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NATURE OF PROPHETHOOD IN ISLAM

It is a gift from the Almighty to His special people upon whom he confirms prophethood.,thus it cannot be acquired by a person on his own.However,through His wisdom He grants to whosoever stands prepared for it and is capable of carrying it.As he blessed prophethood on Hz Muhammad when he was searching for the truth in the cave of Hira. The Quran mentions ,He does not send down His angels with inspiration of His command to such of His servants as He pleases.We all agree that they are incapable of making mistakes and they conveyed Allah’s message as it was revealed on them.Like all men,Prophets are truly fallible,their distinction lies in that Allah does not leave them in their error,He corrects them as He taught the words of Forgiveness to Hz Adam when he neared the forbidden tree . TABUK EXPEDITION

This expedition took place against the Romans in 9Ah.The. Conditions at Madina at that time were not at all favourable for the Muslims.It was the time for the harvesting of the crops and the ripening of dates, Madina was facing a severe famine ,the weather was very hot and the Journey was too long.The Holy Prophet declared Jehad compulsory for all.
The Arabs were apprehensive after their defeat at Mautah.The hypocrites created fear of the enemy and the weather and stayed back.A few companions of the Prophet such as Kaaba bin Malik and Murara bin Rabi stayed back not because of disobedience but due to procrastination.
The Holy Prophet asked for contributions,Hz Abu Bakr contributed everything he had,saying he had left Allah and the Prophet behind.Hz Umar contributed half of his house hold.Hz Uthman financed 1/3 of the entire expenditure.A companion Hz Abu Aqeel Ansari worked the entire night in an orchard belonging to a Jew and earned a handful of dates and gave it for Islam.The Prophet was very pleased with his contributions.Hz Ali was left behind as the Prophet’s deputy at Madina, he was sad as he could not participate but the Prophet said that he shared the same relationship as of Haroon (as) to Musa (as)
The Prophet marched with an army of 30,000 men towards on a seven days journey to the border of Tabuk.The hypocrites initially joined but later excused and returned.The enemy had already dispersed when they had got to know about the strength of the Muslims.The Prophet sent small expeditions against the various Christian and Jewish.Many of these tribes came under the protection of Islam and agreed to pay Jizyah . The Prophet guaranteed them full protection.Afterstaying for 20 days the Prophet left for. Madinan.
This was the last military campaign in which the Prophet participated.This expedition did not achieve any military objectives.However it was the final extinction of the hypocrites.They had always plotted against the Muslims.The mosque which they had built at Quba was demolished by the. Orders of Allah Almighty as it had become a gathering place for conspiracies againstIslam.After two months Abdullah Bin Ubai died and with his death the hypocrites ceased to exist.
After the event Arabia was so safe that a woman pilgrim could travel all the way from Hira to Makkah without fearing anyone except Allah.

BATTLE OF HUNAIN

At the conquest of Makkah in 8AH practically the whole of Arabia had accepted Islam.The tribes of Hawazin and Banu Thaqeef who had’nt accepted Islam yet became aggressive.With about 20,000 warriors,women children and with their livestocks attacked the Muslims.The Prophet (saw) too prepared for the attack. His army consisted of 12,000 warriors which included 10,000 Madinians who had participated in the conquest of Makkah and 2000 reverts who had accepted Islam at the conquest of Makkah.The Banu Thaqeef posted their archers at the mountains.TheMuslims entered the valley to which there was terror and confusion,some of the new accepter s of Islam retreated.The Holy Prophet called them and spike to them due to which their faithrekindled.The Muslim army fought with great thrust and Allah supported them by sending His calm and angels too came to assist the Muslims .the Quran verily says,Assurdely Allah did help you in many battlefields and on the day of Hunain.
The Muslims captured a vast booty comprising of 6000 prisoners and a large number of camels,sheep and huge amount of silver.It was a great victory for the Muslims and it convinced the other nomadic tribes about the strength of Islam,and the supremacy and sovereignty of Madinah was established over all Arabia. KHEYBER EXPEDITION

This expedition took place in 7 AH. It so happened that the Jews who had been exiled from Madina after they had broken the treaty which was agreed between them and the Holy Prophet had taken refuge in Khyber.They were plotting against the Muslims and now were able to get the support of the Ghatafan tribe and the hypocrites.When they got to know about the terms of the treaty of Hudaibya they took it as a weakness of the Muslims and started making preparations to attack the Muslims.
When the Holy Prophet got to know about this he marched with 1600 men .The Quran says,”Allah has promised you abundant spoils that you will capture,and He has hastened for you this.”The Prophet did not want a long a siege,so he ordered for the attack.The Muslims captured all the fortresses without much difficulty,but when they reached the Fort of Qamus,the fight prolonged for twenty days.Each day they had to return without success ,until one day the Holy Prophet said the next day he would sent a person who would be the conquerer of the Fort.The next day people were waiting anxiously for who the Prophet would choose as the commander,and he was none other than Hz Ali who conquered the fort ,uprooted its gate single handedly and also killed the strong Jewish warrior Marhab.
The Jews surrendered after this and requested the Holy Prophet to grant them peace.The holy Prophet allowed them to stay in Khyber on the condition that they would live in peace,and give half of the produce of their land to the Muslims.
The spoils of war received at Khyber were so great that ,Ibn Umar said :”we never ate our fill until we conquered Khyber.”

WHAT DOES THE PROPHET’S FIRST EXPERIENCE OF REVELATION TELL US ABOUT THE NATURE OF PROPHETHOOD IN ISLAM ?

What does the Prophet’s first experience of revelation tell us about the nature of prophethood in Islam?
Prophethood is a gift from Allah that cannot be acquired by a person.Allah grants it to whosoever through His wisdom,to those who stand prepared for it and are capable of carrying it.He knows when and where to send His Prophets.Infallibility of Prophets and their manner of conveying the message and the performance of their divine trust is a matter on which there is an agreed Ijma of all the scholars.
Like all men Prophets are truly fallible, their distinction lies in that, Allah does not leave them in their error, He corrects them.The Prophets before being blessed with Prophethood do not know if they are chosen as it comes to them as a surprise.For eg.Hz Musa was attracted to a spiritual fire and when he approached it he was told he was blessed woth Prophethood .Hz Muhammad ( saw) too was surprised when he saw Hz Jibrael for the first time.
The facilitation from Allah is through the miracles,Hz Musa with the staff,Hz Saleh with the emergence of a she camel,Hz Isa could speak from the cradle.When Hz Younus left his nation, by miracle he was swallowed by a whale,remained in its stomach and was then thrown out after 40 days supplication.

QUESTIONs

The Holy Prophet’s interaction with the Quraish in Makka before and after revelation . 10 mks
Birth and upbringing grandfather Abdul Mutalib and uncle Abu Talib
Role of Abu Talib. Journey. To teach the art of trade
Battle of Fijar 580—590 Fair of Akaz prophet participated with his uncles. Picking up arrows and handing it to his uncles
Hilf al Fadul Age 15 yrs the Prophet was present when the oath was taken. And was very happy, he said later “I would not exchange for the choicest camels in all Arabia,the remembrance of being present at the oath”in the house of a noble Quraish Abdullah bin Judan
Youth. Al Sadiq and Al amen
On the occasion of pilgrimage he used to supply water to the pilgrims and looked after their comforts
He travelled with trade caravans to ,Syria and Yemen
Marriage to Khadija. Abu Talib accepted the proposal on his behalf
Fixing of the Black stone
Revelation ” And warn your relatives”
Dinner
Safa hill
Opposition and persecution (few details)
Delegation to Abu Talib and the prophet’s response
Quraish came with another proposal, that he should worship their gods and they in turn would worship his God.Allah declared”you have your religion and I have my religion”
Increased persecution : some people were asked to migrate to Abysinnia ( followed by Amr bin al Aas ) brief interaction
Boycott of the Banu Hashim. ( brief story)
Death of Abu Talib and Khadija and Abu Lahab his greatest enemy as the new Quraish leader
Invitation by the people of Yathrib after the visit to Taif
Plot at Darun Nadwa ( brief story)
Migration . Chase by the Quraish and Allah’s protection at the cave of Sawr.

CHANGE OF PROPHET’S RELATIONS WITH JEWS AND HYPOCRITES

(a) Outline the changes in Prophet’s relations with the Jewish tribes and the ‘hypocrites’ in Madinah, in the years 622 and 632.
When the Prophet migrated to Madinah in 622 AD, apart from Muslims, 3 Jewish tribes (Banu Qainuqah, Banu Nadeer and Banu Quraydhah) resided in the suburbs of Madinah. There were also people who portrayed themselves to be Muslims, but in effect, were bitterest enemies of Islam. They were known as Munafiqun, hypocrites, and were led by Abdullah bin Ubay.
Prophet wanted to have good relationship with Jews of Madinah, so he signed a treaty with them, known as the Charter of Madinah. The charter granted Jews freedom to practice their religion, but also said that they shall not have any relations with the Quraysh and if Madinah is attacked, they shall all unite to protect it. The Jews agreed to these terms.
However, soon the Jews prove that they were not to be trusted with such issues. In 2 AH, Battle of Badr took place. The Jews of Banu Qainuqah broke the convenant and kept bilateral relations with the Quraysh, and also offered them aid against Muslims. After the war, Prophet was forced to take action against them and Banu Qainuqah were exiled after a siege.
Then, in 3 AH, the chief of Banu Nadeer, Kaab bin Ashraf, went to Makkah to join the Makkans in their mourning for those who had died in Battle of Badr. He instigated the Makkans to attack Muslims and also offered them help, if needed. Therefore, in 3 AH, Battle of Uhad took place. The Banu Nadeer continued aiding the Quraysh, who, in the end, emerged successful. However, the Prophet knew that action must be taken against Banu Nadeer so, they were asked to leave Madinah. On refusal, a 14-day siege was laid onto their forts after which they surrendered, and went to Syria and Khyber, which later became Jew strongholds.
Later, in 5 AH, when Madinah was attacked by tribes from all over Arabia (including Quraysh, Banu Ghatafan, Tihamah, Ashjah, Murrah, Kinanah) in the Battle of Ahzab, the last Jew tribe, Banu Quraydhah, broke the Charter of Madinah. Not only did they provide financial assistance to the allies, but also provided them a route into Madinah via their forts and other secret passages. Though Muslims emerged successful, after the war, action was taken against Banu Quraydhah, according to a decision by Hz Saad bin Muaadh, as per Jewish law in the Old Testament. Their men were slain and women & children were taken as captives.
The insurgencies continued as the Jews of Khyber still posed a threat for Muslims. In7 AH, the Khyber Expedition took place against Jews as a result of the problems they were causing. The fortresses at Khyber were conquered with ease and Jews were allowed to retain their land if they agreed to pay a tribute, On the way back, a Jew woman tried to poison Holy Prophet by giving him poisoned meat of a goat, but miraculously the Prophet was saved as Allah informed him. Attempts were also made by Banu Nadeer to martyr him by dropping a heavy boulder on him from a height, but again the Prophet was saved by Allah’s Will. This forced the Prophet to take austere measures against the Jews.
The relation with Munafiqun was not as harsh, but it did show change. Since migration, Abdullah bin Ubay (who was supposed to be crowned king of Madinah if migration had not taken place) housed rivalries for the Prophet and maintained secret ties with the Quraysh. He encouraged the Quraysh & kept in constant contact with them in the Battle of Badr. In Uhad, he, alongwith his 300 men, deserted the Muslim army on the excuse that Abdullah bin Ubay’s advice to fight within Madinah had not been accepted. Prophet was informed of the names of these 300 Munafiqun by Hz Jibrael but he did not take action against them, nor did he disclose the names publicly (only Hz Huzaifa knew). Then in 5 AH, Battle of Trench, he against kept in constant contact with the Quraysh. In 7 AH, when returning from an expedition to Banu Mustaliq, the incident of Ifk, slander on Hz Ayesha by Munafiqun took place. On getting to know the realities, the hypocrites (alongwith the Believers who had become trapped in the propaganda) were given 80 slashes of the cane.
In Tabuk Expedition, The Munafiqun did not accompany the Prophet, and on return of the Prophet, made all sorts of excuses. But the Prophet forgave them all and prayed for them. They also made Masjid-e-Ziraar as a stronghold, to harm Muslims, and plan against them. This mosque was demolished by Prophet on Allah’s orders. At the death of Abdullah bin Ubay in9 AH, the Prophet even gave him his shirt to be buried in, and also offered his funeral, but was mildly reproached by Allah for doing so. After his death, the strength of Munafiqun broke and they embraced Islam. (b) Suggest reasons why his relations with the Jewish tribes changed.
The Prophet soon realised that Jews did not respect his position as a prophet, and abused him. This was intolerable. It was also necessary to change relationships with Jews because they were becoming a constant threat for Muslims by repeatedly cooperating with Quraysh against Muslims. They were a threat to the safety & integrity of Madinah, thus had to be expelled. Moreover, they hated the Prophet and wanted to kill him. Since the life of the Prophet himself was not safe from them, they were treated harshly. When the Quraan revealed the verse in Surah Nisaa condemning all sorts of relations with Jews, the relations further deteriorated, and also encouraged taking action against the Jews.
CONQUEST OF MAKKAH

In 6 AH the Prophet had signed Treaty of Hudaybiyah. One term of the Treaty was that both, Muslims and Quraysh could ally with any tribe they wanted, and none of the allies should fight the other party’s allies. After this, Banu Khuza allied with Muslims and Banu Bakr allied with Quraysh.
However, in 8 AH, some men (around 10) of Banu Khuza were killed in the vicinity of the Kaabah by men of Banu Bakr. People of Banu Khuza went to Prophet for protection. Prophet sent an envoy to Quraysh regarding the matter and gave them three choices: wither to dissolve their alliance with Banu Bake, or to pay blood money to Banu Khuza, or to declare the Treaty of Hudaybiyah null and void. Quraysh chose the third option and Prophet was forced into a war.
In Ramadan, 8 AH, Prophet prepared an army of 10,000 people, and marched towards Makkah. The army was divided into 4 battalions, each towards different directions. The Prophet camped on the hills in the suburbs of Makkah and ordered a bonfire to be made for every 4 people (unlike the regular custom of one fire per 20-25 people). This made Muslims appear numerically strong. Since Makkans had never seen such a large and well-prganised army before, they were flabbergasted. Hazrat Abu Sufiyan (who had not embraced Islam by then) came to the Prophet to negotiate. The Prophet said that if Makkans lay down their arms, they will be pardoned.
Hz Abu Sufiyan returned to Makkah. The Makkans seemed intimidated by such a large force and offered no resistance to 3 of the 4 battalions. However, the battalion of Hz Khalid bin Walid was attacked by tribesmen; in the resulting skirmish, some people were killed.
Victorious, Prophet entered into Makkah. But when he entered, his head was down with humility and he was thanking Allah. Then he addressed the people who had gathered, reminding them of the persecutions they had inflicted upon Muslims, asking them how did they expect to be treated this day. They replied, “You are a noble brother and a noble cousin.” The Prophet said, “Anyone who lays down his arms is safe, anyone who closes the door of his house is safe, anyone who takes refuge in Abu Sufiyan’s house is safe.” Except for 18 or 19 bitterest enemies of Islam, everyone was granted amnesty. Hz Abu Sufiyan embraced Islam.
The Prophet then went to the Kaabah and entered it. He had Hz Ali sit on his shoulders and break all 360 idols present therein. This verse was revealed, “Say Truth has arrived and Falsehood has perished; indeed Falsehood is to perish.” The Prophet then ordered Hz Bilal to climb the roof of the Kaabah and deliver Adhaan. The Adhaan was delivered and prayers offered.
The Prophet stayed in Makkah for 15 days. The Ansaar expressed fear that the Prophet may remain in Makkah, but he assured them that this was not the case. Almost all Makkans embraced Islam; those who did not, agreed to pay Jizya. The Prophet then nominated a governor for Makkah and left for Madinah.
The conquest of Makkah took place of 21st of Ramadan, 8 AH, and Allah’s promise, “Indeed you have been granted manifest victory” came true.
TABUK EXPEDITION

* 9th year of Hijrah, against Romans * Conditions at Madinah: * Severe famine * Time of harvest; ripening of dates * Long journey; extremely hot * Jihad compulsory * Arabs apprehensive after defeat at Mautah * Hypocrites created fear of enemy and weather, and stayed back * A few Muslim CompanionsRA (some out of procrastination) stayed back (Kaab bin MaalikRA, Murrah bin RabiRA, Hilaal bin UmayyahRA)
Holy ProphetSAWW asked for contributions: Hazrat AbubakrRA donated everything he had, Hazrat UmarRA gave half of his household, Hazrat UthmaanRA financed 1/3 of the total expedition, another CompanionRA worked for the whole night in a Jew’s garden, and gave the handful of dates he had earned, for the cause * Hazrat AliRA made Prophet’sSAWW deputy at Madinah * ProphetSAWW collected 30,000 men and marched. Initially hypocrites joined and later they excused and retired * Seven days journey to reach * Enemy had already dispersed as they feared the huge army of the Muslims
Many Christian tribes entered into alliance and came under protection; agreed to pay Jizya * Though this expedition did not gain any military objectives, it gave the direction from which Islam would face the greatest threat * It was the final extinction of the hypocrites * The mosque made by hypocrites (Masjid-e-Ziraar) was abolished * Death of Abdullah bin Ubai * It was the last campaign of the Holy ProphetSAWW

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