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Consumer

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Submitted By kethava
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SUGENTHEERAN KOMANNAYAR (28380)

GAYTHRI KUPUSAMY (26347)

SELF PERCEPTION THEORY

Self-perception theory is an account of attitude change developed by psychologist Daryl Bem. It asserts that people develop their attitudes by observing their behaviour and concluding what attitudes must have caused them. The theory is counterintuitive in nature, as the conventional wisdom is that attitudes come prior to behaviours. Furthermore, the theory suggests that a person induces attitudes without accessing internal cognition and mood states. The person reasons their own obvious behaviours rationally in the same way they attempt to explain others’ behaviours. The self perception theories is categories into three parts which is,

Foot-In-The-Door technique

There is both foot-in-the-door phenomenon and foot-in-the-door technique. As you can guess, the technique is used to get the phenomenon. The phenomenon is the tendency for people to comply with some large request after first agreeing to a small request. As you can then imagine, the technique is used to get compliance from others (to get them to behave in a way you want) in which a small request is made first in order to get compliance for a larger request. For example, someone might want you to give to give 5 hours of your time a week for the three months as a volunteer to a charity (a big request). But to get you to agree to this big request, they first ask you to volunteer for 1 hour one time and one time only. After hearing this small request, which you are willing to agree to, they then work their way up asking you to volunteer time until you are willing to agree to the big request. You are more likely to agree to this when you have already said yes to the small request.

The Low-Ball technique

The low-ball is a persuasion and selling technique in which an item or service is offered at a lower price than is actually intended to be charged, after which the price is raised to increase profits. An explanation for the effect is provided by cognitive dissonance theory. If a person is already enjoying the prospect of an excellent deal and the future benefits of the item or idea then backing out would create cognitive dissonance, which is prevented by playing down the negative effect of the "extra" costs. A successful low-ball relies on the balance of making the initial request attractive enough to gain agreement, whilst not making the second request so outrageous that the customer refuses. For example, if the UNIMAS student get an offers with attractive price which can accepted by the student but it must the person/buyer make it clear that the decision to purchase is from their own free will. This can be done if the Low-ball technique managed well.

Door-in-the-Face Technique
This is a technique used to get compliance from others (to get them to behave in a way you want) in which a large request is made knowing it will probably be refused so that the person will agree to a much smaller request. The real objective is to get the person to agree to the small request, which is made to seem very reasonable because it is compared to such a large, seemingly unreasonable request. In real meaning, the large request gets you the "door in the face" when you ask it. For example, someone might ask you to give to give 5 hours of your time a week for the next year as a volunteer to a charity. After hearing this offer you may think it is a huge request, after which you may be asked to, instead of committing to all this volunteering time, to just donate a small amount of money. Compared to the time commitment, this request seems much more acceptable.

The social judgement theories
The social judgement theory arose from social psychology and was based on laboratory findings resulting from experiments. These experiments studied the mental assessment of physical objects, referred to at the time as psychophysical research. Subjects were asked to compare some aspect of an object, such as weight or colour, to another, differing object. The researchers discovered that when a standard was provided for comparison, the participants categorized the objects relative to the aspects of the standard. For example, if a very heavy object was used as the standard in assessing weight, then the other objects would be judged to be relatively lighter than if a very light object was used as the standard. The standard is referred to as an "anchor". This work involving physical objects was applied to psychosocial work, in which a participant's limits of acceptability on social issues are studied (Sherif & Hovland, 1961; Sherif et al., 1965). Referred to as the latitudes of acceptance and rejection. These latitudes compose, respectively, a range of chosen, offensive, and uninterested attitudes. The placement of positions along the continuum hinges on the anchor point, usually determined by the individual's own stand (Sherif & Hovland, 1961). Therefore, one's attitude on a social issue cannot be point up with a single point but instead consists of changing degrees of acceptability for discrepant positions. Assimilation and contrast is referred latitudes of assimilation and contrast. When a discrepant viewpoint is expressed in a communication message, if it falls within the person's latitude of acceptance, the message is more likely to be assimilated or viewed as being closer to people attach, or own viewpoint, than it actually is. When the message is perceived as being very different from one's attach and thus falling within the latitude of rejection, persuasion is unlikely due to a contrast effect. The contrast effect is what happens when the message is viewed as being further away than it actually is from the anchor. Messages falling within the latitude of non commitment, however, are the ones most likely to achieve the desired attitude change. Therefore, the more extreme stand an individual has, the greater his/her latitude of rejection and as a result the harder he/she is to persuade.

Balance theory
Balance Theory is a motivational theory of attitude change proposed by Fritz Heider, which conceptualizes the consistency motive as a drive toward psychological balance. Heider proposed that "sentiment" or liking relationships are balanced if the affect valence in a system multiplies out to a positive result. For example: a person who likes other person will be balanced by the same valence attitude on behalf of the other. Balance Theory is also useful in examining how celebrity endorsement affects consumers' attitudes toward products. If a person likes a celebrity and perceives due to the endorsement that said celebrity likes a product, said person will tend to like the product more, in order to achieve psychological balance. However, if the person already had a dislike for the product being endorsed by the celebrity, she may like the celebrity less in addition to liking the product more, again to achieve psychological balance.

The multi attribute models
Multi-Attribute model appeal to both consumer researcher and marketing practitioners because they examine attitudes in terms of selected product attributes or beliefs. While there are many variations of this type of attitude model, those proposed by Martin and his associates have the greatest amount of interest. The three element of multi attribute is attribute attitude object that characteristic of consumer consider when evaluating the attitude object, belief of attitude object is cognition of the attitude object and importance weight is reflect the relative priority of an attribute to consumer.
The Fishbein theory
The most influential mult iattribute model the Fishbein model also uses three components of attitude. The first, salient beliefs, is a reference to the beliefs a person might gain during the evaluation of a product or service. Second, object-attribute linkages, is an indicator of the probability of importance for a particular attributing associated with an attitude object. Evaluation, the third component, is a measurement of importance for the attribute. The goal of the Fishbein model is to reduce overall attitudes into a score. Past and predicted consumer behavior can be used to enhance the Fishbein model (Smith, Terry, Manstead, & Louis, 2008).

The theory of reasoned Action
The theory of reasoned action is a newer verison on the Fishbein Model. The original Fishbein Model covers three components of attitute; (1) Salient beliefs, (2) Object linkages, and (3) Evaluation. Salient beliefs, the first component, a consumer has a pre-established belief or attitude about a particular object. In Object Linkages, there are connections made with the target audience that trigger a particular importance level. In component three, Evaluation, the consumer relates the importance level to their person and the affect that it would have on them. In the extended version of the Fishbein Model there is the devolped Theory of Reasoned Action. This model contains the same components as the original but also includes some modified attributes to better predict attitudes and behavior of today's society.
As our world changes around us, so does our perception of it. We all must apply ourselves in the way we see best fit. This is from which the model has been modified. Additions to the model under the Theory of Reasoned Action include: Intentions Versus Behavior, and Social Pressure.
Under Intentions Versus Behavior a person may have a particular view on a subject, object, or action. Whether the person dislikes or likes this, it is important to understand the influences on the person to define the level of "confidence or conviction" (Solomon 253). The deception of the conviction level works in a way that the greater the conviction the more likely a person will act upon it (Solomon 253).
Social Pressure is experienced everyday by everyone. This concept has extraordinary power as it effects each individual differently. The strength of the concept causes people to act and react in a particular way that is or may be pleasing to others. Whether these actions are well-defined or spur-of-the-moment, they define who we are continually and change the people that we are.

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