Premium Essay

Copier Confusion Case Study

In: Business and Management

Submitted By bbenton96
Words 368
Pages 2
COPIER CONFUSION CASE STUDY

Abstract

The Business Company, Inc., badly needed new copying machines. The company had 20 machines, but they were old and copy quality was poor. They broke down frequently. And to change paper size from 8.5 x 11 in. to legal-size, the user had to remove one paper tray containing 8.5 x 11 in. paper and replace it with a tray containing legal-size paper. Newer machines had two trays, one for each paper size, that permitted changing paper size at the push of a button without changing paper trays. The company’s purchasing agent, thought this would be a labor-saving feature and decided to include it in a specification for purchase of new machines. The copying machine industry called this feature, “dual-cassette” design.

John Richards, the company’s purchasing agent, thought this would be a labor-saving feature and decided to include it in a specification for purchase of new machines. The copying machine industry called this feature, “dual-cassette” design.

The Business Company issued an invitation for bids for purchase and maintenance of 20 replacement machines. The solicitation included a specification that called for a machine that would permit “copying both 8.5 x 11 in. and legal-size paper without manually changing the paper trays.” The term dual cassette did not appear in the specification.

John received bids from several companies, including Copies Incorporated, a reputable manufacturer. Copiers had greeted the invitation for bids with great pleasure. Their inventory included 30 of their Model 125 copying machines, which they were phasing out. The Model 125 had only one tray, which held 8.5 x 11 in. and legal-size paper, but legal-size paper could be copied without removing the 8.5 x 11 in. tray. After pushing a button, the user could make legal-size copies by manually...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Apple

...Engineering and Technology Management, 8 ( 1991 ) 67-83 Elsevier Towards a new theory of innovation management: A case study comparing Canon, Inc. and Apple Computer, Inc. Ikujiro Nonaka Institute of Business Research, Hitotsuhashi University, Kunitachi, Tokyo, Japan Martin Kenney Department of Applied Behavioral Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA Abstract This paper argues that innovation can be best understood as an information process which is then concretized as a product that meets demand. Two very different firms, Canon Inc. and Apple Computer Inc., are used as case study illustrations. Innovation does not proceed through logical deduction, but rather is furthered by the use of metaphors and analogies. The bureaucratic and staid structures of the firm can be challenged and broken up to provide the space for innovations to emerge. The leader’s role in the innovating firm is as a catalyst and facilitator, not as an allknowing despot. The importance of innovations is not merely in the new product, but also the “ripple” effects of innovations which can propel the firm into a self-renewal process. Keywords: Innovation management, High-technology, Case study. 1. Introduction Increasingly, corporate competitive success is hinging upon the effective management of innovation. Innovation has been the object of considerable academic study from a variety of perspectives. However, innovations are usually considered as objects. We choose......

Words: 7671 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay

Procurement

...Contracts and Procurement Management Notes: E-PROCUREMENT E-Procurement is the business to business (B2B) purchasing of goods and services through the Internet. These days, E-procurement is an invaluable tool for streamlining the procurement process. There are several varieties of e-Procurement, each of which can offers benefits to manufacturing enterprises in ensuring both that materials are delivered in time to meet production schedules and that they are at the best price to maximize profit margins. The state of Kentucky uses two methods to manage their contracts. These processes are: the competitive sealed bidding where by the bid is opened publicly at the time and place of solicitation and the competitive negotiation by RFP of which they are not opened publicly. E-Procurement.gov. helps the government and the citizens realize the vision of growth via profitable B2B e-commerce. The proven platform used by the largest companies in India and the world, it enables trade between companies of different sizes, platforms and locations.To this end,eProcurement.gov.in will provide services like eProcurement, eTendering, eSelling and eAuctions. E-procurement Auction Services offers government departments easy-to-use, web-based solutions for conducting dynamic exchanges in an on-line environment. It provides real-time bidding solutions for buyers and sellers as control, and simplicity to corporate procurement and liquidation processes. The state of Kentucky uses two methods......

Words: 8347 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay

Concept of Ba

...MANAGING FOR THE LONG TERM | BEST OF HBR | November–December 1991 The Knowledge-Creating Company by Ikujiro Nonaka Editor’s Note: This 1991 article helped popularize the notion of “tacit” knowledge – the valuable and highly subjective insights and intuitions that are difficult to capture and share because people carry them in their heads. Years later, the piece can still startle a reader with its views of organizations and of the types of knowledge that inform them. For example, the advice on how to distill objective and transferable, or “explicit,” knowledge from tacit knowledge – with a vivid illustration of Matsushita Electric’s efforts to build a better bread-making machine – is both arresting and actionable. The next step: ensuring that explicit knowledge is translated back into tacit knowledge that will then go on to yield yet another innovative solution. 162 Harvard Business Review 1284 Nonaka.indd 162 | July–August 2007 I the one sure source of lasting competitive advantage is knowledge. When markets shift, technologies proliferate, competitors multiply, and products become obsolete almost overnight, successful companies are those that consistently create new knowledge, disseminate it widely throughout the organization, and quickly embody it in new technologies and products. These activities define the “knowledge-creating” company, whose sole business is continuous innovation. And yet, despite all the talk about......

Words: 6524 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Uma Sakaran Answers

...CHAPTER 1 1. Define research and explain the different between applied and basic research. Answer : business research as an organized,systematic,database,critical,objective,scientific inquiry or investigation into a specific problem, undertaken with the purpose of finding answers or solution to it.and the different between applied and basic research is, applied research done with the intention of applying the results of the findings to solve specivic problems currently being experience in the organizations,and basic research done chiefly to enhance the understanding of certain problems that commonly occur in organization settings,and seek methods of solving them. 2. Why is it important for managers to know about research ? Answer : the important for managers to know about research because they will become more discriminating when sifting through information in business journals,take calculate risk in the decision making, knowing full well the probabilities attached to the different possible outcomes. 3. Exlain why handling the manager – researcher relationship effectively is important . Answer : it is very important because managers should know about research for good decision making. 4. Describe a situation where it would be more beneficial to engage an external research team rather than an internal one ! Answer : if a problems is a complex one, or if there are likely to be vested interest, or if the very existence of the organization is at stake because of one or more......

Words: 7965 - Pages: 32

Premium Essay

Mcdonalds

...Licensed to: CengageBrain User Licensed to: CengageBrain User This is an electronic version of the print textbook. Due to electronic rights restrictions, some third party content may be suppressed. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. The publisher reserves the right to remove content from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. For valuable information on pricing, previous editions, changes to current editions, and alternate formats, please visit www.cengage.com/highered to search by ISBN#, author, title, or keyword for materials in your areas of interest. Copyright 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Licensed to: CengageBrain User Organization Theory & Design, Eleventh Edition Richard L. Daft With the Assistance of Patricia G. Lane Vice President of Editorial, Business: Jack W. Calhoun Publisher: Erin Joyner Executive Editor: Scott Person Developmental Editor: Erin Guendelsberger Sr. Editorial Assistant: Ruth Belanger Marketing Manager:......

Words: 29680 - Pages: 119

Premium Essay

Principles of Personal Responsibilities and Working in a Business Environment

...Unit one: Principles of personal responsibilities and working in a business environment Assessment You should use this file to complete your Assessment. * The first thing you need to do is save a copy of this document, either onto your computer or a disk * Then work through your Assessment, remembering to save your work regularly * When you’ve finished, print out a copy to keep for reference * Then, go to www.vision2learn.com and send your completed Assessment to your tutor via your My Study area – make sure it is clearly marked with your name, the course title and the Unit and Assessment number. Please note that this Assessment document has 8 pages and is made up of 7 Sections. ------------------------------------------------- Name: Gerald Newton Section 1 – Know the employment rights and responsibilities of the employee and employer 1. Identify four main points that would be included in a contract of employment. If possible, use an example contract to support your answer (feel free to obscure any confidential information). As I do not have a current contract of employment of my own I have downloaded a template of a contract and attached it at the end of this document as evidence 1. A. Names of both parties: Employer and Employee (Evidence 1 part one on form) B. Job Title and key responsibilities (Evidence 1 part 3a and 3b on form) C. Salary and any other benefits i.e. company car (Evidence 1 part 5 and 6 indicating when......

Words: 10962 - Pages: 44

Free Essay

Patent Law Outline

...Federal Authority a. Copyright/Patent Authority Article I Sec.1 cl. 8 i. “Progress of science and useful arts” 1. Science is copyright, and useful arts is patents 2. In the days of the Constitution means “knowledge.” ii. Utilitarian clause – not based on the moral rights iii. Most protection is pretty much on federal level. iv. Certain States with particular businesses adopted their own laws, which Congress eventually incorporated into federal law (e.g. CA sound recording) b. Trademarks ( Commerce power – basis for federal system i. Prevents consumer confusion and protects information assets – tells people who is making the goods ii. Historically, there was only state TM law, but people starting producing things in different states causing consumer confusion iii. Most trademark cases...

Words: 34600 - Pages: 139

Free Essay

Positioning the Battle for Your Mind

...redirecting... | |cover |next page > | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ...

Words: 30800 - Pages: 124

Premium Essay

Strategic Management

...CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT? What is Strategy? The term ‘strategy’ proliferates in discussions of business. Scholars and consultants have provided myriad models and frameworks for analysing strategic choice (Hambrick and Fredrickson, 2001). For us, the key issue that should unite all discussion of strategy is a clear sense of an organization’s objectives and a sense of how it will achieve these objectives. It is also important that the organization has a clear sense of its distinctiveness. For the leading strategy guru, Michael Porter (1996), strategy is about achieving competitive advantage through being different – delivering a unique value added to the customer, having a clear and enactable view of how to position yourself uniquely in your industry, for example, in the ways in which Southwest Airlines positions itself in the airline industry and IKEA in furniture retailing, in the way that Marks & Spencer used to. To enact a successful strategy requires that there is fit among a company’s activities, that they complement each other, and that they deliver value to the firm and its customers. The three companies we have just mentioned illustrate that industries are fluid and that success is not guaranteed. Two of the firms came to prominence by taking on industry incumbents and developing new value propositions. The third was extremely successful and lost this position. While there is much debate on substance, there is agreement that strategy is......

Words: 6890 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

Accounting

...Seventh Edition Accounting for Decision Making and Control Jerold L. Zimmerman University of Rochester To: Conner, Easton, and Jillian ACCOUNTING FOR DECISION MAKING AND CONTROL, SEVENTH EDITION Published by McGraw-Hill, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Previous editions © 2009, 2006, and 2003. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States. This book is printed on acid-free paper. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 DOW/DOW 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 ISBN MHID 978-0-07-813672-6 0-07-813672-5 Vice President & Editor-in-Chief: Brent Gordon Vice President of EDP: Sesha Bolisetty Editorial Director: Stewart Mattson Sponsoring Editor: Dick Hercher Marketing Manager: Sankha Basu Editorial Coordinator: Rebecca Mann Project Manager: Erin Melloy Design Coordinator: Brenda A. Rolwes Cover Designer: Studio Montage, St. Louis, Missouri Production Supervisor: Sue Culbertson Media Project Manager: Balaji Sundararaman Compositor: MPS Limited, A Macmillan......

Words: 209552 - Pages: 839

Premium Essay

Accounting for Decision Making and Control

...Seventh Edition Accounting for Decision Making and Control Jerold L. Zimmerman University of Rochester To: Conner, Easton, and Jillian ACCOUNTING FOR DECISION MAKING AND CONTROL, SEVENTH EDITION Published by McGraw-Hill, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Previous editions © 2009, 2006, and 2003. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States. This book is printed on acid-free paper. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 DOW/DOW 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 ISBN MHID 978-0-07-813672-6 0-07-813672-5 Vice President & Editor-in-Chief: Brent Gordon Vice President of EDP: Sesha Bolisetty Editorial Director: Stewart Mattson Sponsoring Editor: Dick Hercher Marketing Manager: Sankha Basu Editorial Coordinator: Rebecca Mann Project Manager: Erin Melloy Design Coordinator: Brenda A. Rolwes Cover Designer: Studio Montage, St. Louis, Missouri Production Supervisor: Sue Culbertson Media Project Manager: Balaji Sundararaman Compositor: MPS Limited, A Macmillan......

Words: 209552 - Pages: 839

Premium Essay

Whats in a Name?

...WHAT’S IN A NAME - HOW A NAME AFFECTS THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR Priyanka Kumari Ma in Fashion Marketing Priyankamgt768@gmail.com Pearl Academy, Naraina, New Delhi, India Abstract “A product is something that is made in a factory; a brand is something that is bought by a customer. A product can be copied by a competitor, a brand is unique. A product can be quickly out-dated, a successful brand is timeless” (Quiston, 2004, p 345). Many brands today mean little to consumers, who have become accustomed to buying on price alone. But a new tool can help companies separate themselves from the crowd. (David Aaker).Branding has emerged as a top management priority in the last decade due to the growing realization that brands are one of the most valuable intangible assets that firms have. Driven in part by this intense industry interest, academic researchers have explored a number of different brand-related topics in recent years, generating scores of papers, articles, research reports, and books. This paper identifies some of the influential work in the branding area, highlighting what has been learned from an academic perspective on important topics such as brand positioning, brand integration, brand-equity measurement, brand growth, and brand management. The paper also outlines some gaps that exist in the research of branding and brand equity and formulates a series of related research questions. Choice modelling implications of the branding concept and the challenges of...

Words: 9838 - Pages: 40

Premium Essay

Brand Positioning Through the Consumers’ Lens

...Associate Professor Kevin E. Voss, Ph. D., Professor William E. Baker, Ph. D., and o. Univ. Prof. Bodo B. Schlegelmilch, Ph. D., D. Litt, for their excellent comments on the issue of positioning effectiveness measurement. Furthermore, I am indebted to Dr. Daniel Hoppe, ao. Univ. Prof. Dr. Elfriede Penz, and Professor Rajan Varadarajan, Ph. D., for valuable comments on the qualitative study conducted in Chapter 3. Moreover, I would like to thank Florian Mailänder and Mag. Fritz Alexander from Research International Ltd. for their agreement to collaborate on the scale development project (Chapter 5) and for their valuable input from the practitioners’ side. iii iv ABSTRACT Brand positioning is a core concept in marketing. Despite the importance of the concept, however, there is limited research in the field of positioning clarifying to what extent various brand positioning alternatives affect consumer perceptions and how positioning effectiveness can be best measured. The present dissertation consists of three complementary empirical studies aimed at shedding light on the latter issues. The first study explores the impact of distinct types of brand positioning strategies on consumer categorization...

Words: 12483 - Pages: 50

Premium Essay

Term Paper

...Assistant Professor | Course name | Business English and communication | Course code | F-101 | submitted by: GROUP NO: 12 NAMES | ID | mahfuzur rahman | 19-084 | MAEDUL ISLAM | 19-054 | SAMIUN NAHAR NITU | 19-174 | AFROZA LUBNA | 19-138 | RIPON HALDER TANMOY | 19-069 | | | | SUBMISSION DATE: 12/06/2013 Executive summary x Chapter -1 | 1.1 Background of report 7 1.2 Objective of the report 7 1.3 Scope of study 7 1.4 Methodology used 8 1.5 Preview of presentation 8 | Chapter -2 | 2.1 Technological evolution in modern communication 8 2.2 Electronic media in written communication 9 2.2.1 E-mail 9 2.2.2 Word processing 9 2.2.3 Electronic bulletin board 10 2.2.4 On line database 10 2.2.5 Internet 10 2.2.5.1 On line internet 10 2.2.5.2 Off line internet 11 2.2.7 Computer printer 11 2.2.8 Scanner 12 2.2.9 Others 12-13 | Chapter -3 | 3.1 Software mostly used in business 12 3.1.1 Brainkeeper 13 3.1.2 Stata 14-16 3.1.3 Saga one 16 3.1.4 Quick books 17 3.1.5 Quick books pro 17 3.1.6 SAP Business Suit 18-19 3.1.7 Oracle E-Business Suite 19-20 3.1.8 Voice Recognition Software...

Words: 6229 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

Business

...IIBM Institute of Business Management Business Communication www.iibmindia.in SYLLABUS Business Communication S. No. Description 1 Communication in Business Organizations: Introduction; Meaning of Business Communication; Types of Information Exchanged in Business Organizations; Role of Communication in Business Organizations; Importance of Communication in Management of Business Organizations; Scope of Communication in Organizational Setting; Characteristics of Effective Business Communication; Ethical challenges and Traps in Business Communication; Role of Communication in Three Managerial Roles Defined by Henry Mintzberg 2 Nature, Scope and Process of Communication: Introduction; Defining Communication; Nature of Communication; Objectives/Purpose of Communication; Functions of Communication; Process of Communication; Elements of Communication Process; Process of Communication: Models; Thill and Bovee‘s Model of Communication Process; Working of the Process of Communication; Forms of Communication; On the Basis of Expression/Medium Used; On the Basis of Organisational Structure; On the Basis of the Number of Persons 2.13 (receivers); On the Basis of Direction/Flow of Communication 3 Channels and Networks of Communication: Introduction; Channels of Communication; Communication Flow in Organizations: Directions/Dimensions of Communication; The Concept of Ombudsperson; Patterns of Flow of Communication or Networks; Factors......

Words: 152539 - Pages: 611