section between the neutral axis and the extreme concrete compressive fibre and Asc/Ast is taken at midspan, for a simply supported or continuous beam and at the support, for a cantilever beam. 8.5.4 Deemed to comply span-to-depth ratios for reinforced beams
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For reinforced beams of uniform cross-section, fully propped during construction, subject to uniformly distributed loads only and where the imposed action (live load) (q) does not exceed the permanent action (dead load) (g), beam deflections shall be deemed to comply with the requirements of Clause 2.3.2 if the ratio of effective span to effective depth satisfies the following:
⎡ k (Δ / Lef ) bef Ec ⎤ Lef / d ≤ ⎢ 1 ⎥ k 2 Fd.ef ⎣ ⎦
1/ 3

. . . 8.5.4

where Δ/Lef = deflection limit selected in accordance with Clause 2.3.2(a) L ef = effective span (1.0 + k cs)g + (ψs + k cs ψ l)q for total deflection; or
© Standards Australia

F d.ef = effective design load per unit length, taken as— (a)

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(b)

k cs g + (ψs + k cs ψ1 ) q for the deflection that occurs after the addition or attachment of the brittle partitions or finishes where k cs is determined in accordance with Clause 8.5.3.2 and ψs and ψ l are given in AS/NZS 1170.0

k1

= Ief /bef d 3, which may be taken as— =

(5 − 0.04 f c′ ) p + 0.002 ≤ 0.1 / β 2 / 3
2/3

when p ≥ 0.001( f c′ )1 / 3 / β
1/ 3

2/3 2/3

= 0.055 ( f c′ )1 / 3 / β

− 50 p ≤ 0.06 / β 2 / 3 when p < 0.001( f c′ )



where β = bef / bw ≥ 1 and p = A st/ bef d at midspan k2 = deflection constant, taken as— (a) for simply supported beams, 5/384; or (b) for continuous beams, where the ratio of the longer to the shorter of two adjacent spans does not exceed 1.2 and where no end span is longer than an interior span— (i) 2.4/384 in an end span; or

(ii) 1.5/384 in interior spans.
NOTE: Ec is in megapascals.

8.6 CRACK CONTROL OF BEAMS 8.6.1 Crack control for tension and flexure in reinforced beams For the purpose of this Clause the resultant action is considered to be primarily tension when the whole of the section is in tension, or primarily flexure when the tensile stress distribution within the section prior to cracking is triangular with some part of the section in compression. Cracking in reinforced beams subjected to tension, flexure with tension or flexure shall be deemed to be controlled if the appropriate requirements in Items (a) and (b), and either Item (c) for beams primarily in tension or Item (d) for beams primarily in flexure are satisfied. For regions of beams fully enclosed within a building except for a brief period of weather exposure during construction, and where it is assessed that crack control is not required, only Items (a) and (b) need be satisfied.
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(a) (b)

The minimum area of reinforcement in a tensile zone of a beam shall comply with Clause 8.1.6.1. The distance from the side or soffit of a beam to the centre of the nearest longitudinal bar shall not exceed 100 mm. Bars with a diameter less than half the diameter of the largest bar in the section shall be ignored. The centre-to-centre spacing of bars near a tension face of the beam shall not exceed 300 mm. For T-beams and L-beams, the reinforcement required in the flange shall be distributed across the effective width. For beams primarily subject to tension, the calculated steel stress (σ scr) shall not exceed the maximum steel stress given in Table 8.6.1(A) for the largest nominal diameter (d b) of the bars in the section, and under direct loading the calculated tensile steel stress (σ scr.1) shall not exceed 0.8fsy . For beams primarily subject to flexure, the calculated tensile steel stress (σ scr) shall not exceed the larger of the maximum steel stresses given in— (i) Table 8.6.1(A) for the largest nominal diameter (d b) of the bars in the tensile zone; and www.standards.org.au (c)

(d)

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(ii)

Table 8.6.1(B) for the largest centre-to-centre spacing of adjacent parallel bars in the tensile zone.

Under direct loading the calculated tensile steel stress (σ scr.1) shall not exceed 0.8fsy . Bars with a diameter less than half the diameter of the largest bar in the section shall be ignored when determining spacing.
* * NOTE: Design bending moments M s and M s.1 at the serviceability limit state will normally be

estimated using elastic analysis. Significant errors may result if they are determined from the design bending moments M * at the strength limit state when the amount of moment redistribution is unknown; for example, if plastic methods of analysis are used for strength design.

TABLE 8.6.1(A) MAXIMUM STEEL STRESS FOR TENSION OR FLEXURE IN REINFORCED BEAMS
Nominal bar diameter (d b) mm 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 Maximum steel stress MPa 360 330 280 240 210 185 160 140 120

NOTE: Values for other bar diameters may be calculated using the equation— Maximum steel stress = –173 log e (d b ) + 760 MPa.

TABLE 8.6.1(B) MAXIMUM STEEL STRESS FOR FLEXURE IN REINFORCED BEAMS
Centre-to-centre spacing mm
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Maximum steel stress MPa 360 320 280 240 200 160

50 100 150 200 250 300 NOTE: Intermediate equation— values may be

calculated

using

the

Maximum steel stress = −0.8 × centre-centre spacing + 400 MPa.

8.6.2 Crack control for flexure in prestressed beams Flexural cracking in a prestressed beam shall be deemed to be controlled if, under the short-term service loads, the resulting maximum tensile stress in the concrete does not exceed 0.25 f c′ or, if this stress is exceeded, by providing reinforcement or bonded tendons, or both, near the tensile face with a centre-to-centre spacing not exceeding 300 mm and limiting either—

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(a)

the calculated maximum flexural tensile stress under short-term service loads to 0.6 f c′ ; or the increment in steel stress near the tension face to that given in Table 8.6.2, as the load increases from its value when the extreme concrete tensile fibre is at zero stress to the short-term service load value. TABLE 8.6.2 MAXIMUM INCREMENT OF STEEL STRESS FOR FLEXURE IN PRESTRESSED BEAMS
Nominal reinforcement bar diameter (d b) mm ≤12 16 20 24 ≥28 All bonded tendons Maximum increment of steel stress MPa 330 280 240 210 200 200

(b)

8.6.3 Crack control in the side face of beams For crack control in the side face of beams where the overall depth exceeds 750 mm, longitudinal reinforcement, consisting of 12 mm bars at 200 mm centres or 16 mm bars at 300 mm centres, shall be placed in each side face. 8.6.4 Crack control at openings and discontinuities Reinforcement shall be provided for crack control at openings and discontinuities in a beam. 8.7 VIBRATION OF BEAMS Vibration of beams shall be considered and appropriate action taken, where necessary, to ensure that vibrations induced by machinery, or vehicular or pedestrian traffic, will not adversely affect the serviceability of the structure.
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8.8 T-BEAMS AND L-BEAMS 8.8.1 General Where a slab is assumed to provide the flange of a T-beam or L-beam, the longitudinal shear capacity of the flange-web connection shall be checked in accordance with Clause 8.4. For isolated T-beams or L-beams, the shear strength of the slab flange on vertical sections parallel to the beam shall also be checked in accordance with Clause 8.2. 8.8.2 Effective width of flange for strength and serviceability In the absence of a more accurate determination, the effective width of the flange of a T-beam or L-beam for strength and serviceability shall be taken as— (a) (b) T-beams ...................................................................................... b ef = b w + 0.2a; and L-beams .............................................................................................b ef = b w + 0.1a,

where a is the distance between points of zero bending moment, which, for continuous beams, may be taken as 0.7L.
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In both Items (a) and (b) above, the overhanging part of the flange considered effective shall not exceed half the clear distance to the next member. The effective width so determined may be taken as constant over the entire span. 8.9 SLENDERNESS LIMITS FOR BEAMS 8.9.1 General Unless a stability analysis is carried out, beams shall comply with the limits specified in Clauses 8.9.2 to 8.9.4, as appropriate. 8.9.2 Simply supported and continuous beams For a simply supported or continuous beam, the distance L l between points at which lateral restraint is provided shall be such that L l/bef does not exceed the lesser of 180b ef /D and 60. 8.9.3 Cantilever beams For a cantilever beam having lateral restraint only at the support, the ratio of the clear projection (L n ) to the width (bef ) at the support shall be such that L n /bef does not exceed the lesser of 100b ef /D and 25. 8.9.4 Reinforcement for slender prestressed beams For a prestressed beam in which L l /bef exceeds 30, or for a prestressed cantilever beam in which L n /b ef exceeds 12, the following reinforcement shall be provided: (a) (b) Stirrups providing a steel area, Asv.min in accordance with Clause 8.2.8. Additional longitudinal reinforcement, consisting of at least one bar in each corner of the compression face, such that— A sc ≥ 0.35Apt f pb/f sy . . . 8.9.4

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SE C T I O N 9 S T R E NGT H

D E S IG N O F S L A B S FO R A N D SE RV ICE AB I L I T Y

9.1 STRENGTH OF SLABS IN BENDING 9.1.1 General The strength of a slab in bending shall be determined in accordance with Clauses 8.1.1 to 8.1.8, except that for two-way reinforced slabs, the minimum strength requirements of Clause 8.1.6.1 shall be deemed to be satisfied by providing tensile reinforcement such that A st/bd is not less than the following in each direction: (a) (b)
′ Slabs supported by columns at their corners ............................... 0.24(D / d ) f ct.f / f sy .
2 2

′ Slabs supported by beams or walls on four sides......................... 0.19(D / d ) f ct.f / f sy .

9.1.2 Reinforcement and tendon distribution in two-way flat slabs In two-way flat slabs, at least 25% of the total of the design negative moment in a column-strip and adjacent half middle-strips shall be resisted by reinforcement or tendons or both, located in a cross-section of slab centred on the column and of a width equal to twice the overall depth of the slab or drop panel plus the width of the column. 9.1.3 Detailing of tensile reinforcement in slabs 9.1.3.1 General procedure for arrangement Tensile reinforcement shall be arranged in accordance with the following, as appropriate: (a) Where the bending moment envelope has been calculated, the termination and anchorage of flexural reinforcement shall be based on a hypothetical bending-moment diagram formed by displacing the calculated positive and negative bending-moment envelopes a distance D along the slab from each side of the relevant sections of maximum moment. Additionally, the following shall apply: (i) Not less than one third of the total negative moment reinforcement required at a support shall be extended a distance 12d b or D, whichever is greater, beyond the point of contraflexure. At a simply supported discontinuous end of a slab, not less than one half of the total positive moment reinforcement required at midspan shall be anchored by extension past the face of the support for a distance of 12d b or D, whichever is greater, or by an equivalent anchorage. Where no shear reinforcement is required in accordance with Clause 8.2.5 or Clause 9.2, the extension of the midspan positive moment reinforcement past the face of the support may be reduced to 8d b if at least one half of the reinforcement is so extended, or to 4d b if all the reinforcement is so extended. (iii) At a support where the slab is continuous or flexurally restrained, not less than one quarter of the total positive moment reinforcement required at midspan shall continue past the near face of the support. (iv) Where frames incorporating slabs are intended to resist lateral loading, the effects of such loading on the arrangement of the slab reinforcement shall be taken into account but in no case shall the lengths of reinforcement be made less than those shown in Figures 9.1.3.2 and 9.1.3.4, as appropriate.

(ii)
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(b)

Where the bending moment envelope has not been calculated, the requirements of Clauses 9.1.3.2, 9.1.3.3 or 9.1.3.4, as appropriate to the type of slab, shall be satisfied.

9.1.3.2 Deemed-to-comply arrangement for one-way slabs For one-way slabs continuous over two or more spans analysed using simplified elastic analysis, as detailed in Clause 6.10.2, where— (a) (b) the ratio of the longer to the shorter of any two adjacent spans does not exceed 1.2; and the imposed actions (live loads) may be assumed to be uniformly distributed and the imposed action (live load) (q) is not greater than twice the permanent action (dead load) (g),

the arrangement of tensile reinforcement shown in Figure 9.1.3.2 shall be deemed to comply with Clause 9.1.3.1(a). Where adjacent spans are unequal, the extension of negative moment reinforcement beyond each face of the common support shall be based on the longer span. For one-way slabs of single span, the arrangement of tensile reinforcement shown in Figure 9.1.3.2, for the appropriate end support conditions, shall be deemed to comply with Clause 9.1.3.1(a).

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FIGURE 9.1.3.2 ARRANGEMENT OF REINFORCEMENT

9.1.3.3 Deemed-to-comply arrangement for two-way slabs supported on beams or walls For two-way simply supported or continuous rectangular slabs supported by walls or beams on four sides analysed using simplified elastic analysis, as detailed in Clause 6.10.3, the following deemed-to-comply arrangement shall be used and the arrangement of tensile reinforcement, shown in Figure 9.1.3.2 and further prescribed herein, shall be deemed to comply with Clause 9.1.3.1(a): (a) (b) The arrangement shall apply to each direction. Where a simply supported or continuous slab is not square, the arrangement shall be based on the span (L n) taken as the shorter span.

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(c)

Where adjacent continuous rectangular slabs have unequal shorter spans, the extension of negative moment reinforcement beyond each face of a common support shall be based on the span (L n ) taken as the longer of the shorter spans. Negative moment reinforcement provided at a discontinuous edge shall extend from the face of the support into the span for a distance of 0.15 times the shorter span. At an exterior corner of a two-way rectangular slab supported on four sides and restrained against uplift, reinforcement shall be provided in both the top and the bottom of the slab. This reinforcement shall consist of two layers perpendicular to the edges of the slab and extend from each edge for a distance not less than 0.2 times the shorter span. The area of the reinforcement in each of the four layers shall be not less than— (i) (ii) for corners where neither edge is continuous ................................... 0.75Ast; and for corners where one edge is continuous ............................................... 0.5Ast,

(d) (e)

where Ast is the area of the maximum positive moment reinforcement required at midspan. Any reinforcement provided may be considered as part of this reinforcement. 9.1.3.4 Deemed-to-comply arrangement for two-way flat slabs For multispan, reinforced, two-way flat slabs analysed using simplified elastic analysis, as detailed in Clause 6.10.4, the following deemed to comply arrangement shall be used and the arrangement of tensile reinforcement, shown in Figure 9.1.3.4 and further prescribed herein, shall be deemed-to-comply with Clause 9.1.3.1(a). Where adjacent spans are unequal, the extension of negative moment reinforcement beyond each face of the common support shall be based on the longer span. All slab reinforcement perpendicular to a discontinuous edge shall be extended (straight, bent or otherwise) past the internal face of the spandrel, wall or column for a length— (a) (b) for positive moment reinforcement, not less than 150 mm except that it shall extend as close as permitted to the edge of the slab if there is no spandrel beam or wall; and for negative moment reinforcement, such that the calculated force is developed at the internal face in accordance with Clause 13.1.

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FIGURE 9.1.3.4 ARRANGEMENT OF REINFORCEMENT

9.1.4 Minimum reinforcement for distributing loads Minimum reinforcement in a secondary direction shall be provided for the purpose of distributing loads.
NOTE: For shrinkage and temperature effects see Clause 9.4.3.

9.1.5 Spacing of reinforcement and tendons The minimum clear distance between parallel bars (including bundled bars), ducts and tendons shall be such that the concrete can be properly placed and compacted in accordance with Clause 17.1.3. The maximum spacing of reinforcement and tendons shall be determined in accordance with Clause 9.4. 9.2 STRENGTH OF SLABS IN SHEAR 9.2.1 Definitions and symbols For the purpose of this Clause, the definitions and symbols below apply to flat slabs. 9.2.1.1 Critical shear perimeter The perimeter defined by a line geometrically similar to the boundary of the effective area of a support or concentrated load and located at a distance of dom /2 therefrom [see Figure 9.2.1(A)].

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9.2.1.2 Critical opening Any opening through the thickness of a slab where an edge, or part of the edge, of the opening is located at a clear distance of less than 2.5b o from the critical shear perimeter [see Figure 9.2.1(A)]. 9.2.1.3 Effective area of a support or concentrated load The area totally enclosing the actual support or load and for which the perimeter is a minimum [see Figure 9.2.1(A)]. 9.2.1.4 Torsion strip
* A strip of slab of width a, whose longitudinal axis is perpendicular to the direction of M v [see Figure 9.2.1(B)].

9.2.1.5 Symbols The following symbols apply: a bo bw Db Ds d om
* Mv * = dimension of the critical shear perimeter measured parallel to the direction of M v [see Figure 9.2.1(B)]

= dimension of an opening [see Figure 9.2.1(A)] = width of the web of a spandrel beam [see Figure 9.2.1(B)] = overall depth of a spandrel beam (see Figure 9.2.6) = overall depth of a slab or drop panel as appropriate = mean value of do , averaged around the critical shear perimeter = bending moment transferred from the slab to a support in the direction being considered [see Figure 9.2.1(B)] = length of the critical shear perimeter [see Figure 9.2.1(A)] = larger overall dimension of a closed fitment (see Figure 9.2.6) = ratio of the longest overall dimension of the effective loaded area, Y, to the overall dimension, X, measured perpendicular to Y [see Figure 9.2.1(A)]

u y1 βh

9.2.2 Strength The strength of a slab in shear shall be determined in accordance with the following:
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(a) (b)

Where shear failure can occur across the width of the slab, the design shear strength of the slab shall be calculated in accordance with Clause 8.2. Where shear failure can occur locally around a support or concentrated load, the design shear strength of the slab shall be taken as φV u , where V u is calculated in accordance with one of the following, as appropriate: (i) (ii)
* Where M v is zero, V u is taken as equal to V uo calculated in accordance with Clause 9.2.3. * Where M v is not zero, V u is calculated in accordance with Clause 9.2.4.

NOTE: For types of shear reinforcement other than those covered in Clauses 9.2.3 and 9.2.4 strength may be determined by tests, in accordance with Appendix B.
* 9.2.3 Ultimate shear strength where M v is zero * The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is zero, V uo is given by either—

(a)

where there is no shear head— V uo = udom (fcv + 0.3σ cp) . . . 9.2.3(1) www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia

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where
⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎟ f cv = 0.17 ⎜1 + ⎜ β ⎟ h⎠ ⎝ f c′ ≤ 0.34 f c′ ; or

NOTE: The value of σcp should be evaluated separately for the case of corner, edge and internal columns.

(b)

where there is a shear head—
Vuo = ud om (0.5 f c′ + 0.3σ cp ) ≤ 0.2ud om f c′

. . . 9.2.3(2)

FIGURE 9.2.1(A) CRITICAL SHEAR PERIMETER

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FIGURE 9.2.1(B) TORSION STRIPS AND SPANDREL BEAMS
* 9.2.4 Ultimate shear strength where M v is not zero * Where M v is not zero and shear reinforcement, if provided, complies with Clauses 9.2.5 and 9.2.6, then V u shall be determined from one of the following:

(a)

If there are no closed fitments in the torsion strip or spandrel beams, V u is given by—
* Vu = Vuo / 1.0 + uM v / 8V * ad om

[

(

)]

. . . 9.2.4(1)

(b)

If the torsion strip contains the minimum quantity of closed fitments, V u shall be taken as V u.min given by—
* Vu . min = 1.2 Vuo / 1.0 + uM v / 2V * a 2

[

(

)]

. . . 9.2.4(2)

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(c)

* If there are spandrel beams perpendicular to the direction of M v which contain the minimum quantity of closed fitments, V u shall be taken as V u.min given by—

* Vu . min = 1.2 Vuo (Db / Ds ) / 1.0 + uM v / 2V * abw

[

(

)]

. . . 9.2.4(3)

(d)

If the torsion strip or spandrel beam contains more than the minimum quantity of closed fitments, V u is given by—
Vu = Vu.min

[( A

sw

/ s ) / 0.2 y1 / f sy.f

(

)]

. . . 9.2.4(4)

where V u.min is calculated in accordance with Item (b) or (c), as appropriate. In no case shall V u be taken greater than V u.max given by—
V u.max. = 3V u.min

(x / y )

. . . 9.2.4(5)

where x and y are the shorter and longer dimensions respectively of the cross-section of the torsion strip or spandrel beam.

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9.2.5 Minimum area of closed fitments The minimum cross-sectional area of the reinforcement forming the closed fitments shall satisfy the following inequality:
Asw / s ≥ 0.2 y1 / f sy.f

. . . 9.2.5

9.2.6 Detailing of shear reinforcement Reinforcement for slab shear in torsion strips and spandrel beams shall be in the form of closed fitments arranged and detailed in accordance with the following: (a) The fitments shall extend along the torsion strip or spandrel beam for a distance not less than L t/4 from the face of the support or concentrated load, on one or both sides of the centroid axis, as applicable. The first fitment shall be located at not more than 0.5s from the face of the support. The centre-to-centre spacing (s) of the fitments shall not exceed the greater of 300 mm and D b or Ds , as applicable. At least one longitudinal bar shall be provided at each corner of the fitment. The dimensions of the fitments shall be in accordance with Figure 9.2.6.

(b) (c) (d)

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FIGURE 9.2.6 PARAMETERS AND DETAILS OF SHEAR REINFORCEMENT FOR SLABS

9.3 DEFLECTION OF SLABS 9.3.1 General The deflection of a slab shall be determined in accordance with Clause 9.3.2 or Clause 9.3.3. Alternatively, for reinforced slabs, the effective span-to-effective depth ratio of the slab shall comply with Clause 9.3.4. 9.3.2 Slab deflection by refined calculation The calculation of the deflection of a slab by refined calculation shall make allowance for the following: (a) (b) Two-way action. Cracking and tension stiffening.
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(c) (d) (e) (f)

Shrinkage and creep properties of the concrete. Expected load history. Expected construction procedure. Deflection of formwork or settlement of props during construction, particularly when the slab formwork is supported off suspended floors below.

9.3.3 Slab deflection by simplified calculation The deflection of a slab subject to uniformly distributed loads shall be calculated in accordance with Clause 8.5.3 on the basis of an equivalent beam taken as follows: (a) (b) For a one-way slab, a prismatic beam of unit width. For a rectangular slab supported on four sides, a prismatic beam of unit width through the centre of the slab, spanning in the short direction L x , with the same conditions of continuity as the slab in that direction and with the load distributed so that the proportion of load carried by the beam is given by—
Ly4 / αLx4 + Ly4

(

)

. . . 9.3.3

where α is given in Table 9.3.3 for the appropriate slab-edge condition. (c) For a two-way flat slab having multiple spans (for deflections on the column lines or midway between the supports), the column strips of the idealized frame described in Clause 6.9. TABLE 9.3.3 COEFFICIENT OF PROPORTIONALITY (α)
Edge condition 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
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Coefficient (α) 1.0 0.5 2.0 0.2 5.0 1.0 0.4 2.5 1.0

Four edges continuous One short edge discontinuous One long edge discontinuous Two short edges discontinuous Two long edges discontinuous Two adjacent edges discontinuous Three edges discontinuous (one long edge continuous) Three edges discontinuous (one short edge continuous) Four edges discontinuous

8 9

9.3.4 Deemed to comply span-to-depth ratio for reinforced slabs 9.3.4.1 One-way slabs and two-way flat slabs For a reinforced one-way slab, or a multiple-span reinforced two-way flat slab of essentially uniform depth, fully propped during construction, subject to uniformly distributed loads and where the imposed action (live load) (q) does not exceed the permanent action (dead load) (g), slab deflections shall be deemed to comply with the requirements of Clause 2.3.2 if the ratio of the effective span to the effective depth satisfies the following:
⎡ (Δ / Lef )1000 E c ⎤ Lef / d ≤ k 3 k 4 ⎢ ⎥ Fd.ef ⎣ ⎦
NOTE: Ec is in megapascals.
1/ 3

. . . 9.3.4.1

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where Δ/Lef = deflection limit selected in accordance with Clause 2.3.2 and the deflection (Δ) is taken on the centre-line between the supports used to calculate L ef L ef = effective span (a) (1.0 + k cs)g + (ψs + k csψ l )q (b) k cs g + (ψs + k csψ l )q F d.ef = effective design service load, per unit area, in kilopascals, taken as— for total deflection; or for the deflection that occurs after the addition or attachment of the brittle partitions or finishes

k cs is determined in accordance with Clause 8.5.3.2 and ψs and ψ l are given in AS/NZS 1170.0 k3 = 1.0 for a one-way slab = 0.95 for a two-way flat slab without drop panels = 1.05 for a two-way flat slab with drop panels, which extend at least L/6 in each direction on each side of a support centre-line and have an overall depth not less than 1.3D, where D is the slab thickness beyond the drops k4 = deflection constant, which may be taken as— (a) for simply supported slabs, 1.4; or (b) for continuous slabs, where in adjoining spans the ratio of the longer span to the shorter span does not exceed 1.2 and where no end span is longer than an interior span— (i) 1.75 in an end span; or

(ii) 2.1 in interior spans 9.3.4.2 Rectangular slabs supported on four sides For a reinforced concrete slab, supported on four sides by walls or beams, subject to uniformly distributed loads and where the imposed action (live load) (q) does not exceed the permanent action (dead load) (g), the slab deflection shall be deemed to comply with the requirements of Clause 2.3.2 if the ratio of the shorter effective span to the effective depth satisfies the requirements given in Clause 9.3.4.1, except that—
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(a) (b)

k 3 shall be taken as 1.0; and the appropriate value of k4 shall be taken from Table 9.3.4.2.

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TABLE 9.3.4.2 SLAB-SYSTEM MULTIPLIER (k 4) FOR RECTANGULAR SLABS SUPPORTED ON FOUR SIDES
Deflection constant (k4 ) Edge condition Ratio of long to short side (Ly /L x ) 1.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Four edges continuous One short edge discontinuous One long edge discontinuous Two short edges discontinuous Two long edges discontinuous Two adjacent edges discontinuous Three edges discontinuous (one long edge continuous) Three edges discontinuous (one short edge continuous) Four edges discontinuous 3.60 3.40 3.40 3.20 3.20 2.95 2.70 2.70 2.25 1.25 3.10 2.90 2.65 2.80 2.50 2.50 2.30 2.10 1.90 1.5 2.80 2.70 2.40 2.60 2.00 2.25 2.20 1.90 1.70 2.0 2.50 2.40 2.10 2.40 1.60 2.00 1.95 1.60 1.50

9.4 CRACK CONTROL OF SLABS 9.4.1 Crack control for flexure in reinforced slabs Cracking in reinforced slabs subject to flexure shall be deemed to be controlled if the appropriate requirements in Items (a), (b), (c) and (d) are satisfied. For areas of slabs fully enclosed within a building except for a brief period of weather exposure during construction and, where it is assessed that crack control is not required, only Item (a) and Item (b) need be satisfied. (a) (b) The minimum area of reinforcement in a tensile zone of a slab shall comply with Clause 9.1.1. The centre-to-centre spacing of bars in each direction shall not exceed the lesser of 2.0Ds or 300 mm. Bars with a diameter less than half the diameter of the largest bar in the cross-section shall be ignored. The calculated tensile steel stress (σ scr) shall not exceed the larger of the maximum steel stresses given in— (i) (ii) Table 9.4.1(A) for the largest nominal diameter (d b) of the bars in the tensile zone; and Table 9.4.1(B) for the largest centre-to-centre spacing of adjacent parallel bars in the tensile zone and, when determining spacing, bars with a diameter less than half the diameter of the largest bar in the section shall be ignored.

(c)
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(d)

The calculated tensile steel stress σ scr.1 shall not exceed 0.8f sy .

* * NOTE: Design bending moments M s and M s.1 at the serviceability limit state will normally be

estimated using elastic analysis. Significant errors may result if they are determined from the design bending moments M * at the strength limit state when the amount of moment redistribution is unknown; for example, if plastic methods of analysis are used for strength design.

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TABLE 9.4.1(A) MAXIMUM STEEL STRESS FOR FLEXURE IN REINFORCED SLABS
Nominal bar diameter (d b) mm 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 Maximum steel stress (MPa) for overall depth, D s (mm) ≤300 375 345 320 300 265 240 210 >300 450 400 360 330 280

NOTE: Values for other bar diameters may be calculated using the appropriate equation, as follows: Maximum steel stress equals— −173log e (d b ) + 760 MPa for d b ≥ 20 mm −173log e (d b ) + 760 MPa for d b < 20 mm and D s > 300 mm −114log e (d b ) + 580 MPa for d b < 20 mm and D s ≤ 300 mm

TABLE 9.4.1(B) MAXIMUM STEEL STRESS FOR FLEXURE IN REINFORCED SLABS
Centre-to-centre spacing (mm) 50 100 150 200 250 300 Maximum steel stress (MPa) 360 320 280 240 200 160

NOTE: Intermediate values may be calculated using the following equation:
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Maximum steel stress = −0.8 × centre-to-centre spacing + 400 MPa.

9.4.2 Crack control for flexure in prestressed slabs Flexural cracking, in a prestressed slab shall be deemed to be controlled if, under the short-term service loads, the resulting maximum tensile stress in the concrete does not exceed 0.25 f c′ or, if this stress is exceeded, by providing reinforcement or bonded tendons, or both, near the tensile face with a centre-to-centre spacing not exceeding the lesser of 300 mm or 2.0Ds and limiting— (a) the calculated maximum flexural tensile stress in the concrete under short-term service loads to 0.6 f c′ ; or the increment in steel stress near the tension face to that given in Table 9.4.2, as the load increases from its value when the extreme concrete tensile fibre is at zero stress to the short-term service load value.

(b)

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TABLE 9.4.2 MAXIMUM INCREMENT OF STEEL STRESS FOR FLEXURE IN PRESTRESSED SLABS
Nominal reinforcement bar diameter (db ) mm ≤10 12 16 20 24 ≥28 All bonded tendons Maximum increment of steel stress (MPa) for overall depth, D s (mm) ≤300 320 300 265 240 210 200 200 >300 360 330 280

9.4.3 Crack control for shrinkage and temperature effects 9.4.3.1 General The area of reinforcement required to control cracking due to shrinkage and temperature effects shall take into account the influence of flexural action, the degree of restraint against in-plane movements and the exposure classification, in accordance with Clauses 9.4.3.2 to 9.4.3.5. For members greater than 500 mm thick, the reinforcement required near each surface may be calculated using 250 mm for D. 9.4.3.2 Reinforcement in the primary direction No additional reinforcement is required to control expansion or contraction cracking if the area of reinforcement in the direction of the span of a one-way slab, or in each direction of a two-way slab, is not less than— (a) (b) the area required by Clause 9.1.1; and 75% of the area required by one of Clauses 9.4.3.3 to 9.4.3.5, as appropriate.

9.4.3.3 Reinforcement in the secondary direction in unrestrained slabs Where the slab is free to expand or contract in the secondary direction, the minimum area of reinforcement in that direction shall be (1.75−2.5 σ cp) bD × 10−3 . 9.4.3.4 Reinforcement in the secondary direction in restrained slabs Where a slab is restrained from expanding or contracting in the secondary direction, the area of reinforcement in that direction shall be not less than the following, as appropriate: (a) For a slab fully enclosed within a building except for a brief period of weather exposure during construction: (i) (ii) Where a minor degree of control over cracking is required................................ .....................(1.75−2.5σ cp)bD × 10−3. Where a moderate degree of control over cracking is required and where cracks are inconsequential or hidden from view........................(3.5−2.5σ cp)bD × 10 −3 . Where a strong degree of control over cracking is required for appearance or where cracks may reflect through finishes .................................................. .......................(6.0−2.5σ cp)bD × 10 −3 . www.standards.org.au Accessed by NEWCREST MINING LIMITED on 14 Jul 2010

(iii)

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(b)

For all other surface and exposure environments in classification A1, and for exposure classification A2: (i) Where a moderate degree of control over cracking is required and where cracks are inconsequential or hidden from view........................(3.5−2.5σ cp)bD × 10 −3 . Where a strong degree of control over cracking is required for appearance or where cracks may reflect through finishes .........................................................................(6.0−2.5σ cp)bD × 10 −3 .

(ii)

(c)

For exposure classifications B1, B2, C1 and C2....................... (6.0−2.5σ cp)bD × 10 −3 .

9.4.3.5 Reinforcement in the secondary direction in partially restrained slabs Where a slab is partially restrained from expanding or contracting in the secondary direction, the minimum area of reinforcement in that direction shall be assessed taking into account the requirements of Clauses 9.4.3.3 and 9.4.3.4. 9.4.4 Crack control in the vicinity of restraints In the vicinity of restraints, special attention shall be paid to the internal forces and cracks that may be induced by prestressing, shrinkage or temperature. 9.4.5 Crack control at openings and discontinuities For crack control at openings and discontinuities in a slab, additional properly anchored reinforcement shall be provided if necessary. 9.5 VIBRATION OF SLABS Vibration in slabs shall be considered and appropriate action taken, where necessary, to ensure that the vibrations induced by machinery, or vehicular or pedestrian traffic, will not adversely affect the serviceability of the structure. 9.6 MOMENT RESISTING WIDTH FOR ONE-WAY SLABS SUPPORTING CONCENTRATED LOADS The width of a solid one-way simply supported or continuous slab deemed to resist the moments caused by a concentrated load, may be taken as follows: (a)
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Where the load is not near an unsupported edge— b ef = the load width + 2.4a[1.0−(a/L n)] where a = perpendicular distance from the nearer support to the section under consideration . . . 9.6

(b)

Where the load is near an unsupported edge, not greater than the lesser of— (i) (ii) the value given in Item (a) above; and half the value given in Item (a) above plus the distance from the centre of the load to the unsupported edge.

9.7 LONGITUDINAL SHEAR IN COMPOSITE SLABS Composite slab systems shall be checked for longitudinal shear at the interfaces between components, in accordance with Clause 8.4.

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SE C T I O N 1 0 D E S IG N O F CO L UM N S FO R S T R E N G T H A N D SE RV ICE AB I L I T Y
10.1 GENERAL 10.1.1 Design strength The design strength of a column shall be determined by its ability to resist the axial forces and bending moments caused by the design loading for strength and any additional bending moments produced by slenderness effects. 10.1.2 Minimum bending moment At any cross-section of a column, the design bending moment about each principal axis shall be taken to be not less than N * times 0.05D, where D is the overall depth of the column in the plane of the bending moment. 10.1.3 Definitions For the purpose of this Section the definitions below apply. 10.1.3.1 Braced column Column in a structure for which the lateral actions applied at the ends in the direction under consideration are resisted by components such as masonry infill panels, shear walls or lateral bracing. 10.1.3.2 Short column Column in which the additional bending moments due to slenderness can be taken as zero. 10.1.3.3 Slender column Column that does not satisfy the requirements for a short column. 10.2 DESIGN PROCEDURES 10.2.1 Design procedure using linear elastic analysis Where the axial forces and bending moments are determined by a linear elastic analysis, as provided in Clause 6.2, a column shall be designed as follows: (a)
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For a short column, in accordance with Clauses 10.3, 10.6 and 10.7. For a slender column, in accordance with Clauses 10.4 to 10.7.

(b)

The value of φ shall be determined from Table 2.2.2. 10.2.2 Design procedure incorporating secondary bending moments Where the axial forces and bending moments are determined by an elastic analysis incorporating secondary bending moments due to lateral joint displacements, as provided in Clause 6.3, a column shall be designed in accordance with Clauses 10.6 and 10.7. The bending moments in slender columns shall be further increased by applying the moment magnifier for a braced column (δ b) calculated in accordance with Clause 10.4.2 with L e taken as L u in the determination of Nc . The value of φ shall be determined from Table 2.2.2. 10.2.3 Design procedure using rigorous analysis Where the axial forces and bending moments are determined by a rigorous analysis, as provided in Clause 6.5 and 6.6, a column shall be designed in accordance with Clauses 10.6 and 10.7 without further consideration of additional moments due to slenderness. The value of φsys shall be determined from Table 2.2.5, as appropriate.
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10.3 DESIGN OF SHORT COLUMNS 10.3.1 General Short columns shall be designed in accordance with this Clause and Clauses 10.6 and 10.7, with additional bending moments due to slenderness taken to be zero. Alternatively, for short columns with small axial forces or small bending moments, the design may be in accordance with Clauses 10.3.2 and 10.3.3 respectively. A column shall be deemed to be short where— (a) for a braced column— L e/r ≤ 25; or
* * ≤ α c (38 − f c′ / 15) 1 + M 1 / M 2

(

) for N * /0.6N uo ≥ 0.15; or for N * /0.6N uo < 0.15

. . . 10.3.1(1)

whichever is the greater where α c = 2.25 − 2.5 N * / 0.6 N uo α c = 1 / 3.5 N * / 0.6 N uo

(

)

(b)

for an unbraced column— L e/r ≤ 22 . . . 10.3.1(2)

where, for Items (a) and (b) above— r
* M 1* / M 2

= radius of gyration of the cross-sections determined in accordance with Clause 10.5.2 = ratio of the smaller to the larger of the design bending moments at the ends of the column. The ratio is taken to be negative when the column is bent in single curvature and positive when the column is bent in double curvature. * When the absolute value of M 2 is less than or equal to 0.05DN * , the ratio shall be taken as –1.0

Le
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= effective length determined in accordance with Clause 10.5.3; or alternatively may be taken as— (i) (ii) for a braced column restrained by a flat slab floor, L u for a braced column restrained by beams, 0.9L u

10.3.2 Short column with small compressive axial force Where the design compressive axial force (N * ) in a short column is less than 0.1 f c′ Ag , the cross-section may be designed for bending only. 10.3.3 Short braced column with small bending moments The bending moments in a short interior column of a braced rectangular framed building structure may be disregarded if— (a) (b) (c) the ratio of the longer to the shorter length of any two adjacent spans does not exceed 1.2; the loads are essentially uniformly distributed; the imposed action (live load) (q) does not exceed twice the permanent action (dead load) (g);
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(d) (e)

members are of uniform cross-section; and the cross-section of the column is symmetrically reinforced,

in which case the design axial strength (φN u ) is taken as not greater than 0.75φN uo , where N uo is determined in accordance with Clause 10.6.2.2. 10.4 DESIGN OF SLENDER COLUMNS 10.4.1 General Slender columns shall be designed in accordance with this Clause and Clauses 10.5, 10.6 and 10.7, with additional bending moments due to slenderness effects taken into account by multiplying the largest design bending moment by the moment magnifier (δ). The moment magnifier (δ) shall be calculated in accordance with Clause 10.4.2 for a braced column and Clause 10.4.3 for an unbraced column.
NOTE: The moment magnification factors also apply to the case of minimum moments.

For columns subject to bending about both principal axes, the bending moment about each axis shall be magnified by δ, using the restraint conditions applicable to each plane of bending. The additional end moments calculated from moment magnification may be distributed to the members of the joint in proportion to their stiffness. 10.4.2 Moment magnifier for a braced column The moment magnifier (δ) for a braced column shall be taken to be equal to δ b given by— δ b = k m /(1−N * /N c) ≥1 where N c = buckling load given in Clause 10.4.4 km =
* / M 2 but shall be taken as not less than 0.4, except that if the column is subjected to significant transverse loading between its ends and in the absence of more exact calculations, k m shall be taken as 1.0

. . . 10.4.2

(0.6 − 0.4M

* 1

)

10.4.3 Moment magnifier for an unbraced column The moment magnifier (δ) for an unbraced column shall be taken as the larger value of δ b or δ s where—
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(a) (b)

δ b for an individual column is calculated in accordance with Clause 10.4.2 assuming the column is braced; and δ s for each column in the storey is calculated as— 1/(1−ΣN * /ΣNc) . . . 10.4.3(1) where the summations include all columns within the storey and Nc is calculated for each column in accordance with Clause 10.4.4.

As an alternative to Item (b), δs may be calculated from a linear elastic critical buckling load analysis of the entire frame, where δs is taken as a constant value for all columns given by— δ s = 1 / [1 − (1 + β d ) / (α s λuc )]

. . . 10.4.3(2)

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where βd = G/(G + Q) taken as zero when Le/r ≤ 40 and N * ≤ M * /2D, and G and Q are the design axial load components due to permanent action (dead load) and imposed action (live load) respectively = a correlation factor taken as 0.6

αs

λ uc = ratio of the elastic critical buckling load of the entire frame to the design load for strength, calculated by taking the cross-sectional stiffness of the flexural members and columns as 0.4EcI f and 0.8E cIc respectively The frame shall be proportioned so that δs for any column is not greater than 1.5. 10.4.4 Buckling load The buckling load (Nc) shall be taken as—
N c = π 2 / L2 [182d o (φM c ) / (1 + β d )] e

(

)

. . . 10.4.4

where Mc = M ub with k u = 0.545 and φ = 0.6

10.5 SLENDERNESS 10.5.1 General The slenderness ratio (Le/r) of a column shall not exceed 120, unless a rigorous analysis has been carried out in accordance with Clauses 6.4, 6.5 or 6.6 and the column is designed in accordance with Clause 10.2.3. Where the forces and moments acting on a column have been obtained from a linear elastic analysis, as specified in Clause 6.2, the influence of slenderness shall be taken into account using a radius of gyration (r) specified in Clause 10.5.2 and an effective length (Le), in accordance with Clause 10.5.3. 10.5.2 Radius of gyration The radius of gyration (r) shall be calculated for the gross concrete cross-section. For a rectangular cross-section, r may be taken as 0.3D, where D is the overall dimension in the direction in which stability is being considered and for a circular cross-section, r may be taken as 0.25D.
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10.5.3 Effective length of a column The effective length of a column (L e) shall be taken as kL u where the effective length factor (k) is determined from Figure 10.5.3(A) for columns with simple end restraints, or more generally from Figure 10.5.3(B) or 10.5.3(C), as appropriate. The end restraint coefficients (γ 1 and γ 2) shall be determined— (a) (b) for regular rectangular framed structures where the axial forces in the beams are generally small, in accordance with Clause 10.5.4; for all structures, including non-rectangular framed structures or structures where the axial forces in the restraining members are large, in accordance with Clause 10.5.5; and where the column ends at a footing, in accordance with Clause 10.5.6.

(c)

Alternatively, the effective length of a column may be determined from the elastic critical buckling load of the frame, as calculated by analysis.

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FIGURE 10.5.3(A) EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTOR (k) FOR COLUMNS WITH SIMPLE END RESTRAINTS

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FIGURE 10.5.3(B) EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTOR (k) FOR BRACED COLUMNS

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FIGURE 10.5.3(C) EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTOR (k) FOR UNBRACED COLUMNS

10.5.4 End restraint coefficients for regular rectangular framed structures For regular rectangular framed structures, the end restraint coefficient (γ 1) at one end of a column and the end restraint coefficient (γ2) at the other end may each be calculated as—
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∑(I / L )c ∑(βI/L )b

. . . 10.5.4

where Σ(I/L) c = sum of the stiffness in the plane of bending of all the columns meeting at and rigidly connected to the end of the column under consideration Σ(βI/L)b = sum of the stiffness in the plane of bending of all the beams or slabs, or both, meeting at and rigidly connected to the same end of the column under consideration β = a fixity factor, given in Table 10.5.4, for fixity conditions at the end of each beam or slab, or both, opposite to the end connected to the column under consideration

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TABLE 10.5.4 FIXITY FACTOR (β)
Fixity conditions at far end of a beam or slab, or both Pinned Rigidly connected to a column Fixed Fixity factor (β) Beam or slab or both, in a braced frame 1.5 1.0 2.0 Beam or slab or both, in an unbraced frame 0.5 1.0 0.67

10.5.5 End restraint coefficients for any framed structure For any framed structure, the end restraint coefficient (γ 1) at one end of a column and the end restraint coefficient (γ 2) at the other end may be calculated as the ratio of the column stiffness to the sum of the stiffnesses of all the members, except the column, meeting at the end under consideration. In the calculation of the stiffness of members, other than the column, due account shall be taken of the fixity conditions of each member at the end remote from the column-end being considered as well as any reduction in member stiffness due to axial compression. 10.5.6 End restraint provided by footings Where a footing provides negligible restraint to the rotation of the end of a column, γ is theoretically infinite but may be taken as 10. Where a footing is specifically designed to prevent rotation of the end of a column, γ is theoretically zero but shall be taken as 1.0 unless analysis would justify a smaller value. 10.6 STRENGTH OF COLUMNS IN COMBINED BENDING AND COMPRESSION 10.6.1 Basis of strength calculations Calculations for the strength of cross-sections in bending, combined with axial forces, shall incorporate equilibrium and strain-compatibility considerations and be consistent with the following assumptions: (a) (b) (c)
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Plane sections normal to the axis remain plane after bending. The concrete has no tensile strength. The distribution of stress in the concrete and the steel is determined using a stressstrain relationship determined from Clauses 3.1.4 and 3.2.3 respectively (see Note 1). The strain in compressive reinforcement does not exceed 0.003. Where the neutral axis lies outside of the cross-section, consideration shall be given to the effect on strength of spalling of the cover concrete.
If a curvilinear stress-strain relationship is used then— (a) (b) Clause 3.1.4 places a limit on the value of the maximum concrete stress; and the strain in the extreme fibre may be adjusted to obtain the maximum bending strength for a given axial load.

(d) (e)

NOTES: 1

2

The effect of confinement on the strength of a section may be taken into account, provided secondary effects such as concrete spalling, for example, are also considered.

Columns subject to axial force with bending moments about each principal axis may take into account the concessions given in Clauses 10.6.3 and 10.6.4.

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10.6.2 Strength of cross-sections calculated using the rectangular stress block 10.6.2.1 General It shall be permissible to represent the strength of a cross-section in combined bending and compression using a strength interaction diagram as shown in Figure 10.6.2.1 defined as given in Clauses 10.6.2.2 to 10.6.2.5.

FIGURE 10.6.2.1 AXIAL LOAD—MOMENT DIAGRAM

10.6.2.2 Squash load (N uo ) The ultimate strength in compression without bending (N uo) shall be calculated by assuming— (a)
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a uniform concrete compressive stress of α 1 f c′ , where— α 1 = 1.0 − 0.003 f c′ with the limits 0.72 to 0.85; and

. . . 10.6.2.2

NOTE: The modification of 0.9 f c′ given in Clause 3.1.4 is included in the calculation of α 1 .

(b)

a maximum strain in the reinforcement of 0.0025.

10.6.2.3 Decompression point The decompression point is calculated taking the strain in the extreme compressive fibre equal to 0.003, the strain in the extreme tensile fibre equal to zero and using the rectangular stress block given in Clause 10.6.2.5. 10.6.2.4 Transition from decompression point to squash load Where the neutral axis lies outside of the section, the section strength may be calculated using a linear relationship between the decompression point given by Clause 10.6.2.3 and the squash load (Nuo) calculated using Clause 10.6.2.2.

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10.6.2.5 Transition from decompression point to bending strength Where the neutral axis lies within the cross-section and provided the maximum strain in the extreme compression fibre of the concrete is taken as 0.003, Clause 10.6.1(c) shall be deemed to be satisfied for the concrete by assuming a uniform concrete compressive stress of α 2 f c′ acts on an area bounded by— (a) (b) the edges of the cross-section; and a line parallel to the neutral axis under the loading concerned, and located at a distance γk u d from the extreme compressive fibre, where— α 2 = 1.0 − 0.003 f c′ (within the limits 0.67 ≤ α 2 ≤ 0.85) γ = 1.05 − 0.007 f c′ (within the limits 0.67 ≤ γ ≤ 0.85)
NOTES: 1 2 The modification of 0.9 f c′ given in Clause 3.1.4 is included in the rectangular stress block assumptions. Cover spalling may be a problem in columns cast with high-strength concrete. The effect of cover spalling on strength given in Clause 10.6.1(e) is included in the parameters developed for the calculation of the interaction diagram.

. . . 10.6.2.5(1) . . . 10.6.2.5(2)

10.6.3 Design based on each bending moment acting separately For a rectangular cross-section, where the ratio of the larger to the smaller cross-sectional dimension does not exceed 3.0, which is subjected simultaneously to an axial force and bending moments about each principal axis, the cross-section may be designed for the axial force with each bending moment considered separately, provided the line of action of the resultant force falls within the shaded area of the cross-section shown in Figure 10.6.3.

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FIGURE 10.6.3 LIMITATION FOR LINE OF ACTION OF THE RESULTANT AXIAL FORCE

10.6.4 Design for biaxial bending and compression A rectangular cross-section, subject to axial force and bending moment acting simultaneously about each principal axis, may be designed such that—
* ⎛ Mx ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ φ M ux

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

αn

* ⎛ My +⎜ ⎜ φ M uy ⎝

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

αn

≤ 1.0

. . . 10.6.4

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where φM ux , φM uy = design strength in bending, calculated separately, about the major and minor axis respectively under the design axial force (N * )
* * Mx , My

= design bending moment about the major and minor axis respectively, magnified, if applicable = 0.7 + 1.7N * /0.6N uo , within the limits 1 ≤ α n ≤ 2

αn

10.7 REINFORCEMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR COLUMNS 10.7.1 Limitations on longitudinal steel The cross-sectional area of the longitudinal reinforcement in a column shall— (a) (b) be not less than 0.01A g except that, in a column that has a larger area than that required for strength, a reduced value of Asc may be used if Asc fsy > 0.15N * ; and not exceed 0.04A g unless the amount and disposition of the reinforcement will not prevent the proper placing and compaction of the concrete at splices and at junctions of the members.

Groups of parallel longitudinal bars, that are bundled to act as a unit, shall have not more than 4 bars in any one bundle and shall be tied together in contact. 10.7.2 Functions of fitments Fitments shall satisfy the requirements of confinement of concrete (Clause 10.7.3) and lateral restraint of longitudinal bars against premature buckling (Clause 10.7.4), in addition to shear and torsion in accordance with Clauses 8.2 and 8.3. The maximum area required for shear combined with torsion, confinement or control of buckling of bars shall be used. 10.7.3 Confinement to the core 10.7.3.1 General requirements Fitments (including helical reinforcement) shall be detailed to provide confinement to the core of the column— (a) (b)
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for columns where f′c ≤50 MPa confinement shall be deemed to be provided if the requirements of Clause 10.7.4 are satisfied; and for columns where f′c >50 MPa confinement shall be provided— (i) in special confinement regions using fitments detailed to provide a minimum effective confining pressure to the core of 0.01f′c , calculated in accordance with Clause 10.7.3.2, 10.7.3.3 or 10.7.3.4; and outside of the special confinement regions, confinement shall deemed to be provided if the maximum spacing of the fitments does not exceed the lesser of 0.8Dc , 300 mm and that of Clause 10.7.4.

(ii)

In the special confinement regions, the spacing or pitch of the fitments shall not exceed the lesser of 0.6 Dc , 300 mm and that of Clause 10.7.4. Special confinement regions are regions where the design action effects satisfy the following [see Figure 10.7.3.1(A)]: (A) N * ≥0.75φN uo; or (B) N ≥φ 0.3f′c A g and M ≥0.6φM u
* *

. . . 10.7.3.1(1) . . . 10.7.3.1(2)

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FIGURE 10.7.3.1(A) CONFINEMENT TO THE CORE

Fitments in special confinement regions shall be provided over the limits defined by the special confinement regions [see Figure 10.7.3.1(B)], but not less than a length measured each side of the maximum moment and bounded by the lesser of— (1) (2) 1.2 times the dimension of the cross-section measured normal to the axis of bending being considered; and the distance to the end of the member.

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FIGURE 10.7.3.1(B) SPECIAL CONFINEMENT REGIONS

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For columns in moment resisting frame structures that are in double curvature where 0.3φ f′c A g 1, the lesser of the values calculated from Item (a) above; and—
⎡ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0.05 f ′ + 0.1 f c′ ⎥ 0.8 L t Vuc = c w w ⎢ ⎞⎥ ⎛ Hw ⎢ ⎜ − 1⎟ ⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎜L ⎢ ⎠⎦ ⎝ w ⎣

. . . 11.6.3(2)

but not less than 0.17 f c′ (0.8 Lw t w ) . 11.6.4 Contribution to shear strength by shear reinforcement The contribution to the ultimate shear strength of a wall by shear reinforcement (V us) shall be determined from the following equation: V us = pwf sy (0.8L wtw ), where p w is determined as follows: (a) For walls where H w/L w ≤ 1, p w shall be the lesser of the ratios of either the vertical reinforcement area or the horizontal reinforcement area to the cross-sectional area of wall in the respective direction. For walls where Hw/Lw > 1, p w shall be the ratio of the horizontal reinforcement area to the cross-sectional area of wall per vertical metre. . . . 11.6.4

(b)

11.7 REINFORCEMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR WALLS 11.7.1 Minimum reinforcement Walls shall have a reinforcement ratio (p w)— (a)
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in the vertical direction, of not less than the larger of 0.0015 and the value required for strength; and in the horizontal direction, of not less than 0.0025, except that for a wall designed for one-way buckling [using Clause 11.4(a)] and where there is no restraint against horizontal shrinkage or thermal movements, this may be reduced to zero if the wall is less than 2.5 m wide, or to 0.0015 otherwise.

(b)

NOTE: For walls greater than 500 mm thick, the minimum reinforcement required near each surface may be calculated using 250 mm for tw .

11.7.2 Horizontal reinforcement for crack control Where a wall is restrained from expanding or contracting horizontally due to shrinkage or temperature, the horizontal reinforcement ratio shall be not less than the following, as appropriate: (a) For exposure classifications A1 and A2— (i) (ii) where a minor degree of control over cracking is required ..................... 0.0025; where a moderate degree of control over cracking is required and where cracks are inconsequential or hidden from view ......................................... 0.0035; and www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia

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(iii) where a strong degree of control over cracking is required for appearance or where cracks may reflect through finishes ............................................... 0.006. (b) For exposure classifications B1, B2, C1 and C2................................................ 0.006.
NOTE: For walls longer than 8 m, additional horizontal crack control reinforcement may be needed at the base of the wall to control thermal cracking during hydration.

11.7.3 Spacing of reinforcement The minimum clear distance between parallel bars, ducts and tendons shall be sufficient to ensure the concrete can be placed and compacted to comply with Clause 17.1.3 but shall be not less than 3d b. The maximum centre-to-centre spacing of parallel bars shall be the lesser of 2.5t w and 350 mm. The vertical and horizontal reinforcement shall be provided in two grids, one near each face of the wall under any of the following conditions: (a) (b) (c) Walls greater than 200 mm thick. Any part of a wall structure where tension exceeds the tensile capacity of the concrete under the design ultimate loads. Walls designed for two-way buckling (based on Clauses 11.4(b) or 11.4(c)).

11.7.4 Restraint of vertical reinforcement For walls designed as columns in accordance with Section 10, the restraint provisions of Clause 10.7.4 are not required if either one of the following conditions is met: (a) (b) N * ≤ 0.5φN u . The concrete strength is ≤ 50 MPa and either— (i) (i) the vertical reinforcement is not used as compressive reinforcement; or the vertical reinforcement ratio is not greater than 0.02, and a minimum horizontal reinforcement ratio of 0.0025 is provided. . . . 11.7.4

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SE C T I O N 1 2 MEMBERS,
12.1 GENERAL 12.1.1 Scope of Section

D E S IG N O F N O N - F L E X URA L END ZONES A ND BEAR I N G S U RFA CE S

This Section applies to the design of non-flexural members, including deep beams, footings, and pile caps where the ratio of the clear span or projection to the overall depth is less than— (a) (b) (c) for cantilevers ..................................................................................................... 1.5; for simply supported members ......................................................................... 3; and for continuous members.......................................................................................... 4.

This Section also applies to the design of non-flexural regions, including corbels, continuous nibs, end zones of prestressed members, and surfaces where concentrated forces act. 12.1.2 Design for strength The design for strength shall be carried out using one of the following: (a) (b) (c) Linear elastic stress analysis and the checking procedure given in Clause 2.2.3. Strut-and-tie analysis, and the checking procedure given in Clause 2.2.4. Non-linear stress analysis and the checking procedure given in Clause 2.2.6.

The value of the capacity reduction factor shall be determined from Clause 2.2, as appropriate for the analysis and checking procedure adopted. 12.1.3 Design for serviceability Design for serviceability shall be in accordance with Clause 2.3 and Clause 12.7. 12.2 STRUT-AND-TIE MODELS FOR THE DESIGN OF NON-FLEXURAL MEMBERS 12.2.1 Design models
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Design models are distinguished by the method in which the forces are transferred from the point of loading to the supports. The models are identified as Types I, II and III. These are shown in Figure 12.2.1 for the specific case of deep beams, and are defined as follows: (a) (b) Type I The load is carried to the supports directly by major struts. Type II The load is taken to the supports by a combination of primary (major) and secondary (minor) struts. Hanger reinforcement is required to return the vertical components of forces developed in the secondary struts to the top of the member. Type III The load is carried to the supports via a series of minor struts with hanger reinforcement used to return the vertical components of the strut forces to the top of the member.

(c)

For Type II models, the force carried by the secondary struts shall be within the limits 0 ≤ T w ≤ F, where Tw is the vertical component of the force carried by the secondary struts and F is the total vertical component of the external load carried through the shear span.

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FIGURE 12.2.1 (a) STRUT-AND-TIE MODELS AND (b) SIMPLIFIED DESIGN MODELS

12.2.2 Strut bursting reinforcement Strut bursting reinforcement shall be provided in accordance with Clause 7.2.4.

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12.3 ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTINUOUS CONCRETE NIBS AND CORBELS Corbels and continuous nibs that support other members shall be also designed to comply with the following: (a) The tensile reinforcement shall be anchored at the free end of the nib or corbel, either by a welded or mechanical anchorage, or by a loop in either the vertical or horizontal plane. Where the main reinforcement is looped, the loaded area shall not project beyond the straight portion of this reinforcement. Horizontal forces resulting from the supported member, because of factors, such as movement, shrinkage, temperature and prestress, shall be assessed but shall not be taken as less than 20% of the vertical force. The line of action of the load shall be taken at the outside edge of a bearing pad for continuous nibs and at one third the width of the bearing from the free end for a corbel. Where no bearing pad is provided, the line of action may be taken at the commencement of any edge chamfer, or at the outside face of the nib or corbel as appropriate. Where a flexural member is being supported, the outside face of a nib shall be protected against spalling.

(b)

(c)

(d)

12.4 ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR STEPPED JOINTS IN BEAMS AND SLABS The design of stepped joints shall take into account the horizontal forces and movements from the supported members and shall comply with the following: (a) Horizontal forces resulting from movement, shrinkage, temperature, prestress and other factors in the supported member shall be assessed but shall not be taken as less than 20% of the vertical force. In prestressed members, the vertical component of the force from the prestressing steel shall be ignored. The horizontal reinforcement shall extend at least a distance equal to the beam depth (D) beyond the step and shall be provided with anchorage beyond the plane of any potential shear crack. Hanging reinforcement shall be placed as close as possible to the vertical face of the step.

(b) (c)

(d)
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12.5 ANCHORAGE ZONES FOR PRESTRESSING ANCHORAGES 12.5.1 General This Clause applies to the design of prismatic anchorage zones in post-tensioned concrete members but is limited to cases having no more than two anchorages in any elevation or plan.
NOTE: Where there are more than two anchorages in any elevation or plan, the design may be undertaken in accordance with Section 7.

12.5.2 Reinforcement Reinforcement shall be provided to carry tensile forces that arise from the action and dispersal of the prestressing forces in anchorage zones.

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In general, the dispersal occurs through both the depth and the width of the anchorage zone, and reinforcement shall, therefore, be provided in planes parallel to the end faces in two orthogonal directions. A two-dimensional analysis for each loading case shall be carried out in each direction in turn. The tensile forces shall be calculated on longitudinal sections through anchorages and on longitudinal sections where peak values of transverse moments occur. The transverse moment on a longitudinal section is the equilibrating moment acting on the free body bounded by the longitudinal section, a free surface parallel to it, the loaded face, and a plane parallel to the loaded face at the inner end of the anchorage zone. 12.5.3 Loading cases to be considered Loading cases to be considered shall include— (a) (b) all anchorages loaded; and critical loadings during the stressing operation.

Where the distance between two anchorages is less than 0.3 times the total depth, or breadth, of the member, consideration shall be given to the effects of the pair acting in a manner similar to a single anchorage subject to the combined forces. 12.5.4 Calculation of tensile forces along line of an anchorage force The force resultant of transverse tensile stresses induced along the line of action of an anchorage force shall be taken as follows: T = 0.25P (1 − k r) where P = maximum force occurring at the anchorage during jacking k r = ratio of the depth, or breadth, of an anchorage bearing plate to the corresponding depth, or breadth, of the symmetrical prism The symmetrical prism is defined as a notional prism with an anchorage at the centre of its end face and a depth, or breadth, taken as twice the distance from the centre of an anchorage to the nearer concrete face. 12.5.5 Calculation of tensile forces induced near the loaded face At longitudinal sections remote from a single eccentric anchorage, or between widely spaced anchorages, where the sense of the transverse moment indicates the tensile stress resultant acts near the loaded face, the tensile force shall be calculated as follows: (a) (b) For a single eccentric anchorage, by dividing the peak transverse moment by a lever arm assumed to be one half the overall depth of the member. Between pairs of anchorages, by dividing the peak transverse moment by a lever arm assumed to be 0.6 times the spacing of the anchorages. . . . 12.5.4

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12.5.6 Quantity and distribution of reinforcement The cross-sectional area of reinforcement for each situation shall be calculated by dividing the tensile forces derived in accordance with Clauses 12.5.4 and 12.5.5 by 150 MPa. This reinforcement shall be distributed as follows: (a) Reinforcement to resist the forces calculated under Clause 12.5.4 distributed uniformly from 0.2D to 1.0D from the loaded face. Similar reinforcement shall be placed from the plane at 0.2D to as near as practicable to the loaded face. D shall be equal to the depth or breadth of the symmetrical prism as appropriate. Reinforcement to resist the forces calculated under Clause 12.5.5 shall be placed as close to the loaded face as is consistent with cover and compaction requirements.
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(b)

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At any plane parallel to the loaded face, the reinforcement shall be determined from the longitudinal section with the greatest reinforcement requirements at that plane, and shall extend over the full depth or breadth of the end zone. 12.6 BEARING SURFACES Unless special confinement reinforcement is provided, the design bearing stress at a concrete surface shall not exceed φ 0.9 f c′ ( A2 / A1 ) or φ1.8 f c′ , whichever is less— where A 2 = largest area of the supporting surface that is geometrically similar to and concentric with A 1 A 1 = a bearing area In the case of a bearing surface where the supporting structure is sloped or stepped, it shall be permissible to take A 2 as the area of the base of the largest frustum of a right pyramid or cone— (a) (b) (c) having for its opposite end the bearing area A 1; having side slopes of 1 longitudinally to 2 transversely, with respect to the direction of the load; and contained wholly within the supporting structure.

This Clause is not applicable to the design of nodes within a strut-and-tie model. 12.7 CRACK CONTROL The requirements of crack control may be deemed to be satisfied if the stress in the reinforcement is not greater than the following: (a) (b) (c) Where a minor degree of control over cracking is required........................... 250 MPa. Where a moderate degree of control over cracking is required and where cracks are inconsequential or hidden from view ........................................................... 200 MPa. Where a strong degree of control over cracking is required for appearance or where cracks may reflect through finishes ............................................................. 150 MPa.

For prestressed concrete, the change in stress in the tendons after the point of decompression shall not exceed the limits given by Items (a), (b) or (c), as appropriate.
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SECT I ON 1 3 S T RE SS DE V E L OPM E N T RE IN FORCE MENT AND T E NDONS
13.1 STRESS DEVELOPMENT IN REINFORCEMENT 13.1.1 General

O F

The calculated force in reinforcing steel at any cross-section shall be developed on each side of that cross-section in accordance with Clauses 13.1.2 to 13.1.8, as appropriate. 13.1.2 Development length for a deformed bar in tension 13.1.2.1 Development length to develop yield strength The development length (Lsy.t) to develop the characteristic yield strength (fsy ) of a deformed bar in tension shall be calculated from either Clause 13.1.2.2 or 13.1.2.3. 13.1.2.2 Basic development length The development length (L sy.t) shall be taken as the basic development length of a deformed bar in tension (Lsy.tb), calculated from—
Lsy.tb = 0.5k1 k 3 f sy d b k2 f c′ ≥ 29k1 d b

. . . 13.1.2.2

where k1 = = k2 = k3 = 1.3 for a horizontal bar with more than 300 mm of concrete cast below the bar; or 1.0 otherwise (132 – db)/100, and 1.0 − 0.15(c d − d b) / d b (within the limits 0.7 ≤ k 3 ≤ 1.0); where c d = a dimension (in millimetres), as shown in Figure 13.1.2.3(A). The value of f c′ used in Equation 13.1.2.2 shall not be taken to exceed 65 MPa; and the bar diameter (d b) is in millimetres. The value of Lsy.tb calculated as above shall be—
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(a) (b) (c)

multiplied by 1.5 for epoxy-coated bars; and multiplied by 1.3 when lightweight concrete is used; and multiplied by 1.3 for all structural elements built with slip forms.

NOTE: A smaller value of L sy.t may be possible using the provisions of Clause 13.1.2.3.

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13.1.2.3 Refined development length Where a refined development length is required, the development length in tension (L sy.t) shall be calculated from— L sy.t = k 4 k 5 Lsy.tb where k4 k5 K = 1.0 − Kλ = 1.0−0.04ρ p (within the limits 0.7 ≤ k 4 ≤ 1.0) (within the limits 0.7 ≤ k 5 ≤ 1.0) . . . 13.1.2.3

= a factor that accounts for the position of the bars being anchored with respect to the transverse reinforcement, with values as shown in Figure 13.1.2.3(B) = (ΣA tr − ΣA tr.min )/A s = sum of cross-sectional area of the transverse reinforcement along the development length (Lsy.t)

λ ΣA tr

ΣA tr.min = sum of cross-sectional area of the minimum transverse reinforcement, which may be taken as 0.25As for beams or columns and 0 for slabs or walls As ρp = cross-sectional area of a single bar of diameter (d b) being anchored = transverse compressive pressure (in MPa), at the ultimate limit state along the development length and perpendicular to the plane of splitting

The product k3 k 4 k 5 shall be not taken as less than 0.7.

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FIGURE 13.1.2.3(A) VALUES OF c d

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FIGURE 13.1.2.3(B) VALUES OF K FOR DIFFERENT BAR POSITIONS

13.1.2.4 Development length to develop less than the yield strength The development length (Lst) to develop a tensile stress (σ st), less than the yield strength (fsy ), shall be calculated from—
Lst = Lsy.t σ st f sy

. . . 13.1.2.4

but shall be not less than— (a) (b) 12d b; or for slabs, as permitted by Clause 9.1.3.1(a)(ii).
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13.1.2.5 Development length around a curve Tensile stress may be considered to be developed around a curve if the internal diameter of the curve is 10d b or greater. 13.1.2.6 Development length of a deformed bar with a standard hook or cog Where a deformed bar ends in a standard hook or cog complying with Clause 13.1.2.7, the tensile development length of that end of the bar, measured from the outside of the hook/cog, shall be taken as 0.5Lsy.t or 0.5Lst as applicable (as shown in Figure 13.1.2.6).

FIGURE 13.1.2.6 DEVELOPMENT LENGTH OF A DEFORMED BAR WITH A STANDARD HOOK OR COG

13.1.2.7 Standard hooks and cogs The standard hook or cog referred to in Clause 13.1.2.6 shall be one of the following: (a) (b) (c)
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A hook consisting of a 180° bend with a nominal internal diameter complying with Clause 17.2.3.2 plus a straight extension of 4d b or 70 mm, whichever is greater. A hook consisting of a 135° bend with the same internal diameter and length as Item (a). A cog, consisting of a 90° bend with a nominal internal diameter complying with Clause 17.2.3.2 but not greater than 8d b and having the same total length as required for a 180° hook of the same diameter bar.

13.1.3 Development length of plain bars in tension The development length (Lsy.t) to develop the yield strength (f sy) of a plain bar in tension shall be taken as the basic development length calculated in accordance with Clause 13.1.2.2 multiplied by 1.5, but L sy.t shall be not less than 300 mm. Where a plain bar ends in a standard hook or cog complying with Clause 13.1.2.7, the tensile development length of that end of the bar, measured from the outside of the hook/cog, shall be taken as 0.5Lsy.t or 0.5Lst as applicable (as shown in Figure 13.1.2.6). 13.1.4 Development length of headed reinforcement in tension A head used to develop a deformed bar in tension shall consist of a nut or plate, having either a round, elliptical or rectangular shape, attached to the end(s) of the bar by welding, threading or swaging of suitable strength to avoid failure of the steel connection at ultimate load.

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In addition— (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) the bar diameter (d b) shall not exceed 40 mm; the density of the concrete shall be greater than 2100 kg/m3; the net bearing area of head shall be not less than 4 times the cross-sectional area of the bar; the clear cover for the bar shall not be less than 2d b; and the clear spacing between bars shall be not less than 4d b .

If the cross-sectional area of the head of the headed reinforcement, or the area of the end plate for deformed bars mechanically anchored with an end plate in the plane perpendicular to the axis of the bar, is at least 10 times the cross-sectional area of the bar, the bar shall be considered to have a development length (L sy.t) measured from the inside face of the head equal to 0.8 times the development length of a hooked bar of the same diameter. 13.1.5 Development length of deformed bars in compression 13.1.5.1 Development length to develop yield strength The development length (L sy.c) to develop the characteristic yield strength (fsy ) of a deformed bar in compression shall be calculated from either Clause 13.1.5.2 or Clause 13.1.5.3, but shall be not less than 200 mm. 13.1.5.2 Basic development length The development length (L sy.c) shall be taken as the basic development length of a deformed bar in compression (Lsy.cb) calculated from—
Lsy.cb = 0.22 f sy f c′ d b ≥0.0435f sy db or 200 mm, whichever is the greater

. . . 13.1.5.2

NOTE: A smaller value of Lsy.c may be obtained using the provisions of Clause 13.1.5.3.

13.1.5.3 Refined development length Where a refined development length is required, the development length in compression (Lsy.c) shall be calculated from— L sy.c = k 6Lsy.cb . . . 13.1.5.3 Where transverse reinforcement with at least 3 bars, transverse to and outside the bar being developed is provided within Lsy.cb and when ΣAtr/s ≥ As/600, k 6 = 0.75 where ΣA tr and As are defined in Clause 13.1.2.3. In all other cases, k6 = 1.0. 13.1.5.4 Development length to develop less than the yield strength The development length (Lsc) to develop a compressive stress (σ sc), less than the yield strength (fsy ), shall be calculated from—
Lsc = Lsy.c σ sc (but not less than 200 mm) f sy

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. . . 13.1.5.4

A bend or a standard hook shall not be considered effective in developing stress in reinforcement in compression.

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13.1.6 Development length of plain bars in compression The development length for plain bars in compression shall be twice the calculated value of L sy.c or Lsy.cb for a deformed bar. 13.1.7 Development length of bundled bars The development length of a unit of bundled bars shall be based on the development length required for the largest bar within the bundle increased by— (a) (b) for a 3-bar bundle ........................................................................................20%; and for a 4-bar bundle .............................................................................................. 33%.

13.1.8 Development length of welded plain or deformed mesh in tension 13.1.8.1 Development length to develop yield strength The development length (Lsy.t) of welded plain or deformed mesh, measured from the critical section to the end of the bar or wire, shall be calculated in accordance with Clause 13.1.8.2, Clause 13.1.8.3 or 13.1.8.4, as appropriate. 13.1.8.2 Two or more cross-bars within development length The yield strength of plain or deformed bars of welded mesh shall be considered to be developed by embedding at least 2 cross-bars spaced at not less than 100 mm or 50 mm apart within the development length for plain or deformed bars respectively, with the first one not less than 50 mm from the critical section. 13.1.8.3 One cross-bar within development length When only one cross-bar is located within the development length, the minimum length measured from the critical section to the outermost cross-bar shall be not less than Lsy.tb calculated from—
Lsy.tb = 3.25 Ab f sy sm f c′

. . . 13.1.8.3

but not less than 150 mm for plain mesh and not less than 100 mm for deformed mesh, where A b = area of the individual bar being developed in square millimetres s m = spacing of bars being developed, in millimetres 13.1.8.4 No cross-bars within development length
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When no cross-bars are located within the development length, the development length of welded mesh shall be determined by Clauses 13.1.2 and 13.1.3, as appropriate. 13.1.8.5 Development length to develop less than the yield strength The development length (L st) to develop a tensile stress (σ st) less than the yield strength (f sy) shall be calculated from the development length of Clauses 13.1.8.3 or 13.1.8.4 using the following equation:
Lst = Lsy.tb σ st f sy

. . . 13.1.8.5

but not less than 150 mm for plain mesh and not less than 100 mm for deformed mesh.

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13.2 SPLICING OF REINFORCEMENT 13.2.1 General The following general requirements shall apply to the splicing of reinforcement: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Splices of reinforcement shall be made only as required or permitted on the design drawings or in specifications. The splice shall be made by welding, by mechanical means, by end-bearing, or by lapping. Splicing of reinforcement shall take into account the requirements of Clause 17.1.3 regarding the placement of concrete. Splices required in bars in tension-tie members shall be made only by welding or mechanical means. Lapped splices shall not be used for bars in compression or tension with diameter larger than 40 mm. Welding of reinforcing bars shall not be made less than 3db from that part of a bar that has been bent and re-straightened.

13.2.2 Lapped splices for bars in tension In wide elements or members (e.g. flanges, band beams, slabs, walls and blade columns), where the bars being lapped are in the plane of the element or member, the tensile lap length (Lsy.t.lap) for either contact or non-contact splices shall be calculated from—
Lsy.t.lap = k7 Lsy.t ≥ 29k1d b

. . . 13.2.2

where L sy.t is calculated in accordance with Clause 13.1.2.1. (In the determination of Lsy.t for use in Equation 13.2.2, the lower limit of 29k1 db in Equation 13.1.2.2 does not apply); and k 7 shall be taken as 1.25 unless As provided is greater than twice As required and no more than half of the reinforcement at the section is spliced, in which case k7 may be taken As 1. In narrow elements or members (such as beam webs and columns), the tensile lap length (Lsy.t.lap) shall be not less than the larger of k 7 Lsy.t and Lsy.t + 1.5sb , where s b is the clear distance between bars of the lapped splice as shown in Figure 13.2.2. However, if sb does not exceed 3db , then sb may be taken as zero for calculating Lsy.t.lap.

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FIGURE 13.2.2 VALUE OF cd FOR LAPPED SPLICES

13.2.3 Lapped splices for mesh in tension A lapped splice for welded mesh in tension shall be made so the two outermost cross-bars spaced at not less than 100 mm or 50 mm apart for plain or deformed bars, respectively, of one sheet of mesh overlap the two outermost cross-bars of the sheet being lapped as shown in Figure 13.2.3. The minimum length of the overlap shall equal 100 mm. A lapped splice for welded deformed and plain meshes, with no cross-bars within the splice length shall be determined in accordance with Clause 13.2.2.

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FIGURE 13.2.3 LAPPED SPLICES FOR WELDED MESH

13.2.4 Lapped splices for bars in compression The minimum length of a lapped splice for deformed bars in compression shall be the development length in compression (L sy.c) given in Items (a), (b) or (c), as appropriate, but shall be not less than 300 mm: (a) (b) The development length in compression shall be in accordance with Clause 13.1.5 but not less than 40d b. In compressive members with stirrups or fitments where at least 3 sets of fitments are present over the length of the lap and A tr/s ≥ A b/1000, a lap length of 0.8 times the value given in Item (a). www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia

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(c)

In helically tied compressive members, if at least 3 turns of helical reinforcement are present over the length of the lap and A tr/s ≥ n Ab/6000, a lap length of 0.8 times the value given in Item (a), where n = the number of bars uniformly spaced around the helix.

In this Clause, Ab is defined as the area of the bar being spliced. 13.2.5 Lapped splices for bundled bars Lapped splices for a unit of bundled bars shall be based on the lap splice length required for the largest bar within the bundle increased by— (a) (b) for a three bar bundle...................................................................................20%; and for a four bar bundle .......................................................................................... 33%.

Individual bar splices within a bundle shall not overlap. 13.2.6 Welded or mechanical splices Welded or mechanical splices formed between Ductility Class N reinforcing bars shall not fail prematurely in tension or compression before the reinforcing bars, unless it can be shown that the strength and ductility of the concrete member meets the design requirements. When control of cracking or vertical deflection are relevant serviceability design criteria, the potentially detrimental effects of excessive longitudinal slip between spliced Ductility Class N bars and a proprietary mechanical connector shall be considered if tests show the effective slip in the assemblage could exceed 0.1 mm at a tensile stress of 300 MPa. The effective slip shall be taken as the overall deformation of a spliced pair of reinforcing bars measured over a gauge length of 12db , less the elongation of the bars assuming they are unspliced over the same gauge length. 13.3 STRESS DEVELOPMENT IN TENDONS 13.3.1 General In the absence of substantiated test data, the length to develop the calculated force in a pretensioned tendon shall be taken to be a bi-linear relationship defined by the transmission length (L pt) in Clause 13.3.2.1 and the total development length (L p) in Clause 13.3.2.2. 13.3.2 Transmission lengths of pretensioned tendons 13.3.2.1 Transmission lengths of pretensioned tendons
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The transmission length required to develop the effective prestress in pretensioned tendons shall be taken as the length given in Table 13.3.2, as appropriate to type of tendon and strength of concrete at transfer. The transmission length shall be taken to be independent of the effective prestress in the tendon. It shall be assumed that no change in the position of the inner end of the transmission length occurs with time but that a completely unstressed zone of length 0.1Lpt develops at the end of the tendon.

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TABLE 13.3.2 MINIMUM TRANSMISSION LENGTH FOR PRETENSIONED TENDONS
Type of tendon Indented wire Crimped wire Ordinary and compact strand L pt for gradual release f cp ≥ 32 MPa 100 d b 70 d b 60 d b f cp < 32 MPa 175 d b 100 d b 60 d b

13.3.2.2 Development length of pretensioned strand In absence of test data, the bonded length to develop the stress in seven wire pretensioned strand at ultimate strength shall be taken as not less than— L p = 0.145(σ pu −0.67σ p.ef )d b ≥ 60db where σ p.ef is the effective stress in the tendon after allowing for all losses. Both σ pu and σ p.ef are in megapascals, and the expression in parenthesis is used without units. Embedment less than the development length is permitted at a section of a member provided the design stress in the strand at that section does not exceed the values obtained from the bi-linear relationship defined by this Clause and Clause 13.3.2.1. The development length of de-bonded strand shall be taken to be 2Lp where the design includes tension in accordance with Clauses 8.6.2 and 9.4.2 in the development length. 13.3.2.3 Development length of pretensioned wire Pretensioned indented and crimped wire tendons shall be bonded beyond the critical section for a length sufficient to develop the design stress in the wire but not less than 2.25 times the value for the transmission length in Table 13.3.2 as appropriate. 13.3.2.4 Development length of untensioned strand or wire Where strand or wire is untensioned, the development length shall be taken as not less than 2.5 times the value of the appropriate transmission length of a stressed tendon given in Table 13.3.2 for a tendon stressed to the tensile strength (f pb) in Table 3.3.1. 13.3.3 Stress development in post-tensioned tendons by anchorages
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. . . 13.3.2.2

Anchorages for tendons shall be capable of developing in the tendon the minimum tensile strength (fpb). In addition, anchorages for unbonded tendons shall be capable of sustaining cyclic loading conditions. 13.4 COUPLING OF TENDONS Coupling of tendons shall comply with the following: (a) (b) Couplers shall be capable of developing at least 95% of the tendon characteristic minimum breaking force specified. Couplers shall be enclosed in grout-tight housings to facilitate grouting of the duct.

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SE C T I O N
14.1 JOINTS 14.1.1 General

1 4

JO I NT S, E MB E D D E D AND F I X I N G S

I T E M S

A joint in a structure or member shall be designed and constructed so the load-carrying capacity and serviceability of the structure or member is maintained while serving its intended function. Joints shall be for construction purposes (‘construction joint’) or to control movement (‘movement joint’), as appropriate. 14.1.2 Construction joints 14.1.2.1 General Construction joints shall be designed and installed to satisfy intended construction practice for the specific application. Construction joints shall be designed to produce a well-bonded interface between hardened concrete and freshly placed concrete. 14.1.2.2 Joint spacing Construction joints shall be located to facilitate the placement of concrete in accordance with Clause 17.1.3 and to meet concrete placement restrictions and finishing requirements. They shall be located in regions of minimal shear force and, where possible, in unobtrusive locations. The spacing shall be determined by the rate of concrete placement and finishing on site or as a result of any unplanned interruption to placement operations. Where an interruption to the placing of concrete occurs such that the requirements of Clause 17.1.3(c) or Clause 17.1.3(d) or Clause 17.1.3(e) cannot be fulfilled, a construction joint shall be made at an appropriate location. 14.1.3 Movement joints 14.1.3.1 General Movement joints shall be designed and constructed to— (a) (b) (c)
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control movement at a joint; control cracking at design locations; or provide articulation and separation between concrete members in a structure and meet their intended function without impairing the load-carrying capacity or serviceability of either the structure or member.

Movement joints shall be formed between two concrete members to allow movement to occur, typically as a result of shrinkage, creep, diurnal effects and differential settlement. Generally, they will extend throughout the member depth imparting complete discontinuity between adjoining concrete members. However, joints for shrinkage are not necessarily formed through the depth of the member. 14.1.3.2 Joint spacing In reinforced concrete members, the spacing of movement joints shall take into account effects such as shrinkage, temperature movement, moisture change, creep and other relevant factors. The level of prestress and subsequent member shortening shall also be considered in prestressed concrete members.

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14.1.4 Joint fillers and sealants Material infill in a joint shall remain in place and deform in response to loading and movement without undergoing any change that will adversely affect the functionality of the joint. Such infills shall consist of either a joint filler or sealant (or both). Fillers may be inserted into a joint in a compressed condition either when the concrete is plastic or is in its hardened state. A sealant shall be employed to provide weatherproofing, fire resistance, acoustic insulation, chemical resistance, prevention of deleterious material ingress or other function that cannot be imparted by a filler. Joints shall be sealed or otherwise designed and detailed to prevent the entry of dirt or incompressible material into the joint which would detrimentally affect the joint movement or operation. Where loading across the joint is anticipated, the designer shall ensure the infill materials are of sufficient hardness and the concrete edges adequately protected, as appropriate, to prevent joint edge spalling. 14.2 EMBEDDED ITEMS 14.2.1 General For the purpose of this Clause, embedded items include pipes and conduits with their associated fittings, sleeves, permanent inserts for fixings and other purposes, holding-down bolts and other supports. Items may be embedded in concrete members provided the required strength and serviceability of the member is satisfied, and the durability requirements of Clause 4.10.3.7 are met. 14.2.2 Pipes Embedded conduits and pipes shall comply with the relevant standards.
NOTE: For example, (a) (b) for electrical purposes ............................................................................ AS/NZS 3000; and for plumbing purposes .................................................................................. AS/NZS 3500.

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Pipes intended to contain liquid, gas or vapour under pressure or extremes of temperature may be embedded in structural concrete, provided the maximum pressure to which any piping or fitting is intended to be subjected will not exceed 2000 kPa, and the effect that inclusion of the pipe has on the strength and serviceability behaviour of the member is taken into account. 14.2.3 Spacing The minimum clear distance between embedded items, and between embedded items and bars (including bundled bars), tendons or ducts, shall be sufficient to ensure the concrete can be placed and compacted to comply with Clause 17.1.3. 14.3 FIXINGS Fixings, including holding-down bolts, inserts and ferrules, shall comply with the following: (a) (b) (c) A fixing shall be designed to transmit all forces, acting or likely to act on it. Forces on fixings used for lifting purposes shall include an impact factor in assessing the load. Fixings shall be designed to yield before ultimate failure in the event of overload.

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(d)

The anchorage of any fixings shall be designed in accordance with Section 13, as appropriate. The design strength of this anchorage shall be taken as φ times the ultimate strength, where φ = 0.6. In the case of shallow anchorages, cone-type failure in the concrete surrounding the fixing shall be investigated taking into account edge distance, spacing, the effect of reinforcement, if any, and concrete strength at time of loading. In the absence of calculations, the strength of a fixing shall be determined by load testing of a prototype to failure in accordance with Paragraph B4, Appendix B. The design strength of the fixing shall be taken as φ times the ultimate strength where the ultimate strength is taken as the average failure load divided by the appropriate factor given in Table B4.3, Appendix B and φ = 0.6. The spacing between, and cover to, fixings shall be in accordance with Clause 14.2.3. The cover for fixings shall be in accordance with Section 4. The cover for fire resistance shall be in accordance with Section 5.

(e)

(f)

Fixings that are intended for lifting purposes shall have a ratio of ultimate strain to either yield strain or proportional limit strain of not less than 3.

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SECT I ON
15.1 GENERAL

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P L A I N CO N CRE T E AND F OOT I N GS

PE D E ST A L S

The provisions of this Section apply to— (a) (b) plain concrete pedestals, provided the unsupported height of the member is not greater than three times the least lateral dimension; and plain concrete pad footings supported by the ground.

The value of φ throughout the Section shall be determined from Table 2.2.2. 15.2 DURABILITY Plain concrete members shall comply with the appropriate provisions of Section 4. The cover to any reinforcement shall comply with that determined in accordance with the appropriate provisions of Section 4. 15.3 PEDESTALS Pedestals subject to combined flexural and axial load shall be proportioned so the maximum compressive stress under the design actions does not exceed φ 0.4 f c′ and the maximum tensile stress does not exceed φ0.45√ f c′ . The minimum eccentricity shall be taken as 0.1a, where a is the cross-section dimension in the direction being considered. 15.4 FOOTINGS 15.4.1 Dimensions The minimum nominal depth of a footing shall be 200 mm. When calculating the strength of a footing, the entire cross-section shall be considered and the depth of the footing shall be assumed to be 50 mm less than the nominal depth. 15.4.2 Strength in bending
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The design strength under bending shall be based on a linear stress-strain relationship in both tension and compression. The design strength in bending shall be taken as φM uo , where M uo is calculated using the ′ characteristic flexural tensile strength ( f ct.f ) . The critical section for bending shall be taken at— (a) (b) (c) the face of the column, pedestal or wall for concrete members; halfway between the centre and face of the wall for a masonry wall; or halfway between the face of the column and the edge of the base plate for a steel column and base plate.

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15.4.3 Strength in shear The design strength of a member in shear shall be determined in accordance with either or both of the following, as appropriate: (a) Where the member acts essentially as a one-way member, and a shear failure can occur across the width of the rectangular cross-section (b) of the member, the design strength in shear shall be taken as φV u where—
Vu = 0.15bD( f c′ )
1/ 3

. . . 15.4.3(1)

The critical section for one-way shear shall be taken at 0.5D from the face of the support. (b) Where a shear failure can occur locally around a support or loaded area, the design strength in shear shall be taken as— φV u /[1 + (uM * /8V * aD)] where V u = 0.1uD(1 + 2 / β h ) f c′ ≤ 0.2uD f c′ u = effective length of the shear perimeter [see Figure 9.2.1(A)] a = dimension of the critical shear perimeter, which is parallel to the direction of bending being considered [see Figure 9.2.1(B)] βh = ratio given in Clause 9.2.1.5 . . . 15.4.3(2)

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SECT ION 16 S L A B-ON - GROUND F L OORS, PAVEMENTS AND F OOT I NGS
16.1 GENERAL This Section sets out additional design considerations for slab-on-ground floors and pavements and footings including plain concrete pavements, but excluding residential floors and pavements. 16.2 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS The design of pavements and slabs supported by the ground and any joints therein shall take into account, but not be limited to, the following considerations: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) The determination of appropriate design loading. Soil-structure interaction. The influence of the pavement or slab on the behaviour of the other parts of the structure. Effects of traffic on joints. Differential movement at joints. The limitation of moisture passing through the slab or pavement. The effect of water pressure, if any. Techniques to control and minimize cracking. Techniques to minimize shrinkage warping. Techniques to minimize differential temperature effects.

16.3 FOOTINGS 16.3.1 Reinforced footings Two-way footings shall be designed in accordance with Section 9 and the minimum 2 ′ reinforcement shall be given by 0.19(D / d ) f ct.f / f sy .
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16.3.2 Plain concrete footings Plain concrete footings shall be designed in accordance with Clause 15.4.

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SECT ION 17 MATER I A L A ND C ONS T R UC T I O N RE Q U I R E M E N T S
17.1 MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR CONCRETE AND GROUT 17.1.1 Materials and limitations on constituents Materials for concrete and grout, and limitations on their chemical content, shall comply with the relevant requirements of AS 1379. 17.1.2 Specification and manufacture of concrete Concrete to which this Standard applies shall be— (a) (b) specified as either normal-class or special-class and manufactured and supplied in accordance with AS 1379; and handled, placed, compacted, finished and cured in accordance with this Standard, so that the hardened concrete will satisfy the design requirements for strength, serviceability, durability and other limit states.

Project assessment shall be specified for special-class concrete specified by strength grade and may be specified for normal-class concrete and other special-class concrete, all as defined in AS 1379. 17.1.3 Handling, placing and compacting of concrete Concrete shall be handled, placed and compacted so as to— (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)
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limit segregation or loss of materials; limit premature stiffening; produce a monolithic mass between planned joints or the extremities of members, or both; completely fill the formwork to the intended level, expel entrapped air, and closely surround all reinforcement, tendons, ducts, anchorages, embedments and fixings; and provide the specified finish to the formed surfaces of the member.

17.1.4 Finishing of unformed concrete surfaces Unformed concrete surfaces shall be finished by appropriate methods, to achieve the specified— (a) (b) (c) dimensions, falls, tolerances, or similar details relating to the shape and uniformity of the surfaces; cover from the surfaces to reinforcement, tendons, ducts and embedments; and texture of the surface.

17.1.5 Curing and protection of concrete 17.1.5.1 Curing Concrete shall be cured continuously for a period of time so the design requirements for strength, serviceability and stripping are satisfied. To satisfy durability, curing requirements shall be not less than those given in Clauses 4.4 and 4.5.

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Curing shall be achieved by the application of water to, accelerated curing of, or the retention of water in, the freshly cast concrete, and shall commence as soon as practicable after the finishing of any unformed surfaces has been completed. Where retention of water in the fresh concrete relies on the application to exposed surfaces of sprayed membraneforming curing compounds, the compounds used shall comply with AS 3799. Curing requirements for the various members of the structure shall be detailed in the project specification. 17.1.5.2 Protection Freshly cast concrete shall be protected from the effects of rain, running water and freezing or drying prior to hardening. During the initial curing period the concrete shall be protected from freezing or drying. 17.1.6 Sampling and testing for compliance 17.1.6.1 General Concrete, which is intended for use in structures designed in accordance with this Standard, shall be assessed in accordance with AS 1379 for compliance with the specified parameters.
NOTE: When project assessment is required, the project specification should nominate responsibility for carrying out the relevant sampling, testing and assessment and, if these differ from or are not covered by AS 1379, should give details of how the assessment is to be made.

17.1.6.2 Concrete specified by strength grade Concrete specified by strength grade shall satisfy the following criteria: (a) For each strength grade of concrete supplied to a project, the mean cylinder compressive strength (fcm ), as defined in AS 1379, shall be maintained within the limits specified in that Standard. For concrete subject to project assessment— (i) (ii) the slump of the supplied concrete shall be within the tolerance specified in AS 1379 for the relevant specified slump; and in addition to Item (a), the mean compressive strength of the representative samples taken from the project shall be within the limits specified in AS 1379.
‘Strength grade’ is defined in AS 1379 as ‘the specified value of the characteristic compressive strength of the concrete at 28 days ( f c′ )’. The compressive strength of the concrete sampled, tested and assessed in accordance with AS 1379 indicates the potential strength of the supplied concrete, when placed, compacted and cured under optimum conditions; the responsibility of demonstrating rests on the supplier. The achievement of that potential on site is dependent upon the handling, placing, compacting and curing techniques actually used; the responsibility for which rests with the construction contractor (see Clauses 17.1.3 and 17.1.5). Information on appropriate site techniques may be found in HB 64 and HB 67.

(b)

NOTES: 1
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2

17.1.6.3 Concrete specified by parameters other than strength grade When concrete is specified by parameters other than strength grade, the method of production control and, if required, project control shall be specified together with the relevant compliance criteria. The specified methods of control and assessment shall provide a reliable operating characteristic curve so that— (a) concrete with a proportion defective of 0.05 has a probability of acceptance of at least 50%; and

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(b)

concrete with a proportion defective of 0.30 has a probability of rejection of at least 98%.

17.1.7 Rejection of concrete 17.1.7.1 Plastic concrete Plastic concrete may be rejected if, after completion of mixing but prior to site handling— (a) (b) (c) the slump, determined in accordance with AS 1012.3.1, differs from the specified slump by more than the tolerances permitted in AS 1379; the elapsed time from first introduction of the mixing water is outside the time interval allowed in AS 1379; or the appearance and cohesiveness of a particular quantity is significantly different from previously supplied quantities of the same specification.

17.1.7.2 Hardened concrete Hardened concrete shall be liable to rejection if— (a) (b) (c) it does not satisfy the requirements of Clause 17.1.6; it is porous, segregated, or honeycombed, or contains surface defects outside the specified limits; or it fails to comply with the other requirements of this Standard.

17.1.7.3 Action on hardened concrete liable to rejection Where hardened concrete is liable to rejection in terms of Clause 17.1.7.2, the concrete may be accepted if it can be demonstrated, either by calculation or by testing in accordance with the appropriate clauses of Appendix B, that the structural adequacy and intended use of the affected members are not significantly impaired. Otherwise, the concrete shall be rejected. 17.1.8 Requirements for grout and grouting 17.1.8.1 Grout properties Grout shall be proportioned to give the desired properties for its intended use. Grout to be used in grouting prestressing ducts shall have sufficient fluidity to enable it to be pumped through the duct, have low sedimentation and shrinkage, and contain no more than 750 mg of chloride ions per litre of grout. 17.1.8.2 Mixing and agitation
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Grout shall be mixed in a mixer capable of producing a uniform grout of the specified fluidity and free from lumps of undispersed cement. After mixing, grout shall be held in an agitation tank and kept in motion, to prevent settlement or segregation occurring, before it is pumped into its final position. 17.2 MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR REINFORCING STEEL 17.2.1 Materials 17.2.1.1 Reinforcement Reinforcement shall be deformed Ductility Class N bars, or Ductility Class L or Ductility Class N welded wire mesh (plain or deformed), except that fitments may be manufactured from Ductility Class L wire or bar, or plain Ductility Class N bar. All reinforcement shall comply with AS/NZS 4671.

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Ductility Class L reinforcement shall not be substituted for Ductility Class N reinforcement unless the structure is redesigned. 17.2.1.2 Protective coatings A protective coating may be applied to reinforcement provided such coating does not reduce the properties of the reinforcement below those assumed in the design. 17.2.2 Fabrication Reinforcement shall be fabricated in accordance with the following: (a) Reinforcement shall be fabricated to the shape and dimensions shown in the drawings and within the following tolerances: (i) On any overall dimension for bars and mesh except where used as a fitment— (A) (B) (ii) for lengths up to 600 mm ..................................................... −25, +0 mm; for lengths over 600 mm ...................................................... −40, +0 mm. for deformed bars and mesh ................................................. −15, +0 mm; for plain round bars and wire ............................................... −10, +0 mm.

On any overall dimension of bars or mesh used as a fitment— (A) (B)

(iii) On the overall offset dimension of a cranked column bar ............... −0, +10 mm. (iv) For the sawn or machined end of a straight bar intended for use as an endbearing splice, the angular deviation from square, measured in relation to the end 300 mm, shall be within ........................................................................ 2°.

(b) (c)

Bending of reinforcement shall comply with Clause 17.2.3. Welding if required shall comply with AS/NZS 1554.3. Locational tack welding shall also comply with AS/NZS 1554.3.

17.2.3 Bending 17.2.3.1 General Reinforcement may be bent either— (a) cold, by the application of a force, around a pin of diameter complying with Clause 17.2.3.2, so as to avoid impact loading of the bar and mechanical damage to the bar surface; or hot, provided— (i) (ii) the steel is heated uniformly through and beyond the portion to be bent; the temperature of the steel does not exceed 600°C;

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(b)

(iii) the bar is not cooled by quenching; and (iv) if during heating the temperature of the bar exceeds 450°C, the design yield strength of the steel after bending is taken as 250 MPa.

Reinforcement that has been bent and subsequently straightened or bent in the reverse direction shall not be bent again within 20 bar diameters of the previous bend. Bars shall not be bent using impact, such as with hammers. Reinforcement partially embedded in concrete may be field-bent provided the bending complies with Items (a) or (b) above and the bond of the embedded portion is not impaired thereby.

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NOTE: If site rebending is to occur, then the following procedures should be stipulated: (a) Rebending of bars should preferably be undertaken using an approved rebending tool. Bars should preferably be rebent against a flat surface or a pin with a diameter that is at least equal to or greater than the minimum pin size as specified in Clause 17.2.3.2. Bars should not be over-bent beyond the original bend, typically 90°. A pipe with an internal diameter not greater than 2db inserted over the bar may be used, provided adequate care is taken and supervision provided; however, bending with pipes should be carried out with a single, smooth continuous action. The pipe should be not less than 1.2 m long. If scabbling tools have to be used near bars because of concrete leakage or contamination, extreme care should be exercised to prevent any impact or damage to the bars. The bar should be positioned with the initial bend of the bar clear of the concrete.

(b)

(c) (d)

17.2.3.2 Internal diameter of bends or hooks The nominal internal diameter (d) of a reinforcement bend or hook shall be taken as the external diameter of the pin around which the reinforcement is bent. The diameter of the pin shall be not less than the value determined from the following as appropriate: (a) For fitments of— (i) (ii) 500L bars ...................................................................................................3db; R250N bars ......................................................................................... 3db; and

(iii) D500N bars ................................................................................................ 4db . (b) (c) For reinforcement, other than that specified in Item (c) and Item (d) below, of any grade ........................................................................................................ 5db . For reinforcement, in which the bend is intended to be subsequently straightened or rebent, of— (i) (ii) 16 mm diameter or less ...............................................................................4db; 20 mm diameter or 24 mm ................................................................... 5db; and

(iii) 28 mm diameter or greater .......................................................................... 6db . Any such straightening or rebending shall be clearly specified or shown in the drawings. (d)
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For reinforcement that is epoxy-coated or galvanized, either before or after bending, of— (i) (ii) 16 mm diameter or less ...............................................................................5db; 20 mm diameter or greater .......................................................................... 8db .

17.2.4 Surface condition At the time concrete is placed, the surface condition of reinforcement shall be such as not to impair its bond to the concrete or its performance in the member. The presence of millscale or surface rust shall not be cause for rejection of reinforcement under this Clause. 17.2.5 Fixing All reinforcement, including secondary reinforcement provided for the purpose of maintaining main reinforcement and tendons in position, shall be supported and maintained in position within the tolerances given in Clause 17.5.3 until the concrete has hardened. Bar chairs, spacers and tie wires used for this purpose shall be made of concrete, steel or plastics, as appropriate.

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17.2.6 Lightning protection by reinforcement Where lightning protection is to be provided by the reinforcement, the reinforcement shall comply with the relevant requirements of AS/NZS 1768. 17.3 MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR PRESTRESSING DUCTS, ANCHORAGES AND TENDONS 17.3.1 Materials for ducts, anchorages and tendons 17.3.1.1 Ducts Sheaths and removable formers used to form ducts shall be capable of maintaining their required cross-section and profile during construction. 17.3.1.2 Anchorages The quality and properties of anchorages shall be established by testing. 17.3.1.3 Tendons Prestressing tendons shall comply with AS/NZS 4672.1, as applicable. Tendons shall not be galvanized. In the absence of assurance, such as a manufacturer’s certificate, the quality of tendons shall be established by testing in accordance with the applicable Standards. Hard-drawn, high tensile steel wire, which has not been stress-relieved, shall not be used for wire winding unless its elongation, tested in accordance with AS/NZS 4672.1, is 3.5% or greater. Plain wire shall not be used for pretensioning. 17.3.2 Construction requirements for ducts 17.3.2.1 Surface condition When concrete is placed, the outside surface of sheaths and formers for ducts shall be such as not to impair bond of the concrete to the duct. Immediately before grouting, the inside surfaces of sheaths shall be such as not to impair bond of the grout to the duct. Where an extractable core is used, a suitable technique shall be chosen to ensure its withdrawal, without damage to the formed duct. 17.3.2.2 Sealing
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Prior to the placing of concrete, ducts shall be sealed at the ends and at all joints, to exclude concrete, or other matter. 17.3.2.3 Fixing Ducts shall be supported and fixed at regular intervals so the required tendon profile will be maintained in accordance with Clause 17.5.3. 17.3.3 Construction requirements for anchorages 17.3.3.1 Fixing Anchorages shall be fixed strictly in accordance with the supplier’s recommendations and the following: (a) (b) (c) The anchorage shall be square to the line of the tendon. The duct shall be securely attached to the anchorage so it provides a grout-tight joint between the duct and the anchorage. Where the anchorage is fixed to the formwork, the joint between the two parts shall be grout-tight. www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia

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17.3.3.2 Surface condition At the time concrete is placed, the surface condition of the anchorage shall be such as not to impair its bond to the concrete. 17.3.4 Construction requirements for tendons 17.3.4.1 Fabrication Tendons shall be fabricated in accordance with the following: (a) (b) (c) Cutting of tendons shall be carried out so damage to tendons, ducts and anchorages is avoided. Tendons shall not be welded. Prestressing bars shall be within manufacturing tolerances and not bent in the threaded portion.

Small adjustments on site shall be carried out cold. If the bar temperature is lower than 10°C, the bar temperature shall be raised above this value by means of steam or hot water. 17.3.4.2 Protection Before stressing, tendons shall be protected from stray current arcing and splashes from the cutting operation of an oxy-acetylene torch or an arc-welding process. The threaded ends of prestressing bars shall be provided with suitable protection, at all times. If tendons are to have a coating or wrapping, such coating or wrapping shall be inert with respect to both the steel and the concrete. After stressing and anchoring, all tendons and anchorages shall be protected from physical damage and corrosion. 17.3.4.3 Surface condition The surface condition of tendons shall be such as not to impair bond to the concrete or grout, or performance in the member. The presence of surface rust shall not be cause for rejection of ducts under this Clause unless the steel is visibly pitted. 17.3.4.4 Fixing
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All tendons shall be supported and maintained in position within the permissible tolerances given in Clause 17.5.3 until the concrete has hardened. 17.3.4.5 Tensioning Tensioning of tendons shall be carried out in a safe manner and in accordance with the following: (a) (b) The stressing procedure shall ensure the force in a tendon increases at a uniform time rate and that the force is transferred gradually to the concrete. The prestressing force applied to the tendon shall be measured at the jack by measuring the jack pressure. The prestressing force shall be measured to an accuracy of ±3%. The tendon extension shall be measured. A check shall be made for each tendon, on the correlation between the measured extension and the calculated extension derived from the prestressing force, using the load-elongation curves for the tendons and assumed friction values for the cable. Any disparity between the two figures greater than 10% of the calculated extension shall be investigated.
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(e)

No stressing shall be carried out when the temperature of the surrounding air is lower than 0°C.

17.3.4.6 Maximum jacking forces The maximum force to be applied to a tendon during the stressing operation shall not exceed— (a) (b) (c) for pretensioned tendons ............................................................................. 0.80f pbA p; for stress-relieved post-tensioned tendons ............................................... 0.85f pbA p; or for post-tensioned tendons and bars not stress-relieved ................................ 0.75f pbA p.

17.3.4.7 Grouting Ducts containing post-tensioned tendons shall be completely filled with grout, complying with Clause 17.1.8, as soon as practicable after stressing. Grouting shall not be carried out when the temperature of the surrounding air is lower than 5°C. Precautions shall be taken to prevent corrosion for the tendons if the elapsed period prior to grouting is likely to exceed 4 weeks. 17.3.5 Construction requirements for unbonded tendons Unbonded tendons shall not be permitted except in slabs on the ground. Where so used, the requirements of Clauses 17.3.4.1 to 17.3.4.6 shall apply, and the tendons shall be adequately protected against corrosion. 17.4 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR JOINTS AND EMBEDDED ITEMS 17.4.1 Location of construction joints Construction joints shall be located in accordance with the following: (a) (b) Construction joints designed in accordance with Clause 14.1.2 shall be located to facilitate the placement of concrete in accordance with Clause 17.1.3. Where an interruption to the placing of concrete occurs such that the requirements of Clause 17.1.3(c) or 17.1.3(d) or 17.1.3(e) cannot be fulfilled, a construction joint complying with Clause 14.1.2 shall be made at an appropriate location.

17.4.2 Embedded and other items not shown in the drawings Where an embedded item, driven fixing device or hole is required, it shall be located so that the behaviour of the members is not impaired (see Clause 14.2).
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17.5 TOLERANCES FOR STRUCTURES AND MEMBERS 17.5.1 General For the purposes of the strength requirements of this Standard, the position of any point on the surface of a concrete member shall comply with Clause 17.5.2. More stringent tolerances may be required for reasons of serviceability, fit of components, or aesthetics of the structure. For formed surfaces, the tolerances given in AS 3610 take precedence, unless those in Clause 17.5.2 are more stringent. For unformed plane surfaces, the flatness tolerances and the methods for measuring them shall be detailed in the project specification, and shall be not greater than the relevant values given in Clause 17.5.2. 17.5.2 Tolerances for position and size of structures and members 17.5.2.1 Absolute position The deviation from the specified position shall not exceed the following:
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(a)

In plan, for a point on the surface of a column or wall at any floor level— (i) (ii) in the first 20 storeys of any building ...........................40 mm horizontally; and for subsequent storeys, an increase of 15 mm horizontally for each additional 10 storeys or part thereof.

(b)

In elevation, for a point on the top surface of a floor or the soffit of a beam or slab adjacent to a column or wall ........................................................... 40 mm vertically.

17.5.2.2 Floor-to-floor plumb In any column or wall, the deviation from plumb, measured floor-to-floor, shall not exceed 1/200 times the dimension between the floors or 10 mm, whichever is the greater. 17.5.2.3 Deviation from specified dimensions The deviation from any specified height, plan, or cross-sectional dimension, shall not exceed 1/200 times the specified dimension or 5 mm, whichever is the greater. 17.5.2.4 Deviation from surface alignment The deviation of any point on a surface of a member, from a straight line joining any two points on the surface, shall not exceed 1/250 times the length of the line. 17.5.3 Tolerance on position of reinforcement and tendons The deviation from the specified position of reinforcement and tendons shall not exceed the following: (a) For positions controlled by cover— (i) (ii) in beams, slabs, columns and walls ............................................... −5, +10 mm; in slabs-on-ground................................................................ −10, +20 mm; and

(iii) in footings cast in the ground .......................................................−10, +40 mm, where a positive value indicates the amount the cover may increase and a negative value indicates the amount the cover may decrease. (b) For positions not controlled by cover, namely— (i) (ii)
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the location of tendons on a profile ......................................................... 5 mm; the position of the ends of reinforcement......................................... 50 mm; and

(iii) the spacing of bars in walls and slabs and of fitments in beams and columns .............. 10% of the specified spacing or 15 mm, whichever is greater. 17.6 FORMWORK 17.6.1 General The materials, design and construction of formwork shall comply with AS 3610. Stripping of forms and removal of formwork supports from members cast in situ shall comply with the requirements of Clause 17.6.2 where these are more stringent than the relevant requirements of AS 3610. 17.6.2 Stripping of forms and removal of formwork supports 17.6.2.1 General The stripping of forms and the removal of formwork supports shall comply with the following:

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(a)

Forms shall not be stripped or any formwork supports removed until the part of the member that will be left unsupported has attained sufficient strength to support, with safety and without detriment to its intended use, its own weight and any superimposed loads due to concurrent or subsequent construction works. Removal of formwork supports shall be carried out in a planned sequence so the concrete structure will not be subject to any unnecessary deformation, impact, or eccentric loading during the process. Removal of formwork from vertical surfaces shall be carried out in accordance with Clause 17.6.2.2. Stripping of forms, from the soffits of reinforced slabs and beams between formwork supports, shall be carried out in accordance with Clause 17.6.2.3 or Clause 17.6.2.4 as appropriate. Where backpropping is used, the procedure shall comply with the appropriate requirements of AS 3610. Removal of formwork supports from the soffits of reinforced slabs or beams shall be carried out in accordance with— (i) (ii) Clause 17.6.2.5 for members not supporting structures above; or Clause 17.6.2.6 for multistorey structures.

(b)

(c) (d)

(e)

(f) (g)

Stripping of forms and removal of formwork supports from prestressed beams and slabs shall be carried out in accordance with Clause 17.6.2.7. Where formwork is stripped before the end of the specified curing period for the concrete element, exposed surfaces shall be cured until at least the end of the specified curing period.

17.6.2.2 Removal of formwork from vertical surfaces Formwork shall not be removed from vertical surfaces unless the concrete in the member has achieved sufficient strength to withstand potential damage to its surfaces. When formwork is stripped at less than 18 hours after casting, extra care shall be exercised to avoid surface damage during stripping. 17.6.2.3 Stripping of soffit forms from reinforced beams and slabs where control samples are available Where control samples have been taken, cured and tested in accordance with Clause 17.6.2.8, soffit forms may be stripped from between the formwork supports of reinforced beams and slabs if— (a) (b) the elapsed time between casting of the concrete and the commencement of stripping is greater than 3 days; and the spans between the remaining formwork supports are such that the member will remain uncracked under the action effects of bending and shear due to the maximum concurrent or subsequent construction loads.

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In determining whether sufficient curing time has elapsed, the design resistance of the member shall be taken as φR u (see Clause 2.2), and the appropriate characteristic strength of the concrete is determined from the average strength of the control samples. 17.6.2.4 Stripping of soffit forms from reinforced slabs of normal-class concrete For reinforced slabs of normal-class concrete, for which an early-age strength has been specified and which are continuous over formwork supports, the period of time between casting of the concrete and the commencement of stripping of the forms between formwork supports shall be not less than that given in Table 17.6.2.4 for the appropriate average ambient temperature over the period. The periods given in the table shall be increased if—
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(a)

Ls / D > 280 /

(D + 100)

. . . 17.2.6.4

where L s is the span between the formwork supports; and D is the overall depth of the concrete member. (b) (c) the superimposed construction load is greater than 2.0 kPa; or the average ambient temperature over the period is less than 5°C, in which case the periods shall be increased by half a day for each day the daily average temperature was between 2°C and 5°C, or by a whole day for each day the daily average temperature was below 2°C. TABLE 17.6.2.4 STRIPPING OF FORMWORK FROM REINFORCED SLABS CONTINUOUS OVER FORMWORK SUPPORTS
Average ambient temperature over the period (T) °C 20 ≥ 12 ≥ T T T > 20 > 12 >5 Period of time before stripping normal-class concrete with specified early-age strength Days 4 6 8

17.6.2.5 Removal of formwork supports from reinforced members not supporting structures above For the purpose of determining the minimum period before any undisturbed supports or backprops can be removed from the soffits of reinforced members not supporting a structure above, it may be taken that the requirements of Clause 17.6.2.1(a) shall be deemed to be satisfied if either— (a) it can be demonstrated by calculations, based on known or specified early-age strengths that, at the time of removal, the concrete has gained sufficient strength so that the degree of cracking or deformation that will occur, then or subsequently, is not greater than that which would occur if the design serviceability load were applied to the member when the concrete has attained its required design strength; or in the absence of any early-age strength data, the period of time is not less than that given in Table 17.6.2.5 for the appropriate average ambient temperature over the period.

(b)
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The periods given in Table 17.6.2.5 shall be increased if— (i) (ii) the superimposed construction load is greater than 2.0 kPa; or the average ambient temperature is less than 5°C, in which case the periods shall be increased by half a day for each day the daily average temperature was between 2°C and 5°C, or by a whole day for each day the daily average temperature was below 2°C.

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TABLE 17.6.2.5 REMOVAL OF FORMWORK SUPPORTS FROM SLABS AND BEAMS NOT SUPPORTING STRUCTURES ABOVE
Average ambient temperature over the period (T) °C 20 ≥ 12 ≥ T T T > 20 > 12 >5 Period of time before removal of all formwork supports from reinforced members Days 12 18 24

17.6.2.6 Removal of formwork supports from reinforced members in multistorey structures In multistorey structures, the number of storeys (including the lowest storey) that are to remain supported by formwork at any one time and the maximum spacing of the formwork supports in any storey, shall be calculated on the basis of the relevant properties of the concrete in each floor at that time and the interaction between the formwork supports and the concrete structure. Where removal of formwork supports from a storey will result in the floors above being supported mainly by formwork and supported concrete construction, all supported and supporting floors and beams shall be checked by calculation for cracking and deflection under the resulting loads. Removal of formwork supports from that storey shall be permitted only if the magnitude of the cracks and deflections so calculated will not impair the strength or serviceability of the completed structure. No undisturbed supports or backprops shall be removed within 2 days of the placing of any slab directly or indirectly supported by such supports. 17.6.2.7 Stripping of forms and removal of supports from soffits of prestressed concrete slabs and beams Formwork shall not be stripped and formwork supports not removed from the soffits of prestressed concrete slabs or beams until the strength of the concrete in the member and the number of tendons stressed are such as to provide the necessary strength to carry the permanent action (dead load) and imposed actions due to construction loads, and meet the associated serviceability and other limit state requirements. 17.6.2.8 Control tests If specified, control test-samples of the concrete shall be taken where it is intended that removal of formwork or the stressing of tendons will occur before the concrete has attained the strength assumed in the design of the member. Control test-samples shall be taken at a minimum frequency of one sample for each 50 m 3 , or part thereof, of a concrete grade placed on any one day and the sample specimens stored and cured under conditions similar to those of the concrete in the work. At least two specimens from each grade shall be tested for strength at the desired time of stripping or stressing and the strength of the concrete at that age assessed on the basis of the average strength of the specimens.

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APPENDIX A

REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
(Normative) AS 1012 1012.1 1012.2 1012.3.1 1012.4 1012.9 1012.10 1012.11 1012.12 1012.13 1012.14 1012.16 1012.17 1170 1170.4 1199 1379 1478 1478.1 1530 1530.4 2758 2758.1 3610 3799 AS/NZS 1170 1170.0 1170.1 1554 1554.3 Methods of testing concrete Method 1: Sampling of fresh concrete Method 2: Preparation of concrete mixes in the laboratory Method 3.1: Determination of properties related to the consistency of concrete—Slump test Method 4: Determination of air content of freshly mixed concrete (all methods) Method 9: Determination of the compressive strength of concrete specimens Method 10: Determination of indirect tensile strength of concrete cylinders (‘Brasil’ or splitting test) Method 11: Determination of the modulus of rupture Method 12: Determination of mass per unit volume of hardened concrete (all methods) Method 13: Determination of the drying shrinkage of concrete for samples prepared in the field or in the laboratory Method 14: Method for securing and testing cores from hardened concrete for compressive strength Method 16: Determination of creep of concrete cylinders in compression Method 17: Determination of the static chord modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio of concrete specimens Structural design actions Part 4: Earthquake actions in Australia Sampling procedures and tables for inspection by attributes (all parts) Specification and supply of concrete Chemical admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout Part 1: Admixtures for concrete Methods for fire tests on building materials, components and structures Part 4: Fire-resistance test of elements of construction Aggregates and rock for engineering purposes Part 1: Concrete aggregates Formwork for concrete Liquid membrane-forming curing compounds for concrete Structural design actions Part 0: General principles Part 1: Permanent, imposed and other actions Structural steel welding Part 3: Welding of reinforcing steel

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AS/NZS 1768 4671 4672 4672.1 4672.2 BCA ASTM C42 Lightning protection Steel reinforcing materials Steel prestressing materials Part 1: General requirements Part 2: Testing requirements Building Code of Australia Test methods for obtaining and testing drilled cores and sawed beams of concrete

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APPENDIX B

TESTING OF MEMBERS AND STRUCTURES
(Normative) B1 GENERAL This Appendix applies to the testing of a structure or prototype to check that the strength and serviceability requirements of this Standard are met. Methods for testing hardened concrete in place are also detailed. Testing shall be undertaken by persons competent in, and with appropriate expertise for, performing such tests. B2 TESTING OF MEMBERS B2.1 Purpose of testing Structures designed by calculation in accordance with other parts of this Standard are not required to be tested. Tests can be accepted as an alternative to calculation (prototype testing), or may become necessary in special circumstances (proof testing), in order to satisfy the requirements of Clause 2.2 with respect to strength and Clause 2.3 with respect to serviceability. Where testing is necessary, elements of structures or whole structures shall be either— (a) (b) proof-tested in accordance with Paragraph B3, characteristics of an existing member or structure; or to ascertain the structural

prototype-tested in accordance with Paragraph B4, to ascertain the structural characteristics of a particular class of member, which are nominally identical to the elements tested.

B2.2 Test set-up All measuring equipment shall be chosen and calibrated to suit the range of measurements anticipated, in order to obtain measurements of the required precision. Care shall be exercised to ensure that no artificial restraints are applied to the test specimen. All necessary precautions shall be taken such that in the event of collapse of any part of a structure being tested, the risk to life is minimized and the collapse will not endanger the safety of the structure being tested (for tests on members) and/or adjacent structures. B2.3 Test load
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The test load shall simulate 100% of the design loads for the limit states for strength and serviceability, as appropriate. The test load shall be applied gradually at a rate as uniform as practicable and without impact. The distribution and duration of forces applied in the test shall be representative of those forces to which the structure is deemed to be subject under the requirements of this Standard. B2.4 Test deflections The deflections of each test specimen shall be measured with respect to an appropriate datum. Deflections shall, as a minimum requirement, be recorded at the following times: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Immediately prior to the application of the test load. Incrementally during the application of the test load. Immediately the full test load has been applied. Immediately prior to removing the test load. Immediately after the removal of the test load.

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B3 PROOF TESTING B3.1 Test procedures A proof test shall be conducted as follows: (a) (b) (c) (d) Before applying any load, record the original position of the members involved. Apply the test load as determined from Paragraph B2.3, for the relevant limit state. Maintain the test load for the necessary period as stated in Paragraph B3.2. Remove the test load.

B3.2 Criteria for acceptance Criteria for acceptance shall be as follows: (a) Acceptance for strength The test structure or member shall be deemed to comply with the requirements for strength if it is able to sustain the strength limit state test load for at least 24 h without incurring any significant damage such as spalling or excessive cracking. Acceptance for deflection The test structure or member shall be deemed to comply with the requirements for serviceability if it is able to sustain the serviceability test load for a minimum of 24 h without exceeding the appropriate serviceability limits.

(b)

Appropriate deflection limits for beams and slabs shall be determined using Clause 2.3.2 and the deflections calculated taking into account long-term and short-term effects, allowing for the age and loading history of the structure. B3.3 Damage incurred during test The test specimen shall be regularly inspected, to determine the nature and extent of any damage incurred during the test. The effects of the damage shall be considered and the test disbanded if collapse seems likely. At the completion of the test, appropriate repairs to damaged parts shall be carried out. B3.4 Test reports A report shall be prepared, which shall contain, in addition to the test load-deflection history and serviceability criteria records, a clear description of the test set-up, including the methods of supporting and loading the members, the method of measuring deflections, crack-widths, and so on, and any other relevant data. The report shall also contain a statement as to whether or not the structure, substructure or members tested satisfied the relevant acceptance criteria in Paragraph B3.2, as appropriate. B4 PROTOTYPE TESTING B4.1 Construction of prototypes Prototypes shall be constructed from materials that comply with this Standard, and manufactured in accordance with the specification for the member. B4.2 Number of prototypes The number of prototypes to be tested shall be selected so that statistically reliable estimates of the behaviour of the member, at relevant limit state values, can be determined from the results of the testing. No fewer than two prototypes shall be tested. More than one loading combination and more than one limit state condition may be applied to a prototype.

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B4.3 Test load The test load for strength shall be applied gradually until the total load on the prototype is equal to the design load for the strength limit state as determined from Section 2, multiplied by the relevant factor given in Table B4.3. This factor shall be selected with respect to the expected coefficient of variation in the parameters that affect the strength and the sample size selected for the testing program, unless a reliability analysis shows that a different value is appropriate. The total load for each prototype used to assess serviceability shall be the design load for the serviceability limit state as determined from Section 2 multiplied by a factor of 1.2. TABLE B4.3 FACTOR TO ALLOW FOR VARIABILITY IN PRODUCTION OF UNITS
Number of similar units to be tested 2 3 5 10 Expected coefficient variation 10% 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.1 20% 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.3 30% 2.3 2.1 1.8 1.5

NOTE: Intermediate values may be obtained by linear interpolation. The above values are based on a target safety index of 3.0 for a confidence level of 90%.

B4.4 Test procedure The method of applying the test load to the prototype shall reflect the most adverse conditions expected to occur during construction and the in-service condition. A prototype test shall be conducted as follows: (a) (b) (c) (d)
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Before applying any load, record the original position of the members in the test specimen. Apply the test load for the relevant limit state, as determined from Paragraph B4.3. Maintain the test load for the necessary period, as stated in Paragraph B4.5. Remove the test load. Inspect and record the prototype for damage, spalling, cracking and any other relevant observations.

(e)

B4.5 Criteria for acceptance The units represented by the prototypes shall be deemed to comply with this Standard for serviceability and strength where Item (a) is satisfied and Item (b) or Item (c) is satisfied, as follows: (a) Variability Production units shall be similar in all respects to the prototypes tested, and variability of units shall not be greater than the expected variability selected in Table B4.3. Acceptance for strength The test prototype shall be deemed to comply with the requirements for strength if it is able to sustain the strength limit state test load for at least 5 min without incurring any significant damage, such as spalling or excessive cracking.

(b)

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(c)

Acceptance for serviceability The test prototype shall be deemed to comply with the requirement for serviceability if it is able to sustain the serviceability test load for a minimum period of 1 h without exceeding the serviceability limits appropriate to the member. Deflection limits shall be determined using Clause 2.3.2, taking into account only short-term effects.

Qualitative indicators for the parameters affecting strength shall be determined for the expected variability during production. These indicators shall be routinely monitored and measured in manufactured units and used to ensure the actual coefficient at variation in production does not exceed the expected coefficient of variation. Alternatively, manufactured units shall be routinely tested to failure, to determine the coefficient of variation. B4.6 Test reports A report shall be prepared in accordance with Paragraph B3.4, except that instead of the requirement in the final sentence of Paragraph B3.4, the report shall contain a statement as to whether or not the prototypes tested satisfied the relevant acceptance criteria in Paragraph B4.5 as appropriate. B5 QUALITY CONTROL B5.1 General This Paragraph applies to the assessment of a group of units that are part of a production run of similar units. Paragraphs B5.2, B5.3 and B5.4 identify three methods to routinely assess production. One of these methods shall be nominated by the manufacturer as the means of demonstrating that the manufactured group is similar to the tested prototypes. The routine examination nominated shall include the determination of the variability in a production run by relating key indicators in the sample to the previously performed prototype testing and the application of a test load to each sample, as appropriate. B5.2 Statistical sampling A sampling plan, in accordance with AS 1199, shall be established for the routine inspection and testing of a produced batch. Sampling shall be undertaken in accordance with this plan and the selected specimens shall be routinely tested to ensure compliance with this Appendix is maintained. For concrete specified by strength, the methods of production and assessment, taken together, shall provide a reliable operating characteristic curve so that— (a)
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concrete with a proportion defective of 0.05 has a probability of acceptance of not less than 50%; and concrete with proportion defective of 0.30 has a probability of rejection of not less than 98%.

(b)

B5.3 Product certification Independent assurance of the claim by a manufacturer or contractor of batch consistency shall be permitted, to ascertain whether a production run or application routinely complies with the requirements of this Appendix.
NOTE: The certification should meet the criteria described in HB 18.28 in order that effective quality planning to control production is achieved.

B5.4 Quality system Confidence in routine assessment of production shall be achieved where the manufacturer or contractor can demonstrate that an audited and registered quality management system complying with the requirements of the appropriate or stipulated Australian or international Standard for a quality system is in place.

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Such a system shall include a quality or inspection plan and test plan, to ensure product conformity. B6 TESTING OF HARDENED CONCRETE IN PLACE B6.1 Application This Paragraph applies to the assessment of the strength and other properties of hardened concrete in place by non-destructive testing, by testing of samples cut from representative test panels, or samples cut from members. B6.2 Preparation of samples The samples to be tested shall be representative of the concrete under investigation. Prior to testing, surfaces shall be cleaned to remove oil, laitance, curing compounds and surface treatments. Where required, test panels shall be made of concrete that is identical in composition and which is placed, compacted and cured in a manner similar to concrete used in the member. Dimensions of test panels shall be such that at least three representative samples can be cut from each panel. Test samples of standard dimensions shall be obtained from the test panels by coring or sawing. B6.3 Non-destructive testing Non-destructive testing (including impact or rebound hammer, ultrasonic pulse velocity, pullout and abrasion testing, or a combination of techniques) may be used to compare the properties of concrete under investigation with that of a representative sample of known quality. In particular, comparable concrete should be of similar maturity, curing history and mix composition. Alternatively, where specified, values obtained by non-destructive tests may be used directly to assess some properties of concrete. The method of testing and assessment shall be specified and carried out in accordance with internationally recognized procedures.
NOTE: Combined non-destructive techniques have been found to substantially improve the order of accuracy of the estimated values compared with those obtained from testing by a single method.

B6.4 Tests on samples taken from the structure B6.4.1 Test requirements Taking and testing of cores and beams from members and sample panels shall comply with the following:
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(a) (b) (c)

Core and beam locations shall be selected so as to minimize any consequent reduction of strength of the structure. The cores and beams shall be representative of the whole of the concrete concerned and in no case shall less than three samples be tested. Cores and beams shall be examined visually before and after testing, to assess the proportion and nature of any voids, cracks and inclusions present. These factors shall be considered in the interpretation of the test results. Cores shall be taken and tested for compressive strength in accordance with AS 1012.14 and beams shall be taken in accordance with ASTM C42. The beams shall be tested for flexural strength in accordance with AS 1012.11, and shall be tested dry unless the concrete concerned will be more than superficially wet in service. The density of cores and beams shall be determined in accordance with AS 1012.12, in the same condition as applicable to testing for compressive strength using AS 1012.1 or AS 1012.2 by sealing or wrapping samples where appropriate.

(d)

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B6.4.2 Interpretation of results The strength of the concrete in the member may be estimated— (a) (b) as 1.15 times the average strength of the cores and beams; or by using test data from cores or beams taken from another member for which the strength of the concrete is known.

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APPENDIX C

REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURES SUBJECT TO EARTHQUAKE ACTIONS
(Normative) C1 GENERAL This Appendix applies to concrete structures and structural members that contain reinforcement, or tendons, or both, and which form the whole or part of structures or buildings to which AS 1170.4 applies. Plain concrete members and structures shall not be used to resist earthquake actions, except plain concrete pedestals, footings and pavements are deemed to satisfy the requirements of Clause 2.1.2 and this Appendix. Concrete structures and members shall be designed and detailed depending on the value adopted for the structural ductility factor (μ) as follows: (a) (b) For μ ≤ 2 designed and detailed in accordance with the main body of this Standard. For 2 < μ ≤ 3 designed and detailed in accordance with the main body of this Standard and this Appendix, as appropriate.

NOTE: For µ > 3 the structure should be designed and detailed in accordance with NZS 1170.5 and NZS 3101.

C2 DEFINITIONS For the purpose of this Appendix, the definitions given in AS 1170.4 and those below apply. Where the definitions in this Standard differ from those given in AS 1170.4, for the purpose of this Standard, those below apply.
NOTE: A number of definitions given in AS 1170.4 are repeated here to avoid users having to refer back to AS 1170.4. Those marked with an asterisk have been modified from those in AS 1170.4 to suit their application in this Appendix.

C2.1 Connection Mechanical means that provide a load path for actions between structural elements, nonstructural elements and structural and non-structural elements.
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C2.2 Ductility (of a structure) Ability of a structure to sustain its load-carrying capacity and dissipate energy when responding to cyclic displacements in the inelastic range during an earthquake. C2.3 Earthquake actions Inertia-induced actions arising from the response to earthquake of the structure. C2.4 Moment-resisting frame Essentially complete space frame that supports the vertical and horizontal actions by both flexural and axial resistance of its members and connections. C2.5 Moment-resisting frame, intermediate* Concrete moment-resisting frame designed and detailed in accordance with this Standard to achieve moderate structural ductility (see Table C3) and which complies with the specific earthquake detailing requirements of this Appendix.

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C2.6 Moment-resisting frame, ordinary* Moment-resisting frame, with no particular earthquake detailing, specified in this Standard (see Table C3). C2.7 Shear wall Wall (either loadbearing or non-loadbearing) designed to resist horizontal earthquake forces acting in the plane of the wall. C2.8 Space frame A three-dimensional structural system composed of interconnected members, other than loadbearing walls, which is capable of supporting vertical loads and may also provide horizontal resistance to earthquake forces. C2.9 Structural performance factor (S p) Numerical assessment of the additional ability of the total building (structure and other parts) to survive earthquake motion. C2.10 Structural ductility factor (µ) Numerical assessment of the ability of a structure to sustain cyclic displacements in the inelastic range. Its value depends upon the structural form, the ductility of the materials and structural damping characteristics. C3 STRUCTURAL DUCTILITY PERFORMANCE FACTOR (S p) FACTOR (µ) AND STRUCTURAL

The structural ductility factor (μ) and the structural performance factor (S p) for concrete structures and members constructed in accordance with this Standard shall be as given in Table C3. TABLE C3 STRUCTURAL DUCTILITY FACTOR (µ) AND STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE FACTOR (S p)
Structural system description Intermediate moment-resisting frames (moderately ductile) designed in accordance with this Standard and Paragraph C4 of this Appendix
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µ 3

Sp 0.67

Combined systems of intermediate moment-resisting frames and ductile shear-walls designed in accordance with this Standard and Paragraphs C4 and C5 of this Appendix Ordinary moment-resisting frames designed in accordance with the main body of this Standard Limited ductile shear-walls designed in accordance with the main body of this Standard Other concrete structures not listed above

3

0.67

2 2 1.5

0.77 0.77 0.77

NOTE: The design of structures with µ >3 is outside the scope of this Standard (see Clause 2.1.2 and Paragraph C1 and the Commentary to AS 1170.4).

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C4 INTERMEDIATE MOMENT-RESISTING FRAMES (IMRFs) C4.1 General Reinforced IMRFs and prestressed IMRFs shall be regarded as ductile if, in addition to the detailing requirements of this Standard, they satisfy the detailing requirements of Paragraphs C4.2 to C4.5 and Paragraph C4.6 respectively, and provided only Ductility Class N steel or prestressing tendons are used as flexural reinforcement. Rigid elements may be incorporated into a moment-resisting frame, provided it is shown that the action or failure of these elements will not impair the capacity of the frame to resist horizontal or vertical forces. C4.2 Beams C4.2.1 Longitudinal reinforcement Beams shall be provided with longitudinal reinforcement as follows: (a) (b) The top and bottom face of the beam shall be continuously reinforced. The area of reinforcement provided in a span shall be such that— (i) (ii) the positive-moment strength at a support face is not less than one third of the negative-moment strength provided at that face of the support; and neither the negative nor the positive-moment strength at any section along the member length is less than one fifth of the maximum moment strength provided at the face of either support.

(c)

Longitudinal reinforcement shall be continuous through intermediate supports. When framing into external columns, the longitudinal reinforcement shall be extended to the far face of the confined region and anchored to develop the yield strength of the reinforcement at the span face of the support. Lapped splices in longitudinal reinforcement, located in a region of tension or reversing stress, shall be confined by at least two closed ties at each splice.

(d)

C4.2.2 Shear reinforcement Beams shall be provided with shear reinforcement complying with the following requirements: (a)
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Shear reinforcement shall be perpendicular to the longitudinal reinforcement; be provided throughout the length of the member; have at least two legs and have a maximum spacing of 0.5D. The area of shear reinforcement (A sv) shall be not less than 0.5b v s/fsy.f . Over a distance of at least 2D from the face of a support, shear reinforcement shall be closed ties, with the first tie located 50 mm from the support face. These closed ties shall be spaced at centres not greater than 0.25 d o , 8 db , 24 d f or 300 mm, whichever is least— where d b = diameter of the smallest longitudinal bar enclosed by the tie; and d f = diameter of the bar forming the tie

(b) (c)

C4.3 Slabs C4.3.1 General Slabs shall comply with Paragraph C4.2.1, Items (a), (b) and (c). Two-way flat slabs forming part of a moment-resisting frame shall also comply with Paragraph C4.3.2.
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C4.3.2 Reinforcement detailing in flat slabs Reinforcement in flat slabs shall be located and anchored in accordance with the following: (a) All reinforcement, which is provided to resist the portion of the slab moment transferred to the support, shall be placed within the column-strip defined in Clause 6.1.4.1. A proportion of the reinforcement required by Item (a) above shall be evenly distributed in a width of slab between planes that are 1.5 times the thickness of the slab or drop panel beyond faces of the column or capital. The proportion to be distributed is given by—

(b)

1 / 1 + (2 / 3)

{

[ (b

1

+ d o ) / (b t + d o )

]}

. . . C4.3.2

or 0.5, whichever is greater, where b l = size of rectangular, or equivalent rectangular, column, capital, or bracket, measured in the direction of the span for which moments are being determined b t = size of rectangular, or equivalent rectangular, column, capital, or bracket, measured transverse to the direction of the span for which moments are being determined (c) (d) (e) Not less than one-quarter of the top reinforcement at the support in the column strip shall be continuous throughout the span. Continuous bottom reinforcement in the column strip shall be not less than one third of the area of the top reinforcement in the column strip at the support. Not less than one-half of all bottom reinforcement at midspan shall be continuous through the support for the distance required to develop its yield strength at the face of the support. At discontinuous edges of the slab, all top and bottom reinforcement at a support shall be capable of developing its yield strength at the face of the support.

(f)

C4.4 Columns At each end of the clear height of a column within a storey, the longitudinal reinforcement shall be restrained by closed ties for a distance from the end equal to the greater of the maximum dimension of the column cross-section, or one sixth of the least clear height between consecutive flexural members framing into it. The spacing of the closed ties shall be not greater than required by Clauses 10.7.3 and 10.7.4, with the first tie located at half this spacing from the face of the relevant support. The cross-sectional area of the ties shall be sufficient to satisfy the shear requirements for the column but not less than required by Clauses 10.7.3 and 10.7.4. C4.5 Column joints Joints between columns and flexural members framing into them shall be confined by closed ties throughout the depth of the joint. The spacing of the closed ties shall be not greater than required by Clauses 10.7.3 and 10.7.4 and the cross-sectional area of the ties not less than required by Clauses 10.7.3 and 10.7.4, except that the cross-sectional area may be reduced to half this value for the depth of the shallowest of those members framing into the column from at least two directions at right angles.

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C4.6 Prestressed IMRFs C4.6.1 General Beams containing tendons shall satisfy the detailing requirements of Clauses 10.7.3 and 10.7.4 when designed for the prestressing force in accordance with Paragraph C4.6.4. Tendons shall be fully bonded and shall be detailed so that anchorages or transmission lengths are not placed— (a) (b) within beam-column joint cores; or to lie along critical shear planes.

C4.6.2 Connections Connections between members shall— (a) (b) (c) have a strength greater than that of the members being joined; have adequate ductility to withstand the calculated deformations; and be designed to fail in a ductile manner under reversals of loading.

C4.6.3 Supports Supports shall be designed so that horizontal or vertical displacements, or both, will not cause the failure or collapse of any part of the structure. C4.6.4 Prestressed beams Prestressed beams shall satisfy the following: (a) (b) (c) The quantity of tensile steel (tensioned plus untensioned) shall be such that the flexural strength of any beam section is greater than 1.1(M uo) min at that section. Longitudinal reinforcement shall comply with Paragraph C4.2.1. Unless tensile steel is provided at various depths throughout the section and the depth of the neutral axis at the design moment is less than 0.22 times the overall depth of the section, the quantity of tensile steel (tensioned and non-tensioned) shall be such that—

(A

pt

f py + A st f sy / bd f c′ ≤ 0 . 2

)

. . . C4.6.4

(d)
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Shear reinforcement consisting of closed ties shall be provided to carry the total design shear force for a distance of 2D from the face of the support. The closed ties shall be of not less than 6 mm bar diameter, with a maximum spacing of 100 mm or d o/4, whichever is the lesser.

C4.6.5 Prestressed columns The flexural strength of any prestressed column section shall be greater than 1.1(M uo) min at that section, after allowance for the effect of axial loads. The columns shall also comply with Paragraph C4.4 and Paragraph C4.6.4(d). C4.6.6 Beam-column joints Beam-column joints shall satisfy the following: (a) (b) At least one prestressing tendon in the beam shall be located in the mid-depth of the beam at the joint. All joints between columns and prestressed beams shall be confined by transverse column reinforcement throughout the joint. Such reinforcement shall be as required by Paragraph C4.4.

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(c)

The interfaces at connections between precast members at beam column joints shall be roughened to ensure good shear transfer and the retention of any jointing material after cracking.

C5 DUCTILE SHEAR WALLS C5.1 General Shear walls shall be provided with boundary elements in accordance with Paragraph C5.3. For structures of not more than four storeys above their structural base and where boundary elements are required, an integrally cast column, or additional edge reinforcement consisting of two N16 or four N12 bars, shall be deemed to satisfy this requirement. C5.2 Reinforcement The reinforcement ratio (p w) in the vertical and horizontal direction shall be not less than 0.0025. The reinforcement shall be divided equally between the two wall faces if— (a) (b) the wall thickness is greater than 200 mm; or the design horizontal shear force on the cross-section is greater than Ag f c′ / 6 .

(

)

Wall reinforcement terminating in footings, columns, slabs, or beams shall be anchored to develop the yield stress in the reinforcement at the junction of the wall with the terminating member. C5.3 Boundary elements In any storey, boundary elements shall be provided at discontinuous edges of shear walls and around openings through them if— (a) (b) the vertical reinforcement within the storey height is not laterally restrained in accordance with Clause 10.7.4; and the calculated extreme fibre compressive stress in the wall exceeds 0.15 f c′ .

The stress referred to in Item (b) shall be calculated using the design action effects for the strength limit state, a linear-elastic strength model and the gross cross-section properties of the wall. Where boundary elements are required, the horizontal cross-section of the wall shall be treated as an I-beam in which the boundary elements are the flanges and the section of wall between them is the web. Restraint of the longitudinal reinforcement in boundary elements shall comply with Clause 10.7.4 of this Standard or, if the extreme fibre compressive stress calculated as above exceeds 0.2 f c′ , with Paragraph C4.4 of this Appendix.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
AS 3600 3735 4058 4997 AS/NZS 3000 3500 4065 SA HB 18 HB 18.28 HB 64 HB 67 HB 79 BCA CCAA T56 NZS 1170 1170.5 3101 EN1992-1-2 Eurocode 2
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Supp 1 Concrete structures—Commentary (Supplement to AS 3600) Concrete structures retaining liquids Precast concrete pipes (pressure and non-pressure) Guidelines to the design of maritime structures

Electrical installation (known as the Australia/New Zealand Wiring Rules) Plumbing and drainage (all parts) Concrete utility services poles Conformity assessment Guide 28: Guidance on a third-party certification system for products Guide to concrete construction Concrete practice on building sites Alkali Aggregate reaction—Guidelines on Minimising the Risk of Damage to Concrete Structures in Australia Building Code of Australia Guide to residential slabs and footings in saline environments Structural design actions Part 5: Earthquake actions Concrete structures standard—The design of concrete structures Design of concrete structures Part 1-2: General rules—Structural fire design

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AS 3600—2009 206

NOTES

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207

NOTES

AS 3600—2009

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AS 3600—2009 208

NOTES

Standards Australia
Standards Australia develops Australian Standards® and other documents of public benefit and national interest. These Standards are developed through an open process of consultation and consensus, in which all interested parties are invited to participate. Through a Memorandum of Understanding with the Commonwealth Government, Standards Australia is recognized as Australia’s peak non-government national standards body. Standards Australia also supports excellence in design and innovation through the Australian Design Awards. For further information visit www.standards.org.au

Australian Standards®
Committees of experts from industry, governments, consumers and other relevant sectors prepare Australian Standards. The requirements or recommendations contained in published Standards are a consensus of the views of representative interests and also take account of comments received from other sources. They reflect the latest scientific and industry experience. Australian Standards are kept under continuous review after publication and are updated regularly to take account of changing technology.

International Involvement
Standards Australia is responsible for ensuring the Australian viewpoint is considered in the formulation of International Standards and that the latest international experience is incorporated in national Standards. This role is vital in assisting local industry to compete in international markets. Standards Australia represents Australia at both the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

Sales and Distribution
Australian Standards®, Handbooks and other documents developed by Standards Australia are printed and distributed under license by SAI Global Limited.

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For information regarding the development of Standards contact: Standards Australia Limited GPO Box 476 Sydney NSW 2001 Phone: 02 9237 6000 Fax: 02 9237 6010 Email: mail@standards.org.au Internet: www.standards.org.au
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