Free Essay

Conflict Transformation in Afriac

In: Historical Events

Submitted By benedict77
Words 2159
Pages 9
The concept of conflict transformation gained support with the evolution of conceptualization of human security by the international community. Due to the continuous recurrence of conflicts, conflict transformation has proved to be an ideal model in peace studies as it works in conjunction with conflict management, conflict resolution, disarmament and also truth and reconciliation. Hence it has been supported by various scholars such as Gaultang and Krisberg.Thus the essay will look in detail in relation to why conflict resolution is becoming more popular with reference to case studies.
Conflict transformation has been defined by as the use of the holistic and multi faceted approach to managing violent conflict in all its phases. Thus the term signifies an ongoing process of change in relations, behavior, attitudes, and structures from negative to positive (Lederach 1995). Conflict transformation views peace as centered and rooted in the quality of relationships, It moves beyond the episodic expression of the conflict and focuses on the relational and historical patterns in which the conflict is rooted. Harrington and Merry (1988) advocate that societies are transformed when fundamental social and political changes are made to make correct inequalities and injustices and to provide all groups with fundamental human needs. Thus they regard conflict transformation as the restructuring of social institutions and structures so that people can realise their potential. Conflict transformation refers to outcome, process and structure oriented long-term peace building efforts, which aim to truly overcome revealed forms of direct, cultural and structural violence.
The ideas of Lederach have heavily informed peace practioners as to avoid the ideas of quick solutions to deep social political problems .Thus he favoured a holistic approach to peace building based on justice ,the building of right relationships between the different groups and also changing of social structures so as to allow expression of divergent social thinking whilst encouraging group cohesion( Lederach 1997). Whereas conflict management separated deals with the separation of conflicting parties as noted between the Hutu and the Tusti, it did not deal with the underlying issues which had cause the conflict and also it did not look beyond the immediate situation nor did it deal with the effects of the genocide. However conflict transformation managed to deal with the genocide causes and also its after effects. This can be noted in the success of the gacaca system in Rwanda which sought to transform relations between the Hutu and the Tustin. Thus conflict transformation he does not favour negotiation as it is reached through bargaining and compromise .thus conflict transformation provides peacefully means of settling disputes through a long lasting solution(Blalock 1989).
Conflict transformation is becoming more popular in peace studies as it relies on the capacity to see the immediate situation without being over whelmed by the demands of presenting issues and it also does not push for a quick solution but provides a look through the immediate issues to discover the relational context and the underlying causes of conflict. On the other hand conflict management deals with the separation of the conflicting parties but it does not provide a solution(Burton J 1990). This can be noted in the NATO ( Northern Atlantic Treaty Organisation) led intervention in Libya. However it failed to deal with the underlying issues hence forth conflicts are erupting between the transitional government and rebels in Tripoli and Benghazi . Hence forth some scholars have accredited conflict transformation with the capacity to see the difference between content of a conflict and its emotional and relational context(Annan 1998).
Conflict transformation also provides peace studies with knowledge of how to a conflict is expressed .Before a conflict could have been expressed competively in a violent manner such as targeted killings and violent protest .Through a conflict transformation intervention the conflict is transformed to a peaceful protest through actions such as non violent advocacy ,street protest ,boycotts or through media campaign. On the other hand Traditional mechanisms of conflict resolution are similar in that they rotate around the concepts of mediation, compensation and restitution(Woodhouse 200). Thus conflict transformation uses nonviolent advocacy to escalate and confront the conflict , this can be through mediation which provides an alternative to express and transform the conflict from mutually destructive modes towards dialogue between the conflicting parties. This can be noted in Zimbabwe during the 2008 political violence in which the two main political parties ZANU PF and the MDC were involved in political violence were the police and soldiers were accused of attacking MDC members. Thus through conflict transformation , the SADC intervened through mediation and sough to transform bad relations by forming an inclusive government .This was also done through peace media campaigns such as “Peace begins with me peace begins with you” (Herald newspaper 2013).Thus conflict transformation is vital in providing an alternative from pursuing violence.
Conflict transformation provides peace studies with the opportunity to peace achievement through systematic transformation involving the process of increasing justice and equality in the social system as a whole. This may involve the elimination of oppression, improved success and sharing of resources basing on equality and nor religion, ethnicity and tribalism.This ac be noted in South Africa when it gained independence .There was conflict transformation through national and reconciliation programmes and also commissions of inquiry which was led by Desmond Tutu .Thus the reconciliation sought to bring about change in personality between the black and white community. One can note that conflict transformation provides an alternative to violence e for peace studies and puts restoration of relationships at the core through peace building activities such as public commissions. Conflict transformation is always a non-violent process, which is fundamentally opposed to violent expressions of conflict, which is a vital approach to peace studies.
Lederach poses that conflict transformation is vital for peace studies as it suggest that conflicts if left alone have destructive consequences. Thus it advocates that if treated well, the consequences can be modified or transformed so that relationships and social structures improve as a result of conflict instead of being harmed by it. This can be noted by the gacaca process in Rwanda which sought to improve and transform perceptions of issues, reconciling interest values, needs between the Hutu and the Tustin after the 1994 genocide.
Moreover conflict transformation helps in addressing the most affected group in the track 3 of Lederach peace building through addressing the victims who are the mainly affected .Moreover bottom up track 3 strategies help to support and also generate struggles for social justice and also structural change. A great example can be noted in Liberia were intermarriages are practised between the family of the perpetrator and the victim through marriages which helps to foster relations. Thus conflict transformation helps to build peace through a relational change which is gradual and foster peace in a society .Moreover conflict transformation provides the key to move conflict from destructive processes and towards constructive process .Hence forth one can note that the primary task of conflict transformation is not to find quick solutions to problems but rather generate creative platforms that address underlying structure sand relationships. Thus conflict transformation is vital to peace studies as it is also a mechanism of peace building through a transformative way which is a long lasting solution.
Conflict transformation provides an alternative to violence through reducing violence and an increase in justice. Thus conflict transformation sees peace as centred and rooted in the quality of relationships .This can be noted in South Africa were the government set up the Truth and reconciliation process led by Desmond Tutu which sought to reconcile the whites and the blacks .On the other hand conflict management seeks to end conflicts but does not provide a solution to bring an end to it through long lasting solution. One therefore notes that conflict transformation provides the opportunity to develop and engage in life changing processes at the interpersonal level, intergroup and social structural levels. One can note that conflict transformation does not provide peace studies with violence or suppression abut conflict transformation provides peace studies with peace full means of solving disputes in a peaceful manner.
Conflict transformation is vital for peace studies as it emphasises on the need for democracy as means of achieving peace (Holtzman 1998).This can be done through security sector reforms ,empowering civil society the empowerment of individuals and groups; the strengthening of communities, support for organisations that can influence public affairs and the sponsoring of existing intermediary institutions which have proven their ability to deal peacefully with conflicting interests of different parties. Thus conflict transformation provides peace studies with the opportunity to destroy the environment which promotes violence through public media campaigns and also awareness. Therefore The nonviolent theory of consent, first formulated by Etienne La Boetie and further developed by early European and American proponents (the Quakers, Thoreau, Tolstoy), stipulates that the authority of any ruler rests on the continued voluntary obedience of its subjects and violence is a choice which can be avoided, hence forth one can note that conflict transformation is a motor for change that keeps relationship structures dynamically responsive to human needs.
Conflict transformation theory defines conflict as a positive agent for social change (Lederach1995, 17).Most of its instruments are based on the notion of impartiality and quiet diplomacy, and the idea of resolving conflict through a process of dialogue and problem solving designed to address the needs of all parties. In other words, they emphasis conflict mitigation or de-escalation .One can note that the conflict transformative approach is also means of achieving peace .This can be noted in South Africa during the apartheid which M Gandhi fought the apartheid system in a non violent manner
Recently the goal of peacemaking has been described as conflict transformation. Lederach favours this description. First, the language of transformation captures the dialectical nature of conflict, and reflects a holistic approach to understanding conflict processes. Second, speaking in terms of transformation recognizes the positive potential of conflict and is consistent with the social science view that conflict is a vehicle for change if driven well. It captures conflict's potential to change parties' perceptions of self and other (Lederach 1990). Lederach concludes that transformation as a concept is both descriptive of the conflict dynamics and prescriptive of the overall purpose that building peace pursues. Thus conflict transformation is becoming more popular in peace studies due to its approach of relational reconstruction and adaptively approach which dismisses the one size fits all approach.
Conflict transformation has been gained ground in peace studies as noted by Duke (1993) who poses that major structural transformations are necessary to obtain greater social justice, more participatory democracy, development peace and prosperity. This is also in line with good governance practise .This can be noted in Zimbabwe were the new constitution was drawn up after the participation of all citizens in addressing gender inequality and also the devolution of power. On the other hand conflict resolution has a tendency to concentrate upon the immediate and the shorter term, its advocates arguing that dealing with the issues and the deeper interests producing a current situation of intractable conflict is enough of a problem in itself. One can note that the Conflict transformation adjusts to the ever changing nature of a conflict, particularly during pre- and post-violence phases and at any stage of the escalation cycle hence it is becoming more popular.
The prescriptive concept of conflict transformation has made it popular .This is based on the assumption that if conflicts are left alone they can be destructive. However there is the assumption that if consequences can be modified or transformed so that self-images, relationships, and social structures improve as a result of conflict instead of being harmed by it. This involved the transformation of how the people are changed their perceptions .
Due to is relationship centred approach and its ability to prevent the reoccurrence of conflicts during and after, conflict transformation has gained more popularity in solving conflicts and providing peace studies with hope of a violent free society. However in its endeavour to end conflicts, conflict transformation does not work alone but actually supported by other conflict solving methods such as conflict management, conflict prevention and the use of disarmament and truth and reconciliation commissions.


Annan K 1998 Democracy and deep rooted Conflict. Options for negotiations. Stockholm

Burton J 1990 Conflict Resolution and Prevention .New York. St Martin’s press

Blalock H 1989 Power and Conflict .Newbury Park CA Sage
Dukes, Frank. 1993 Public Conflict Resolution: A Transformative Approach, Negotiation Journal. January

Herald newspaper May 5 2013 retrieved online at

Holtzman, Steven, Ann Elwan, and Colin Scott. 1 998. Post-Conflict Reconstruction: The Role of the World Bank. Washington, DC

Lederach JP 2000. Conflict Transformation and Peace Building; moving from violence to sustainable peace. London Routledge

Woodhouse T and Ramsbotham 2000 Peacekeeping and Conflict Resolution London Frank Cass

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Transformation of Terrorism

...Transformation of Terrorism Over the past 300+ years terrorism has shifted from driving force to overthrow overbearing governments to a force that strikes anyone who doesn’t follow in line with their beliefs and them tries to validate their actions with religion. The 1700s saw more pirates and looters that were defined as terrorists and the 1800s begin to see terrorists transforming into revolutionaries. By the time the 1900s came about, most terrorist organizations were working with governments with common goals in order to carry out their attacks. Terrorism during the 1700s focused both on personal gain as well as overthrowing an established government. Some of the most recognizable terrorists acts of the 1700s consisted of pirates pillaging from other naval vessels. All throughout the waters of North Africa were pirates who targeted both private and government owned ships in order to steal its cargo along with the ship and personnel. Many individuals and governments had to pay off these “terrorists” in order for their ships and its cargo to safely reach its destination(1). Another example of terrorism during the 1700s, which was aimed towards a standing government, was the French Revolution. The French Revolution lasted from 1789-1799 and was aimed at removing the current monarchy that was ruling France(2). The revolutionists employed violence, including mass executions by guillotine, in order to intimidate the regime's enemies and compel obedience from the state(3).......

Words: 1397 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Frankenstiens Transformation

...Frankenstein's Transformation Over the course of Frankenstein, Viktor Frankenstein undergoes a drastic emotional transformation as a result of his experiments which resulted in the creation of his Creature. Frankenstein's trips to Montavert, and his descriptions of the scene on his solitary excursions, show a clear sense of an emotional 'before and after.' In his visits to Montavert before the birth of his Creature, Frankenstein saw a sublime and beautiful scene. However, his accounts are drastically different - upset, guilty and disturbed - when Viktor returns, after leaving his Creature and experiencing the deaths of his brother William, and the wrongful execution of Justine Moritz. These drastic changes in Frankenstein's emotions are shown through his portrayals of nature. These changes in Frankenstein can also be seen as a parallel to the changes undergone by Mary Shelley in her own life, reflecting the disillusionment she felt with Romantic literature. One of the most unique aspects of Romanticism is the way that nature portrays the emotions of the writer. Unlike the mimesis of nature employed by their Neoclassical and Humanist predecessors, Romantic writers used nature as a mirror of their emotions, and contorted their natural surroundings to describe their specific feelings. This is a central tenet of Romanticism and key in understanding the major mental and emotional shifts undergone by Viktor Frankenstein throughout the novel. The natural imagery in this......

Words: 493 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Great Transformation

...The Great Transformation Many historians have viewed the economic status of societies as the direct result of human nature Economist such as Adam Smith related this to our unconscious nature to truck, barter and trade. Our inability to survive without the service of others availability, lead to the production of the “economic man” of today. The “extraordinary assumption” that economics has been ingrained in the evolution of human kind has clouded our ability to look at the past economy-less societies that have left behind pyramids and complex systems of trade. Polanyi has emphasized that the movement between a market as a supplementary tool for the ease of exchange and a market society with the interest of materialistic gain. He highlights the difference between the “uncivilized man “ that pertained to the safeguard of his social standings, claims and assets as compared to the economic man that fuels a self-regulating market run by market prices. Polanyi supports his claims by pointing out three economic systems that existed before the rise of market economy economy and allows the reader to take a closer look at historic societies like that of the Trobriand Islanders of Western Melanesia that have depended on a communist economy. Weber, Heilbroner and Rienhart build on Ponlany’s points out the ideologies of this “Great transformation”. Adam Smith paints a picture of an economic man that utilizes “ capitalistic psychology” to further support truck, barter and trade. The......

Words: 1054 - Pages: 5

Free Essay


...PERSPECTIVES BY Kurt StuKe The Unending Search Transformation in quality as a ‘thing in the making’ RECENTLY, STEPHEN K. Hacker wrote that “many of our organizations remain mired in their current states, frozen in old mindsets.” To free our organizations and 1 What follows is a contrast of the current grammar and its tacit assumptions concerning knowing, being and meaning to a different grammar born in the experiential-based philosophy of William James. The difference between grammars and the importance of the difference in the reconstruction of transformation and quality is explored. knower and thing known is usually referred to as the subject or object split within philosophy. The self or knower within such a vision is always distinct and apart from the world. The essential rationality and immutability of knowing and being within the traditional mindset lends itself to quantitative methods and statistical tools. You can progress safely through the define, measure, analyze, improve and control cycle—or choose not to—because the universe as defined through the traditional grammar is inherently knowable and predictable. You can differentiate between common cause and special-cause variation, and, by extension, processes that are in control and out of control because of the assumed stability within knowing, being and meaning. Language and meaning within these horizons also are based in antecedent truths. If you have the correct name of a thing, you have insight......

Words: 1616 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Business Transformation

...Create a table that includes all of the key elements that you think an organization must focus on to promote change. a. Compare and contrast the different transformation stories in the videos. b. Explain why or why not you think that company is doing the right steps for change. The following table illustrates the key elements that an organization must focus on to promote change: Testing/ piloting within a smaller controlled environment is an important measure aimed at mitigating disruption should the application fail during these real world test. There should always be a back-up plan as it relates to productivity loss mitigation; reverting to the old way of conducting business should be quick and easy. Staff involvement in the development and evolution of business processes is important because without the efforts of like-minded participants the change will not be sustainable. Various short term goals should be set and used as part of the success evaluation benchmarks because participants will need to feel a sense of accomplishment prior to the new process fulfilling its ultimate goals. The overall success of a project may not necessarily be able to be measure in the short run, so a steadfast commitment to the long term goals of a project are essential to the projects success. A. The transformation that has taken place between CANSO, ITV and the Army have been different in terms of specific activities but the same in terms of overall goals. The......

Words: 774 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...teachings and sermons on transformation. Pray Lord we rejoice in your power to transform and thank you for giving us the instruments for our total transformation. I pray that you will use your Word, which your Holy Spirit will bring forth to keep us in the process of transformation. In Jesus’name. INTRODUCTION 1. In Ro 12:1-2, Paul makes the following plea regarding transforming our lives: "I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that you present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, [which is] your reasonable service. And do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, that you may prove what [is] that good and acceptable and perfect will of God." NKJV but let God transform you into a new person by changing the way you think. Then you will learn to know God's will for you, which is good and pleasing and perfect. NLT but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, that ye may prove what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect, will of God. KJV but be a new and different person with a fresh newness in all you do and think. Then you will learn from your own experience how his ways will really satisfy you. TLB 2. As we consider this text, several questions come to mind... a. What does it mean to be transformed? b. What is the goal of transformation? c. What should motivate us to undergo transformation? d. What does one do...

Words: 4189 - Pages: 17

Free Essay


...Transformation Purpose Horizontal gene transfer refers to the transfer of genes from one organism to another through a method other than reproduction. Genetic transformation, a form of horizontal gene transfer, involves the altering of a cell through the uptake of naked DNA. Naked DNA refers to DNA which has been released from lysed or disrupted cells and is taken up by a recipient cell. If a cell is able to take up naked DNA, they are referred to as competent. This finding is accredited to Frederick Griffith, a bacteriologist who conducted an experiment in which a nonpathogenic strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae was exposed to a heat-killed pathogenic strain of the same bacteria. Griffith observed that although the virulent strain had been heat-killed; the DNA was able to survive the heating process and was taken up by the “resistant” strain of bacteria through gene transformation. In this lab, an experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that a susceptible strain of bacteria, known as the S-strain, will grow in the presence of an antibiotic if it is combined with the DNA from the lysed pathogenic cell. Methods To demonstrate Griffith’s findings, an experiment was conducted with a competent prokaryotic cell known as Acinetobacter. This bacterium is Gram-negative, rod-shaped, and typically found in soil and water. During this experiment, three sessions were completed in order to observe whether gene transformation had successfully taken place. ...

Words: 1149 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Transformation Into Leadership

...Week 8 Assignment By James Gaupel Colorado State University – Global Campus Professor: Dr. Annette Roter ORG 560: Leadership Development January 20, 2013 Transformation into Leadership Any business runs efficaciously when it is controlled by a competent and persuasive supervisor. While mentors motivate their subordinates, it is not the only thing managers can do. A virtuous supervisor can configure the workplace in the position he desires. He epitomizes the principles of the establishment and most significantly, it has been perceived that effective leaders enjoy a capability to proliferate the productivity of the business. Background In 1992, the Department of Corrections built a prison in my hometown of Lancaster, California. Many of my friends applied for the five hundred job openings as a correctional officer. Although I was reluctant to apply for a career in such as a harsh environment within a state prison, these same friends convinced me to submit my application. After a rigorous twelve month hiring process coupled with a sixteen week academy, I was sworn in as a full time peace officer in April of 1994. As a peace officer, I was stationed at the Lancaster State Prison as a correctional officer. My leadership skills were negligible at this point in my career, as I only had attained entry level positions prior to the acceptance of this employment. Working as a correctional officer gave me the foundation of leadership as I...

Words: 3745 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Transformation Leadership

...values of the main stakeholders because the direct role of their emotions is the important factor in determining the success of organizational change (Seo et al, 2012). Kiefer (2005) conducted qualitative reports to prove that employees frequently experience feelings of high negative effectives during organizational transformation, such as depression, anxiety, anger and fatigue. It is critical to deal with these problems because ‘a successful strategy for dealing with continuous organizational change is to resolve followers' uncertainty about the change process and enhance their adaptability through frequent communication, training, and mentoring’ (Eisenbach et al, 1999 p.87). These resistances can be neutralized by two main characteristics of transformational leadership including individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation (Eisenbach et al, 1999). The leaders may facilitate the change process by exhibiting individualized consideration where employees are provided support, coaching and guidance. Moreover, coaching and supporting behaviours are particularly significant in both the development of self-managing work teams and large-scale transformation (Eisenbach et al, 1999).Besides that, transformational leaders tend to attempt understand subordinates’ underlying beliefs, and norms and their cultural perception, so this understanding may support leaders to integrate their emotional and mental participation into the daily organisational operations and......

Words: 3054 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Hr Transformation

...AS, Copenhagen, Denmark “Got business? This book does. By asking (and answering) the tough questions about HR relevance for line managers, shareholders, and customers, readers will clearly understand the why, how, and what of HR transformation.” —Rich Baird, Joint U.S. and Global Leader, Advisory People and Change, PwC “Wow, they have done it! Many HR shops need transformation but don’t have the answers. This book is the roadmap, answers the questions, provides the rationale, and describes how HR transformations should unfold. Read it, but better yet—do it!” —Richard W. Beatty, Rutgers University, coauthor of The Differentiated Workforce “A must read for an HR team that wants to add the most value to the business.” —Bob Bloss, HR Executive Vice President, Hallmark “A thoughtful and practical guide that will help leaders navigate some of the most important decisions about building the HR organization of the future.” —John Boudreau, USC Marshall, coauthor of Investing in People and Beyond HR “Two bangs for your hard-earned buck. First, a very strong summary of the key tenets of the most important HR thinking. Second, highly practical examples of what to do and—even more importantly—what NOT to do when embarking upon transformation.” —Reg Bull, former Chief HR Officer, LG Electronics, Seoul, South Korea “Dave Ulrich and his colleagues have, over the past two decades, fundamentally changed the way we view HR. This work will change the way we think about HR......

Words: 69596 - Pages: 279

Free Essay


...13th century Persian Muslim poet, theologian and Sufi mystic wrote the poem, Story Water, describing how we interact with reality through a medium. A story is a medium reflecting life’s realities, bridging relations, communicating insights, uncovering truths and hoping for transformation. This newsletter is a compilation of stories. They are not simply articles for scholarly discussion or abstraction. These are stories of persons and communities. Behind every issue are faces waiting to be recognized. Behind every problem are voices waiting to be heard. Behind every concern are hearts bleeding to be connected. Metanoia is a Greek word that means change. However, it does not only imply physical change nor a change of perspective but also and more importantly a change of heart and a change from the heart. Metanoia speaks of growth, of blossoming, of transformation. The cliché tells us that life is a journey. I would prefer a pilgrimage; and we are pilgrims in this world. Every part is important. Every process and phases are significant. Every stop, every celebration, every roadblock and pitfalls, every intersection and fork-roads—all are sacred. Hence, this is a story of a pilgrimage towards transformation. The story will lead you to the farthest village of the Mt. Province, Philippines and experience the cancer corruption. It will steer you to the plain white walls of a psychiatric room and will let you sail among the fisher folks of Sorsogon. It will let you......

Words: 801 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

It Transformation in Business

...mechanism continue to challenge the typical IT executive. As a result, the IT delivery model has also changed and must continue to change in order to meet the challenges of today’s retail businesses. Like the retail solution delivery stack, many of the IT components critical to the delivery of application solutions to the business have been commoditized. The figure below illustrates the past, present and future stages of IT Transformation away from legacy IT organizations. IT TRANSFORMED IT Delivery components Stages legacy 1 2 3 future Technology Strategy With standardization of business applications comes the opportunity to leverage outsourced IT services and re-focus in-house resources. Business Partner Relations Business Partner Support Application Maintenance Application Hosting Datacenter Operations Technical Services (network, infrastructure) Retailer Owned/Managed Outsourced Desktop Services Integration Deployment The first stage of IT transformation, the “delivery Stage II of IT transformation, the “infrastructure-as-a outsourcing” model, occurred some time ago with the service” (IaaS) model, is nearly at full maturity and supported extensive use of systems integrators for deployments by the commoditization of the hardware components in and data integration. This became the norm for IT the retail solutions delivery stack. The cost of outsourcing organizations implementing......

Words: 3651 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Organisation Transformation

...composition of the groups will be questionable as well as the creation of favorable group norms. Yukl (2010, pg.26) articulates that, “there is no single correct definition that captures the essence of leadership.” Instead, he broadly defined leadership as, “the process of influencing others to understand and agree about who needs to be done and how to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives.” The team operates with a great level of difficulty as the structure does not include HRM to resolve inter-professional conflicts, which is described as painful and demoralizing for all staff. Additionally, the team does not possess any form of boundary as there is no managerial control of finances, HRM or leadership. “Boundaries help distinguish between organisational systems and their environment. They help to protect or buffer the organization’s transformation process from external disruptions; they also assure that the right inputs enter the organization and the relevant outputs leave it.” (Cummings and Worley 2009, p.93) Figure [ 5 ]- SWOT analysis Individual Level The inputs for this level is very important as the others, yet there is no supporting evidence to indicate that the design of the group are done in a controlled manner to suit the requirements of the system. There are no fixed policies or documentation of the expertise needed within the groups to complement the team based approach.......

Words: 4828 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay


...| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 1. (a) Diagram 1.1 shows points P and Q drawn on a Cartesian plane. Transformation T is the translation . Transformation R is a clockwise rotation of about the centre Q. State the coordinates of the image of point P under each of the following transformations: (i) T2 (ii) TR [4 marks] (b) Diagram 1.2 shows two hexagons, EFGHJK and PQREST drawn on square grids. | | | | | | | | | | | P Q R S T E F G H J K Diagram 1.2 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | (i) PQREST is the image of EFGHJK under the combined transformation WV. Describe in full, the transformation: (a) V (b) W (ii) It is given that EFGHJK represents a region of area 36 cm2 . Calculate the area, in cm2, of the region represented by the shaded region. [8 marks] Answers 1 (a) (i) (3,5) (1,8) (ii) (0.1) ( (b)(i) (a) Reflection in the line QJ. (b) Enlargement with scale factor 3, centre......

Words: 582 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Technological Transformations

...TECHNOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATIONS Introduction Technological transformations occur daily, affecting many groups of people. Two groups of people that were most affected before 1900 were farmers and physicians. The advancement in technology for both farmers and physicians has made impact for all. The advancements for farmers helped them to cover more land, producing more goods and at the same time lowering the cost to take care of a farm. Physicians were able to expand their knowledge and give better care to those in need. The machines and tools were able to give them a better idea of what was wrong with a patient. There were many inventions that helped in making everyday tasks that they were performing daily much easier thus opening the door for more advancement in farming and in the medical field. Farming There were many inventions that impacted the work load of farming, one of which was the steel plow. The steel plow was invented by a blacksmith named John Deere. Farmers were not able to use the old style plow which was made of cast iron and was used more commonly in the eastern states. John Deere decided to make steel plows because the cast iron plows would easily break due to the soil being rich and thick in the Great Plains. Farmers were now spending more time harvesting land instead of fixing the cast iron plows. The steel plow had a wooden handle and was attached to a horse. The plow would dig the soil and turn it over in preparation for......

Words: 1677 - Pages: 7