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Conditional and Phrases

In: English and Literature

Submitted By pichjune
Words 2758
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I. Introduction: As we know there are four basics English conditionals that we use to express possible or imaginary situations: Zero, First, Second, and Third.

Conditional sentences contain two clauses: the “if” (condition) clause, and the “result “clause. All conditionals have two easy, possible structures and either structure can be used without changing the meaning. We can put the “if” clause first, or the “result” first. Note that we only use a comma when the “if” clause come first.

II. Hero Conditional:

Form:

In hero conditional sentences, the tense in both parts of the sentences is the simple present.

|If clause (condition) |Main clause (result) |
|If + simple present |Simple present |
|If this thing happens |That thing happens |

As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical. In zero conditional sentences, you can replace "if" with "when", because both express general truths. The meaning will be unchanged. For examples:

1. If you heat ice, it melts. 2. Ice melts if you heat it. 3. When you heat ice, it melts. 4. Ice melts when you heat it. 5. Ice melts when you heat it.
Function:
The zero conditional is used to make statements about the real world, and often refers to general truths, such as scientific facts. In these sentences, the time is now or always and the situation is real and possible. For examples: 1. If you freeze water, it becomes a solid. 2. Plants die if they don't get enough water. 3. If my husband has a cold, I usually catch it. 4. If public transport is efficient, people stop using their cars. 5. If you mix red and blue, you get purple.
The zero conditional is also often used to give instructions, using the imperative in the main clause. For examples:

1. If Bill phones, tell him to meet me at the cinema. 2. Ask Pete if you're not sure what to do. 3. If you want to come, call me before 5:00. 4. Meet me here if we get separated.
III. First Conditional:
Form:

In a Type 1 conditional sentence, the tense in the 'if' clause is the simple present, and the tense in the main clause is the simple future.

|If clause (condition) |Main clause (result) |
|If + simple present |simple future |
|If this thing happens |that thing will happen. |

As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical. For examples:

1. If it rains, you will get wet. 2. You will get wet if it rains. 3. If Sally is late again I will be mad. 4. I will be mad if Sally is late again. 5. If you don't hurry, you will miss the bus. 6. You will miss the bus if you don't hurry.
Function:

The type 1 conditional refers to a possible condition and its probable result. These sentences are based on facts, and they are used to make statements about the real world, and about particular situations. We often use such sentences to give warnings. In type 1 conditional sentences, the time is the present or future and the situation is real. For examples:

1. If I have time, I'll finish that letter. 2. What will you do if you miss the plane? 3. Nobody will notice if you make a mistake. 4. If you drop that glass, it will break. 5. If you don't drop the gun, I'll shoot! 6. If you don't leave, I'll call the police. In type 1 conditional sentences, you can also use modals in the main clause instead of the future tense to express the degree of certainty, permission, or a recommendation about the outcome. For examples:

1. If you drop that glass, it might break. 2. I may finish that letter if I have time. 3. If he calls you, you should go. 4. If you buy my school supplies for me, I will be able to go to the park.

III. Second Conditional:

Form:

In a Type 2 conditional sentence, the tense in the 'if' clause is the simple past, and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional or the present continuous conditional

|If clause (condition) |Main clause (result) |
|If + simple past |present conditional or present continuous conditional |
|If this thing happened |that thing would happen. |

As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical. For examples:

1. If it rained, you would get wet. 2. You would get wet if it rained. 3. If you went to bed earlier you wouldn't be so tired. 4. You wouldn't be so tired if you went to bed earlier. 5. If she fell, she would hurt herself. 6. She would hurt herself if she fell.
Function:

The type 2 conditional refers to an unlikely or hypothetical condition and its probable result. These sentences are not based on the actual situation. In type 2 conditional sentences, the time is now or any time and the situation is hypothetical. For examples:

1. If the weather wasn't so bad, we would go to the park. (But the weather is bad so we can't go.) 2. If I was the Queen of England, I would give everyone a chicken. (But I am not the Queen.) 3. If you really loved me, you would buy me a diamond ring. 4. If I knew where she lived, I would go and see her.
It is correct, and very common, to say "if I were" instead of "if I was" (subjunctive mood).

For examples:

1. If I were taller, I would buy this dress. 2. If I were 20, I would travel the world. 3. If I were you, I would give up smoking. 4. If I were a plant, I would love the rain.
In type 2 conditional sentences, you can also use modals in the main clause instead of "would" to express the degree of certainty, permission, or a recommendation about the outcome. For examples:

1. We might buy a larger house if we had more money 2. He could go to the concert if you gave him your ticket. 3. If he called me, I couldn't hear.
III. Third Conditional:

Form:

In a Type 3 conditional sentence, the tense in the 'if' clause is the past perfect, and the tense in the main clause is the perfect conditional or the perfect continuous conditional.

|If clause (condition) |Main clause (result) |
|If + past perfect |perfect conditional or perfect continuous conditional |
|If this thing had happened |that thing would have happened. |

As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical. For examples:

1. If it had rained, you would have gotten wet. 2. You would have gotten wet if it had rained. 3. You would have passed your exam if you had worked harder. 4. If you had worked harder, you would have passed your exam. 5. I would have believed you if you hadn't lied to me before. 6. If you hadn't lied to me before, I would have believed you.
Function:

The type 3 conditional refers to an impossible condition in the past and its probable result in the past. These sentences are truly hypothetical and unreal, because it is now too late for the condition or its result to exist. There is always some implication of regret with type 3 conditional sentences. The reality is the opposite of, or contrary to, what the sentence expresses. In type 3 conditional sentences, the time is the past and the situation is hypothetical. For examples:

1. If I had worked harder I would have passed the exam. (But I didn't work hard, and I didn't pass the exam.) 2. If I had known you were coming I would have baked a cake. (But I didn't know and I didn't bake a cake.) 3. I would have been happy if you had called me on my birthday. (But you didn't call me and I am not happy.)
In type 3 conditional sentences, you can also use modals in the main clause instead of "would" to express the degree of certainty, permission, or a recommendation about the outcome. For examples:

1. If I had worked harder I might have passed the exam. 2. You could have been on time if you had caught the bus. 3. If he called you, you could go. 4. If you bought my school supplies for me, I might be able to go to the park.

CONTRACTIONS

Both would and had can be contracted to 'd, which can be confusing if you are not confident with type 3 conditional sentences. Remember 2 rules:
1. would never appears in the if-clause so if 'd appears in the if clause, it must be abbreviating had.
2. had never appears before have so if 'd appears on a pronoun just before have, it must be abbreviating would. For examples:

1. If I'd known you were in hospital, I'd have visited you. 2. If I had known you were in hospital, I would have visited you. 3. I'd have bought you a present if I'd known it was your birthday. 4. I would have bought you a present if I had known it was your birthday. 5. If you'd given me your e-mail, I'd have written to you. 6. If you had given me your e-mail, I would have written to you.
IV. Types of Phrases:

A phrase is a group of related words (within a sentence) without both subject and verb. For example, He is laughing at the joker.
A phrase functions as a noun, verb, adverb, adjective or preposition in a sentence. The function of a phrase depends on its construction (words it contains). On the basis of their functions and constructions, phrases are divided into various types i.e. noun phrase, verb phrase, adverb phrase, adjective phrase, appositive phrase, infinite phrase, participle phrase and gerund phrase.
A. Noun Phrase:

A noun phrase consists of a noun and other related word (usually modifiers and determiners) which modify the noun. It functions like a noun in a sentence.
A noun phrase consists of a noun as the head word and other words (usually modifiers and determiners) which come after or before the noun. The whole phrase works as a noun in a sentence. Noun Phrase = noun + modifiers (the modifiers can be after or before noun).

Examples:

He is wearing a nice red t-shirt (as noun and object)

She brought a glass full of water (as noun and object)

The boy with brown hair is laughing (as noun and object)

A man on the roof was shouting (as noun and object)

B. Prepositional Phrase:

A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition, object of preposition (noun or pronoun) may also consists of others modifiers. Example: On a table, near a wall, in the room, at the door, under a tree.

A prepositional phrase starts with a preposition and mostly ends with a noun or pronoun. Whatever prepositional phrase ends with is called object of preposition. A prepositional phrase functions as an adjective or adverb in a sentence.

Examples:

A boy on the roof is singing a song (as adjective)

The man in the room is our teacher (as adjective)

She is shouting in a loud voice. (as adjective)

He always behaves in a good manner (as adjective)

C. Adjective Phrase:

An adjective phrase is a group of words that functions like an adjective in a sentence. It consists of adjectives, modifier and any word that modifies a noun or pronoun.
An adjective phrase functions like an adjective to modify (or tell about) a noun or pronoun in a sentence. Examples:

He is wearing a nice red t-shirt. (Modifier shirt)

She brought a glass full of water. (Modifier glass)

A boy from American won a race.(Modifier boy)

The girl with brown hair is singing a song.(Modifier girl)

Prepositional phrases and participle phrases also function as adjectives so we can also call them adjective phrases when they function as adjective. In the above sentence “The girl with brown hair is singing a song”, the phrase “with brown hair” is a prepositional phrase but it functions as an adjective.

D. Adverb Phrase:

An adverb phrase is a group of words that functions as an adverb in a sentence. It consists of adverbs or other words (preposition, noun, verb, modifiers) that make a group with works like an adverb in a sentence. An adverb phrase is a group of words that functions as an adverb in a sentence. It consists of adverbs or other words (preposition, noun, verb, modifiers) that make a group with works like. Examples:

He always behaves in a good manner. (modifier verb behave)

They were shouting in a loud voice. (modifier verb shout)

She always drives with care. (modifier verb drive)

He sat in a corner of the room (modifier verb sit)

He returned in a short while. (modifier verb return)

A prepositional phrase can also act as an adverb phrase. For example in above sentence “He always behaves in a good manner”, the phrase “in a good manner” is a prepositional phrase but it acts as adverb phrase here.

E. Verb Phrase:

A verb phrase is a combination of main verb and its auxiliaries (helping verbs) in a sentence.
Examples:
He is eating an apple.
She has finished her work.
You should study for the exam.
She has been sleeping for two hours.
According to generative grammar, a verb phrase can consist of main verb, its auxiliaries, its complements and other modifiers. Hence it can refer to the whole predicate of a sentence.
Example: You should study for the exam.
F. Infinitive Phrase: An infinitive phrase consist of an infinitive(to + simple form of verb) and modifiers or other words associated to the infinitive. An infinitive phrase always functions as an adjective adverb or a noun in a sentence.
Examples:
He likes to read books. (As noun and object)
To earn money is a desire of everyone. (As noun and subject)
He shouted to inform people about fire.( As adverb, modifier verb shout)
He made a plan to buy a car. (as adjective, modifier noun plan)
G. Gerund Phrase: A gerund phrase consists of a gerund(verb + ing) and modifiers or other words associated with the gerund. A gerund phrase acts as a noun in a sentence.
Examples:
I like writing good essays. (As noun and object)
She started thinking about the problem. (As noun and object)
Weeping of a baby woke him up. (As noun and subject)
Sleeping late in night is not a good habit. (As noun and subject)
H. Participle Phrase: A participle phrase consists of a present participle (verb + ing), a past participle (verb ending in -ed or other form in case of irregular verbs) and modifiers or other associate words. A participle phrase is separated by commas. It always acts as an adjective in a sentence.
Examples
The kid, making a noise, need food. (Modifier kids)
I received a letter, mentioning about my exam. (Modifier letter)
The table, made of steel, is too expensive. (Modifier table)
We saw a car, damage in an accident. (Modifier car)
I. Absolute Phrase:

Absolute phrase (also called nominative phrase) is a group of words including a noun or pronoun and a participle as well as any associated modifiers. Absolute phrase modifies (give information about) the entire sentence. It resembles a clause but it lack a true finite verb. It is separated by a comma or pairs comma form the rest sentence.
Examples:
He looks sad, his face expressing worry.
She was waiting for her friend, her eyes on the clock.
John is painting a wall, his shirt dirty with paint.

REFRERNCE: 1. http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/zero-conditional/ 2. http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/type-1-conditional/ 3. http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/type-2-conditional/ 4. http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/type-3-conditional/ 5. http://www.studyandexam.com/types-of-phrase.html

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Conditionals and Phrases

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...connect two or more sentences (of either a formal or a natural language) in a grammatically valid way, such that the sense of the compound sentence produced depends only on the original sentences. The most common logical connectives are binary connectives (also called dyadic connectives) which join two sentences which can be thought of as the function's operands. Also commonly, negation is considered to be a unary connective. Logical connectives along with quantifiers are the two main types of logical constants used in formal systems such as propositional logic and predicate logic. Semantics of a logical connective is often, but not always, presented as a truth function. A logical connective is similar to but not equivalent to a conditional operator. [1] Contents [hide] 1 In language 1.1 Natural language 1.2 Formal languages 2 Common logical connectives 2.1 List of common logical connectives 2.2 History of notations 2.3 Redundancy 3 Properties 4 Order of precedence 5 Computer science 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links In language[edit] Natural language[edit] In the grammar of natural languages two sentences may be joined by a grammatical conjunction to form a grammatically compound sentence. Some but not all such grammatical conjunctions are truth functions. For example, consider the following sentences: A: Jack went up the hill. B: Jill went up the hill. C: Jack went up the hill and Jill went up the......

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How Does Rossetti Tell the Story in ‘Cousin Kate?’

...it seems to be unlikely that Kate will be able to provide this for him. Rossetti’s choice of scenes and places is a key aspect of her narrative method as it helps to shape characters in the text. The two key settings in the text are the ‘cottage’ and the ‘palace’. Rossetti uses these two settings in juxtaposition within the first two stanzas of the poem; which emphasises the social difference between the narrator, ‘the cottage maiden’, and the ‘great Lord.’ Rossetti uses the word ‘cottage’ to inform the reader of the narrator’s working class background and that the narrator perhaps lives in poverty; whereas Rossetti presents the ‘Lord ’to live in the ‘palace’ surrounded by ‘gold.’ This is supported in stanza three when Rossetti uses the phrase ‘He lifted you from mean estate’, showing that when Kate left the ‘cottage’ with the Lord he raised her social status, this could explain the two women’s attraction for the ‘Great Lord.’ Within the setting of the ‘palace’ Rossetti uses an avian motif to depict the two women. Rossetti refers to Kate as being ‘bound’ in a bird cage though her marriage to the Lord: ‘you sit in gold and sing.’ Rossetti presents the ‘palace’ to be an aggressive, constraining force on both of the women’s lives as, Kate as she is ‘bound’ in the palace and the narrator as she has been ‘outcast’ due to her ‘shameful’ experience with the Lord in the ‘palace.’ Rossetti uses the unnamed, homodiagetic narrative voice to tell the story throughout the poem.......

Words: 1218 - Pages: 5