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Content Theories

In: Business and Management

Submitted By patricemford
Words 1024
Pages 5
Content theories are concerned with identifying the needs that people have and how needs are prioritized. They are concerned with types of incentives that drive people to attain a need for fulfillment. The Maslow hierarchy theory, Fredrick Herberg’s two factor theory and Alderfer’s ERG needs theory fall in this category. Although such a content approach has logic, is easy to understand, and can be readily translated in practice, the research evidence points outs our limitations. There is very little research support for these models’ theoretical basis and predictability. The trade off for simplicity sacrifices true understanding of the complexity of work motivation. On the positive side, however, the content models have given emphasis to important content factors that were largely ignored by human relationists. In addition the Alderfer model allows more flexibility and the Herzberg model is useful as an explanation for job satisfaction and as a point of departure for job design.
The process theories provide a much sounder theoretical explanation of work motivations. The expectancy model of Vroom and the extensions and the refinements provided by Porter and Lawler help explain the important cognitive variables and how they relate to one another in the process of work motivation. The Porter Lawler model also gives specific attention to the important relationship between performance and satisfaction. A growing research literature is somewhat supportive of these expectancy models, but conceptual and methodological problems remain. Unlike the content models these expectancy models are relatively complex and difficult to translate into actual practice, and, consequently, they have generally failed to meet the goals of prediction and control of organization behavior.
The process theories are concerned with identifying the variables that go into motivation and more…...

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