Premium Essay

Contemporary, Feminist Issues Within Canada

In: Science

Submitted By kraykray92
Words 1578
Pages 7
Whether observed through the perspective of the media or within a historical context, women at a national premise have a greater awareness in the struggle of gender equality and female identification. Feminism looks at how the social, economic and political structures affect and shape women at the individual level. Accordingly, feminist theories analyze the relationship between gender differences, gender inequality and oppression. The idea of ‘waves’ in Canadian Feminist movements have been both diverse and dynamic in the act of coalition to obtain specific goals and broader changes in society. At the beginning of the 20th century, industrialization and nation-building came attached with a gender ideology that prescribed the public/private division between male and females. In modern-day Canada, issues concerning equal rights in the public and private sphere of women have become more relevant to the female community. In contemporary Canada, the discussion of sex work and the ‘entertainment industry’ is a controversial subject to many women. The traditional view is expressed to view these workers as individuals who have chosen this path as ‘immoral criminals’ or ‘victims’ of aggression. There is not much sympathy for these women as they are degraded to be invisible within Canadian society. Given the blind eye, these sexual deviants have historically served as an representation to regulate women of the public sphere. However, it is necessary to make distinctions of the ‘hierarchy’ within Canada’s contemporary sex industry- from street sex workers to high-end escorts or strippers.

In addition to the traditional view of women in the sex industry, there are other perspectives to take into account that differentiate these opinions from various feminist thoughts.
Firstly, the sex work perspective believes that this type of work is just as much a legitimate work

Similar Documents

Premium Essay


... 7:42 PM Page 36 5 FEMINIST METHODOLOGIES AND EPISTEMOLOGY ANDREA DOUCET Carleton University, Canada NATASHA S. MAUTHNER University of Aberdeen, Scotland O ver the past 10 years of teaching courses on research methods and feminist approaches to methodologies and epistemologies, a recurring question from our students concerns the distinctiveness of feminist approaches to methods, methodologies, and epistemologies. This key question is posed in different ways: Is there a specifically feminist method? Are there feminist methodologies and epistemologies, or simply feminist approaches to these? Given diversity and debates in feminist theory, how can there be a consensus on what constitutes “feminist” methodologies and epistemologies? Answers to these questions are far from straightforward given the continually evolving nature of feminist reflections on the methodological and epistemological dimensions and dilemmas of research. This chapter on feminist methodologies and epistemologies attempts to address these questions by tracing historical developments in this area, by considering what may be unique about feminist epistemologies and feminist methodologies, by reviewing some of sociology’s key contributions to this area of scholarship and by highlighting some key emergent trends. The chapter begins with a brief overview of the theoretical and historical development of feminist epistemologies, followed by a similar overview of feminist methodologies. The final section...

Words: 12047 - Pages: 49

Free Essay


...“Canada is an unknown territory for the people who live in it, and I’m not talking about the fact that you may not have taken a trip to the Arctic or to Newfoundland, you may not have explored as the travel folders have it – This Great Land of Ours. I’m talking about Canada as a state of mind, as the space you inhabit not just with your body but with your head. It’s that kind of space in which we find ourselves lost. What a lost person needs is a map of the territory, with his own position marked on it so he can see where he is in relation to everything else. Literature is not only a mirror; it is also a map, a geography of the mid. Our literature is one such map, if we can learn to read it as our literature, as the product of who and where we have been. We need such a map desperately; we need to know about here, because here is where we live. For the members of a country or culture, shared knowledge of their place, their here, is not a luxury but a necessity. Without that knowledge we will not survive.” Margaret Atwood, Survival As Atwood’s statement demonstrates, Canadian literature is concerned with place and displacement, and with the development of an effective identifying relationship between self and environs. Canada’s literature whether written in English or French reflects three main parts of Canadian experience. First, Canadian writers often emphasize the effects of climate and geography on the life and work of their people. Second, frontier’s...

Words: 3528 - Pages: 15

Free Essay


...Sample Research Paper on Citizenship Introduction Citizenship is being defined as the relationship between the state and individuals. Historically citizenship is being inevitably linked with the state formation. Originally citizenship was denoting residence of people within protected walls of a city. Thus, whoever belonged to a community residing inside the boundaries was considered a citizen. Later this term has acquired a different meaning and the standards and definitions of citizenship have changed. There were many reasons that have caused such changes: history proceeded with its migrations, wars and annexation and along on its way brought new meanings to citizenship. Such change in definition, for example, can be found in suffrage granted to women and the nonpropertied classes. Paupers, convicts and soldiers are another example of how political and civil rights were once a privilege of certain classes only (Dahrendorf, 1974, p. 11). With the introduction of mass democracy and social protection as well as introduction of welfare state a need in the new conception that would look on the relationship on an individual and the state appeared consequently. The norms of citizenship, therefore, have improved with the development of state and citizenship became a multination concept, which implies different things to different nations (Dahrendorf, 1974, p. 12). According to Michael Ignatieff (1995), the introduction of the welfare state can be explained as an attempt to make citizenship...

Words: 5963 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay


...Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hooks, Bell. Feminism is for everybody: passionate politics / Bell Hooks. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-89608-629-1 - ISBN 0-89608-628-3 (pbk.) 1. Feminist theory. 2. Feminism - Philosophy. 3. Feminism Political aspects. 4. Sex discrimination against women. 1. Title. FEMINIST POLITICS Where We Stand 1 CONSCIOUSNESS-RAISING A Constant Change of Heart 7 3. SISI:ERHOOD IS STILL POWERFUL 4. Vll 13 00-036589 South End Press, 7 Brookline Street, #1, Cambridge, MA 02139 06 05 04 7 8 9 Printed in Canada 19 OUR BODIES, OURSELVES Reproductive Rights 25 6. HQl190 .H67 2000 305.42'01 - dc21 FEMINIST EDUCATION FOR CRITICAL CONSCIOUSNESS BEAUTY WITHIN AND WITHOUT 31 7. FEMINIST CLASS STRUGGLE 37 8. GLOBAL FEMINISM 44 5. 9. WOMEN AT WORI( 48 10. RACE AND GENDER 55 11. ENDING VIOLENCE 61 12. FEMINIST MASCULINITY 67 13. FEMINIST PARENTING 72 14. LIBERATING MARRIAGE AND PARTNERSHIP 78 15. A FEMINIST SEXUAL POLITIC An Ethics of Mutual Freedom 85 16. TOTAL BLISS Lesbianism and Feminism 93 INTRODUCTION 17. TO LOVE AGAIN The Heart of Feminism 100 18. FEMINIST SPIRITUALITY 105 19. VISIONARY FEMINISM...

Words: 37459 - Pages: 150

Premium Essay

Islamic Finance Research Paper

...research and reading materials to gather data about Islamic Marketing. The author only explains the Islamic Marketing by showing examples mostly from Qur’an. Partial List Square (PLS) Religious teachings, at least Islam, could be applied in the realm of modern marketing theory. Though not all of its elements could be applied in Islamic society, modern marketing theory will provide some elements which could be utilized in developing Islamic marketing theory. One could argue that religious teaching, at least from Islamic perspective could be utilized as a marketing tool. The author proposes that marketing needs to enrich itself in order to gain acceptance from scientific community. Therefore, it is duty of all researchers interested in this issue to develop this...

Words: 972 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Normalisation and Resistance in the Era of the Image by I was drawn to this article because I found myself relating to a lot of the issues the author raised. I was also interested in this article because the author raised a very important issue that almost and probably all women are going through today. I chose this article because I find that it is different from the other articles I have read. I like the article because it is not just fighting the patriarchal world we live in, and stating everything the author wants to change about the world, just like the other articles I have read; rather, this article is stating women’s insecurity and not finding a solution, but rather leaving it up to the readers. On a more honest note, I chose this article because it addresses an issue I personally have. I have considered plastic surgery to fix my big thighs, my hair, and my stomach and so on. The list can go on and not stop. It all depends on how I feel on that day, what I do not like that day and the most disturbing but honest truth, the list get longer after I have seen skinny looking girls around campus. This leads me straight into the article because one of the author main concerns is not the fact that women are choosing to change their image, but it is the fact that, are they being pressured. In this article, one of the arguments the author talked about is the social norms of the western society when it comes to women’s images. She raised the issues that companies are making millions off women in terms of changing the way they look...

Words: 3223 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Gender Equality Is Undebatable

...Introduction The concept of gender has become a debatable issue in the contemporary society and an important dimension in the design and analysis of social and economic development policies. These development concerns have brought about gender issues at the forefront of national and international agenda. During the 1990's, the gender issue continued to follow the historical trend by being one of the most popular themes of debates. The Human Development Report, (1995) posits that the number of women is greater than or equal to that of men, in today's society, yet females are still considered as a minority segment of the population. As a measure to redress gender inequalities, approaches by feminist movements, such as Women in Development (WID), were crafted but not much was achieved. Later, it was Women and Development (WAD) and lastly Gender and Development (GAD). It seems deep-rooted gender inequality still exists globally, despite substantial national and international measures that have been taken towards gender equality. This essay deliberates on the assertion that, “Gender equality is debatable: what is undebatable is the attempt to make it universally applicable.” The writer agrees to a greater extent that gender equality is a controversial issue basing on the multiplicity of societies that it is applied to. The fact that there is no universal culture, universal religion or universal ideology makes the whole issue arguable, ence, the need to degenderise gender. Definition...

Words: 4163 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay


...CHAPTER 7 DEVIANCE AND SOCIAL CONTROL Deviance 171 Social Policy and Social Control: Illicit Drug Use in Canada and Worldwide 193 What Is Deviance? 171 Explaining Deviance 175 Social Control 182 Conformity and Obedience 182 Informal and Formal Social Control Law and Society 186 Crime 185 187 Types of Crime 188 Crime Statistics 190 The Issue 193 The Setting 193 Sociological Insights 193 Policy Initiatives 193 Boxes RESEARCH IN ACTION: Street Kids 183 sOCIOLOGY IN THE GLOBAL COMMUNITY: Singapore: A Nation of Campaigns 186 TAKING SOCIOLOGY TO WORK: Holly Johnson, Chief of Research, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada 192 Cigarette smoking has become stigmatized in Canada. This newspaper advertisement, sponsored by Health Canada, reverses the typical advertising strategy of equating smoking with sexiness. 169 H eidi Fleiss was in her late twenties when she was arrested for operating a call girl service. At the time, her pediatrician father had reacted flippantly, “I guess I didn’t do such a good job on Heidi after all.” Later, he would be convicted of conspiring to hide profits from his daughter’s call girl ring. Fleiss had dropped out of school when she was sixteen and established a liaison with a playboyfinancier who gave her a Rolls-Royce for her twenty-first birthday. In her early twenties, Fleiss interned in the world of prostitution by working for Madame Alex (Elizabeth Adams)...

Words: 18652 - Pages: 75

Free Essay

Women and Globalization the global citizenry but rather the world's economic and political superpowers - mostly North America-owned corporations. How does economic globalization work? Economic globalization is fueled by international trade agreements signed between nations. The goal of these agreements is to get rid of barriers to trade by allowing companies to move their factories to countries with the lowest labour and environmental standards, countries where they can produce their products the cheapest and therefore sell them for the lowest price, earning them the highest profits. What free trade means in real terms is that whichever country can produce the cheapest product, wins. Through the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), factories in Canada and the United States move to Mexico because they can produce cheaper goods Globalization also encourages cut-backs to government...

Words: 3698 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Lgbt Adoption

...LGBT Adoption New Jersey’s statewide parenting legislation espouses a progressive stance on the matters of same-sex parenting and child care in the processes of adoption and foster parenting. The Garden State allows for same-sex adoption; allows single homosexuals to adopt; and allows second parent same-sex adoption (Lifelong Adoptions, 2013). New Jersey has passed progressive laws and policies that prohibit discrimination charged against LGBT individuals in the adoption process (Lifelong Adoptions, 2013). New Jersey state law also bans discrimination against LGBT individuals in the foster parent process (Lifelong Adoptions, 2013). New Jersey Statutes Annotated 9:3-43 enables for any person to adopt permitted the said person(s) pass a background investigation and meet adoption criteria for eligibility (Onelce, 2012). Unmarried joint adoptive parents petitioning to adopt a child can do so because of N.J.S.A. 9:3-43 (Onelce, 2012). In “Re-adoption of Two Children” by H.N.R., 666 A.2d 535 (Onelce, 2012) addresses second parent adoption; this statute exercises the possibility for an individual to petition for shared rights of custody with a parent who already possesses legal parental custody of a child. Several states prohibit joint adoption due to unmarried status. This statute is favorable for unmarried parents seeking to adopt in New Jersey. This New Jersey statute provides for an overall tolerant atmosphere for LGBT individuals and couples looking to adopt or become foster...

Words: 3067 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay


...Women’s Movement 3.5 Psychoanalytic Feminism 3.5.1 The Beginnings of Psychoanalytic Feminism – Countering Freudian Theories 3.5.2 Explanation by other Theorists 3.5.3 Limitations of Psychoanalytic Feminism 3.5.4 Contribution to the Women’s Movement 3.6 Radical feminism 3.6.1 Definition 3.6.2 The influences that shaped Radical Feminism 3.6.3 What are the variations of Radical Feminism? Radical- Libertarian Feminism Radical-Cultural Feminism 3.6.4 Radical Feminism – Its Structure 3.6.5 The Outcomes of the Movement 3.6.6 Critiques of Radical Feminism 3.6.7 Contribution to the Women’s Movement 3.7 Postmodern Feminism 3.7.1 Postmodern Thought 3.7.2 Postmodern rethinking of psychological explanation of gender 3.7.3 Postmodern Feminist 3.7.4 Limitations of Postmodern feminism 3.7.5 Contribution to the women’s Movement 3.8 Black Feminism and Womanism 3.8.1 The Beginnings of Black Feminism 3.9 Cyber Feminism 3.9.1 Origin of Cyber Feminism 3.9.2 Definition of the 100 Anti Thesis 3.9.3 Cyber art and its relation to Cyber feminism 3.9.4 Cyber Feminism – Practical Manifestation 3.9.5 Cyber Feminism challenges and its future 3.10 Let Us Sum up 3.11 Answers to Check Your Progress 3.12 Unit End Questions 3.13 References 3.1 INTRODUCTION The second half of the twentieth century has seen a new impetus to the women‟s movement. There are many factors responsible for this. One of the main factors, however, has been the recognition of...

Words: 17769 - Pages: 72

Premium Essay

Just to Join

...publication March 21, 2005 Use of Critical Consciousness in Anti-Oppressive Social Work Practice: Disentangling Power Dynamics at Personal and Structural Levels Izumi Sakamoto and Ronald O. Pitner Izumi Sakamoto, Ph.D., is an assistant professor of social work at the University of Toronto, Canada. She received her MA in social welfare from Sophia University, Japan, and her MSW, MS (psychology) and Ph.D. (social work and social psychology) from the University of Michigan, USA. Her research interests include anti-oppressive social work, gender and immigration, cultural influences on the self and identities, and cultural negotiation processes of newcomers. Ronald O. Pitner, Ph.D., is an assistant professor of social work at Washington University in Saint Louis, USA. He received his MA in psychology from the University of Tennessee, USA, a MSW and Ph.D. (social work and social psychology) from the University of Michigan, USA. His research interests are broadly defined in terms of social cognition, stereotyping, prejudice, race and ethnicity, multicultural social work. Correspondence to Izumi Sakamoto, Faculty of Social Work, University of Toronto, 246 Bloor St West, Toronto, ON M5S 1A1, Canada. E-mail: Summary One of the limitations of anti-oppressive perspectives (AOPs) in social work is its lack of focus at a micro and individual level. AOPs should entail the social worker’s addressing the needs and assets of service users, challenging the oppressive...

Words: 8556 - Pages: 35

Free Essay


...SAFM_1.1_05_art_Jha 1/9/09 3:25 PM Page 65 Studies in South Asian Film and Media Volume 1 Number 1 © 2009 Intellect Ltd Article. English language. doi: 10.1386/safm.1.1.65/1 Looking for Love in All the White Places: A Study of Skin Color Preferences on Indian Matrimonial and Mate-Seeking Websites Sonora Jha Seattle University Mara Adelman Seattle University Abstract A preference for light skinned females is a global bias that affects all areas of human relationships, especially in marital mate selection. Further intensified by the meteoric rise in Internet dating and mate selection, this bias often serves an invalidating function for darker-skinned women. This study (1) analyzed ‘profiles’ and ‘preferences’ of brides and grooms (N=200), and (2) coded ‘success story wedding photos’ (N=200) posted on four Indian matrimonial websites. Results showed an overwhelming bias among males for brides lighter-skinned than themselves. Males were also more likely than females to state a preference for skin color in their prospective brides, and to use qualitative words like ‘beautiful’ and ‘lovely’ to describe their preferred match. Most significantly, the ‘success story’ wedding photos consistently had lighter-skinned brides than grooms. Darkskinned women were almost non-existent in these ‘success stories.’ This research points to a technology-abetted intensification of colorism. That is to say that the powerful profile ‘menu’ options and the visual imagery of predominantly...

Words: 9301 - Pages: 38

Premium Essay


...Patriarchy is best defined as control by men. The opposite is matriarchy which means women are in charge and the head of families. Obviously, the culture of the United States and most other countries is patriarchal. Men have the power and control the women. If you don't believe that consider the basics of how our society functions. Women constantly must fight for their rights and sometimes they struggle just to survive without the power and domination of men threatening them. Whether an individual woman wants to conquer patriarchy will come from her desire to be independent and defined outside the context of men. Look to most world leaders to see how powerful patriarchy is. Women are certainly as capable as men to be President of the United States, yet they are not and probably won't be any time soon. Men have been in that role for so long that our country probably does not believe it is possible. Consider who is typically at the head of a company or leaders in local governments. While certainly more women are fulfilling these roles, it is a constant struggle for the ones who are able to achieve that success with men having much more power just by their biological nature. Men have not had to fight for their place in society like women have. It has been an expectation that they will become leaders because that is what patriarchy is about. Much of patriarchy also has its roots in Christianity. Religions which believe the Bible or other religious text often follow it faithfully...

Words: 12725 - Pages: 51

Premium Essay

Ir Theories

...Theories of International Relations Third edition Scott Burchill, Andrew Linklater, Richard Devetak, Jack Donnelly, Matthew Paterson, Christian Reus-Smit and Jacqui True Theories of International Relations This page intentionally left blank Theories of International Relations Third edition Scott Burchill, Andrew Linklater, Richard Devetak, Jack Donnelly, Matthew Paterson, Christian Reus-Smit and Jacqui True Material from 1st edition © Deakin University 1995, 1996 Chapter 1 © Scott Burchill 2001, Scott Burchill and Andrew Linklater 2005 Chapter 2 © Jack Donnelly 2005 Chapter 3 © Scott Burchill, Chapters 4 and 5 © Andrew Linklater, Chapters 6 and 7 © Richard Devetak, Chapter 8 © Christian Reus-Smit, Chapter 9 © Jacqui True, Chapter 10 © Matthew Paterson 2001, 2005 All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of this publication may be made without written permission. No paragraph of this publication may be reproduced, copied or transmitted save with written permission or in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, or under the terms of any licence permitting limited copying issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1T 4LP. Any person who does any unauthorized act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. The authors have asserted their rights to be identified as the authors of this work in accordance with the Copyright...

Words: 132890 - Pages: 532