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Coping Mechanism

In: Business and Management

Submitted By rodeliz20
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Over the past three decades, From the dream of a group of sisters thirty-three years ago, the institution has blossomed and will continue to grow for many years to come, always adherent to its mission of serving mankind with commitment, competence, compassion, loyalty, and love. One of the courses offered is the Bachelor of Hotel and Restaurant Management. When they have reached their final last year in the College, they are required to undergo to their On-the-Job Training these are offered in every College or University in any course to prepare their students in facing the challenges of the real life such as landing their job. The employability of every applicant is not measured by the lessons they have learned inside the school but the type of training and potentials has been developed. Hence, On-the-Job Training plays a vital role the life of every student because these training are on big factor landing their preferred jobs. Most of the companies nowadays hire their personnel who are equipped of adequate skills and knowledge and capable of performing such duties and responsibilities maybe assigned.

The On-the-Job Training is one of the important for parents who want better future for their youth. Students will acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to understand the processes of training and development. The course covers components of training design, including needs assessment, objectives, and evaluation and presentation styles, that is being engaged in Hotel and Restaurant Management and from that would involved with the certain task and for the reality that is being seek with the reality that was for intended to take the reality of life and from the students taking up Hotel and Restaurant Management, having balanced curriculum, modern facilities, competent faculty and dedicated personnel.

The learning experiences during on the job-training should have provided the graduating students the taste of what is like in the actual workplace. On-the-Job Training is where the application of what is learned in school take place. Fourth year Hotel and Restaurant Management students are excited about their on the job training. They know they would bring with them the theoretical knowledge about their profession. They are anticipating that On-the-Job Training could increase their knowledge and provide them with the needed learning experience to help them cope in the actual workplace. Students have preferences for establishment where they could have their training. In this light, the proponents conducted a study on the factors influencing the choice of establishment for on the job training among selected Fourth year Hotel and Restaurant Management students during the present school year. The main objective of the study is to understand the reason for preferences of establishment for their on the job training.

Background of the Study

Having been involved in On-the-Job Training, as for the students taking up HRM course, had involved with the meaning first of on-the Job-Training:

It is the responsibility of supervisors and managers to utilize available resources to train, qualify, and develop their employees. On-the-job training is one of the best training methods because it is planned, organized, and conducted at the employee's worksite. On-the-job training will generally be the primary method used for broadening employee skills and increasing productivity. It is particularly appropriate for developing proficiency skills unique to an employee's job - especially jobs that are relatively easy to learn and require locally-owned equipment and facilities. Morale, productivity, and professionalism will normally be high in those organizations that employ a sound On-the-job training program. An analysis of the major job requirements - identified in the position description and performance plan, and related knowledge’s, skills, and abilities form the basis for setting up an On-the-job training plan. To be most effective, an On-the-job training plan should include: • The subject to be covered; • Number of hours; • Estimated completion date; and • Method by which the training will be evaluated To have a successful OJT program, supervisors need to assign a coach to each employee involved in OJT. It is the responsibility of the coach to plan training carefully and conduct it effectively. According to Kaplan (1993), the burnout behaviors of students are characterized by reduction in their performance. Students were found to be maintaining a façade of high achieving while succumbing to physical illness and emotional stress. The physical and psychological symptoms of stress are present such as irritability, inability to concentrate, insomnia, depression, muscular tension and aches, palpitations, lack of appetite and others.
Theoretical / Conceptual Framework

Many researchers who have studied subjects at midterms or finals and have found that coping is clearly a complex process, influenced by both personality characteristics (Bolger, 2002; Friedman et al., 2002; Long & Sangster, 2003), situational demands (Folkman & Lazarus, 2006; Heim et al., 2003), and even the social and physical characteristics of the setting (Mechanic, 2001).

As we have seen in the various theoretical paradigms of coping, every factor from physiological, psychological, social, to cultural, both affect and are affected by the coping strategies. Just as there is said to be an optimal level of stress for an individual to function most effectively, I propose that there is an optimal level of coping which minimizes cost and maximizes benefits on all levels of the various factors combined. A coping strategy that may work to improve a romantic relationship, may have it's negative social, cultural, or even psychological consequences. If you choose not to see your friends so that you have more time to spend with your romantic partner, or you choose to move in with that person when it is considered a cultural taboo, or you are so psychologically dominated by that person that you don't have a mind of your own. In such cases, the individual has the illusion that they are effectively coping with a particular stress, while what they are really doing is creating many others.

Also, since each factor has the power to influence the others, the true form of the transaction theory can only be captured when time is included as one of the variables. Longitudinal studies are crucial in order to truly reflect the long term effects and processes that take place within the whole coping mechanism.

Research Paradigm

Fig. 1. This paradigm shows the procedure that the researcher decided to use in conducting the study on the coping mechanism on the problems encountered by the HRM practicumers of SMCL.
Statement of the Problem This study is about the coping mechanism on the problems encountered by HRM student who are having their on-the-job training as a requirement in their curriculum. And it seeks to gather the facts and information about the problem. Specifically, the following questions seek to answer: What are the coping mechanisms on the difficulties that the Hotel and Restaurant Management practicumers have in to solve their problems?

Significance of the Study The significance of having the ON THE JOB TRAINING of the HRM students would deal with the attention and the task that is being needed to takes place with reality and the certainty that is training is the process of providing employees with specific skills or helping those correct deficiencies in their performance. And from this having an effort to provide employees with abilities the organization will need in the future. The researchers may gain verification, if not, additional proof of value of ON THE JOB-TRAINING of HRM students at SMCL. This can be a stepping stone in the continuous development of the HRM graduates. This study also is significant because there are many factors that causes stress to many students and it affects their academic performance.
Scope and Limitation This study aims to determine the coping mechanism on the problems encountered by HRM students on their OJT. A number of thirty (30) respondents of the study who are HRM students presently had their on-the-job training. The researchers will secure an informed consent from the subjects.

Hypothesis There is no relationship between the profile of the respondents and their coping mechanism on the problems that they encountered on their OJT.

Definition of Terms
1. Coping Strategies. refer to the specific efforts, both behavioral and psychological, that people employ to master, tolerate, reduce, or minimize stressful events
2. Difficulties. in the study refers to problems encountered by the nurses in the work setting. Also use interchangeably with the term problems
3. Hotel and Restaurant Management. this course covers the growth and progress of the hospitality industry. Topics include financing, hotels, restaurants, and clubs. Upon completion, students should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the background, context, and career opportunities that exist in the hospitality industry
4. Management. it refers to problems associated with management that affect nurses and their performance of their functions
5. On the Job Training - (OJT) is one of the best training methods because it is planned, organized, and conducted at the employee's worksite. OJT will generally be the primary method used for broadening employee skills and increasing productivity. It is particularly appropriate for developing proficiency skills unique to an employee's job - especially jobs that are relatively easy to learn and require locally-owned equipment and furnished
6. Practicumers. this refers to the student trainees who are currently enrolled hotel and restaurant management students of the Saint Michael’s College of Laguna
7. Problems encountered. these are the common problems faced by the practicumers while conducting on the job training
8. Strategies. a plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal
9. Stress. manifestation of the body experiencing an imbalance, as evidenced by behavioral, physical, and personal changes
10. Training evaluation. this refers to the performance rating provided by the school and where grade is accomplish by the immediate boss of the practicumers

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE According to Lowenberg, (2002) Training of employees in business and industry may be defined as a carefully planned and handled effort of Hotel and Restaurant Management, through competence instructors to impart “Know How” and develop or improve certain phases of an individual skills, attitudes, discipline, behavior or knowledge to make him either more effective on his present job or better qualified for another. According to Thompson (2003) a group of researchers named as Linguistics Society conducted a study regarding to the problems encountered by the students undertaking hotel practicum. It is necessary to identify whether the company has the budget, time and expertise for training (Zemke and Armstron, 2006. Three strategies, the hotel can use internal consultants to train all affected employees. Second, the hotel may decide \that it is more cost-effective to identify by using tests and work sample can be reassigned to other jobs. Choosing this strategy suggests that the hotel has decided to devote resources to selection and placement rather than training. Third, if it is lacks time or expertise, the company may decide to purchase training from consultant. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement According to Anthony Robbins, (2001) Hotels increasingly emphasize specialized training. Postsecondary training in hotel, restaurant, or hospitality management is preferred for most hotel management positions; however, a college liberal arts degree may be sufficient when coupled with related hotel experience or business education. Internships or part-time or summer work experience in a hotel are an asset to students seeking a career in hotel management. The experience gained and the contacts made with employers can greatly benefit students after graduation. Most degree programs include work-study opportunities.

The transition from academic study to work is a process involving identified stages. An expectation is developed prior to employment. If these expectations do not eventuate then the result is dissatisfaction and stress, at least until the graduate is socialized into the organization. Training expectations have been reported as being a commonly unmet item. On meeting graduates after they have become settled into their new life in the workforce, conversation often turns to the students’ transition from academic study to their new role. This transition is a critical stage in the development of young professionals (Lee, 2004). Normally students survive the transition without too much trouble. Occasionally things are not as ideal. This was brought to our attention with one particular case in which the transition was so stressful that a very high achieving graduate resigned from an apparently excellent position within the first month. One of the main reasons given was that the training provided by the employer did not meet the student’s expectations. According to Putra (1996) training is generally acknowledged as an important ‘vehicle’ for the hospitality industry. There have been a lot of facts, reviews and manuscripts to support this. Besides, generally known that training is also seen as an investment rather than just ‘a regular program’ activity. Indeed, lots of researchers have acknowledged that the traditional view of training entails the following three components that can be useful to render the effectiveness of training programs. 1. A methodical assessment of training needs analysis to ensure that a training program addresses issues and problems within the hospitality industry. A thorough need analysis is used to determine where in the organization training is needed, which employees require training, and what knowledge and or skills are required. 2. Applying an appropriate training tools/methods to deliver content based on training needs analysis. The training methods depend upon the program’s objectives. Methods can be on the job training or off the job instruction. And each method is best utilized under particular conditions determined by the desired outcomes. 3. A wide-ranging evaluation of the program applying numerous different evaluation criteria and strategies to ascertain whether the desired outcomes have been achieved. However, the problem appears to be narrowed on training specific features per se and it also seems that these components exclude such consideration of factors outside the training boundaries that could influence the effectiveness of any training effort. This outside factors could be individual and work environment that may also associate with training effectiveness. Therefore, training effectiveness, which is arguably, may not be able to stand firm with the instructional design and or contextual factors alone, but it may be caused by some ‘unidentified factors’ that tend to be ‘left out’ in every single discussion. Therefore, it is very interesting to explore what these ‘unidentified factors’ are. Many questions have been arisen in educational literatures or empirical evidence that managers should ask how much money we spent on training in relation to employees’ perceptions of the value of training. Although, it may be useful to know whether perceptions about training are in line with companies’ financial commitments to this activity, it seems that the question has gone to the wrong address. The issue is not ‘how much’, or ‘what employees’ think’, or ‘what methods’, but the issue is of what makes training effective. Nevertheless, such an approach suggests that if desired results are not achieved with a considerable level of training expenditure, perceptions, or delivery issues, management will search for a reason for the failure and probably focusing on to the one of the three components above or could be all of them. Thus, such a failure may in fact have nothing to do with the training itself, because ‘unidentified factors’ may affect training effectiveness.
The next thing is trying to find out the factors outside the training boundaries that appear to influence training effectiveness.
1. Individuals characteristics
Individual’s ability to learn and acquire new knowledge and skills can have a direct influence on training preparation and performance. Some of the factors that individual should have is his or her ability to construct and evaluate problematical information. If trainees possess these, thus learning would be comparatively quick and efficient. Individuals’ ability can be assessed throughout the selection process and to make selection decisions, managers must know about the skills, knowledge and attitudes required to perform the essential tasks and duties.
An individual’s attitude toward work may also affect his or her willingness to apply the newly acquired knowledge and skills on the job after training has been accomplished. Such individuals’ commitment should also be considered to ensure his or her desire to achieve good performance. Indeed, if individuals possess a high degree of commitment to their jobs, it is very likely they will regard training as valuable and easy to transfer their new ‘capital’ back on the job.
Individuals’ willingness may lead to increase their motivation. In addition, those who are motivated to go to training are more likely to learn and use their newly acquired knowledge and skills to the workplace. Now the issue is how to enhance motivation. It is managers’ job to boost their motivation and to understand employees’ values and needs. To find out which motivation - either external motivation or internal motivation or can be both -, managers must constantly examine and work together with their employees.
2. Working atmosphere
Working atmosphere may have a considerable impact on someone’s preparation for and transfer of training. Hospitality managers must be concerned with factors such as individuals awareness about the work situation and systems as they influence learning and performance.
Social association may also play a major element of the work environment that can influence training effectiveness. Organization’s social norms and values that support learning can have a positive impact on an individual’s willingness to attend and learn during training, as well as to transfer learning back to the job. Peers support can also be successful to encourage individuals to use the newly acquired knowledge and skills. ‘Buddy’ system is very helpful for someone who remains unsure to apply newly gained skills and knowledge.
Organizational systems such as the appraisal and reward systems. Performance appraisal is used to identify performance discrepancies and this will form the training needs analysis to determine the exact cause of performance gap. Furthermore, if someone can demonstrate a great performance, he or she should be rewarded. And this can be seen through every individual who shows what they have acquired through training.
Finally, continuing learning may have a major impact on the effectiveness of training. Programs such as mentoring, apprenticeships, traineeships, cadetships, attending professional seminars can too influence the effectiveness of training, especially when these learning opportunities accompaniment what has been gained through training.

It should be noted that there is more to training per se than the assessment of needs, methods and proper evaluation. For training to be fully maximized, managers must look beyond the training boundaries and examine the individual and work environment factors that have a significant influence on training effectiveness. This notion is supported by Knowles (2001) who advanced that globalization’s effect on hotels and the accommodation sector is primarily on creating an increased competitive pressure that is creating a new way of thinking about human resources. This situation is making it ever more difficult to distinguish one hotel from the rest as stiff competition has resulted in a generally high standard in basic products and services. Increasingly what distinguishes one provider from another and sets one hotel apart from the rest is personal service and attention to detail. The nature of service delivered by hotels underscores the role of human resources in the success of hotel operations. As it is basically an experiential purchase for guests, the choice of a hotel is not simply a matter of picking a room with bed and bath, but also includes food and beverage, and entertainment. The experiential nature of the service delivered involves all the senses and goes far beyond the requirement of simply being there, henceforth encompassing style and quality. With the competitive pressure brought about by globalization, hotels have an impending need to rely on their human resources to deliver personal service with style and quality. Organizations henceforth have a need to place more emphasis on the important role played by their human resources in building a competitive advantage. A workforce that is skilled, well-motivated and who work as a team has become a major key to delivery of service quality that shall give hotels an edge over their competitors in a globalized world (Go, 1999).

Local Literature

In a paper by Susan Solis (2003), the impact of globalization on the industry is cited. In the study it was advanced that organizations in the hospitality and tourism industry have experienced a great deal of turmoil as the competitive forces within the industry have shifted under the weight of globalization. Structural and cyclical changes in the local, national and international business environments have challenged the survival of organizations. Globalization is said to have prompted consolidation, which has occurred through an increase in market dominance of transnational companies, as well as the growing popularity of mergers and strategic alliances. In relation to the hotel industry, globalization is commonly perceived to have a standardizing impact in that product and institutions originally offered domestically appear on a worldwide scale. Globalization of the industry has increased the competitive pressures by bringing more entrants to the domestic market, exerting strong influence on consumer expectations and options. Hence performance of domestic hotels is greatly affected by high and consistent service levels and brand-names of hotels with world-wide operations (Go, 1995). An article in Manila Times implies the high potentials for employment in the hospitality industry. It cites among others the demand for local HRM graduates. Recognizing the Filipino potential in augmenting the tourism workforce, the Boston Business School has opened a marketing and consultancy office in the Philippines to direct its efforts in recruiting Filipino students and giving them the best career opportunities in the hospitality and tourism industries. Feedback from employers in Singapore indicates an overwhelming preference for Filipinos because of the English language and natural customer service skills. Boston Business School and the International Movement of Development Managers recently organized a visit to Boston Business School in Singapore by the League of Vice Governors of the Philippines on December 3. The vice-governors were briefed about BBS plans to attract Filipino students to study and work in Singapore. Students who have completed their Diplomas and Advanced Diplomas are placed on a 6-month industrial attachment in a hotel, restaurant, travel agency or health spa center in Singapore, Middle East or New Zealand. The on-the-job training (OJT) provides students an opportunity to acquire practical knowledge and skills and at the same time receive a monthly allowance of SGD 500 to SGD 700. Also, the OJT enables students to be considered for permanent job placements. It is common in Singapore for companies offering internships to hire students at the end of the attachment if they are found to be suitable.

Related Studies

A number of researchers have suggested that the process of assimilating into an organization follows several stages (King & Xia 2001, Feldman 1981) .
* Anticipatory socialization (Expectations develop prior to employment)
* Encounter (Expectation meets the reality of employment)
* Metamorphosis (organizational socialization) A recent study documents the phases of transition that occurred with a cohort of students that were recruited by a major company in the United States. Lee (2004) noted that during the encounter stage, recruit dissatisfaction was due in large part to the type of training that was received following employment. The encounter phase involves a “reality shock” as the graduate adjusts from the academic environment to the workplace. Lee (2004) notes that the recruits associated “training” with a formal lesson or a class; while the workplace supervisors expected the recruits to be more self-directed in their learning. The supervisors expected the graduates to learn through the tasks at hand and by using resources such as documentation and access to colleagues. The recruits did not recognize this as training at all. Lee (2004) largely attributes the expectation of formal training to the extensive interview process experienced by the recruits. However, in addition to the cues received during the recruitment process, it is possible that the students have developed an expectation of their likely work environment during the years that they were studying for the eventual job. Lee’s study indicates that the dissatisfaction and stress experienced during the encounter phase related directly to the mismatch between the student’s expectation and the reality of the workplace. It may be that the students’ transitions through the encounter phase and into organizational socialization can be eased by giving students a more realistic expectation of the mode of learning that is typically expected in the workplace. It may be possible to embed the development of this expectation within coursework and to prepare the student for eventual self-directed learning (Duneden, 2005). According to Anthony Robbins (2001) to avoid problems, we must realize that we are all different in the way we perceive the world and use this understanding as a guide to our communication with others. According to Ladousse (2008) “Communicative ability is the goal of foreign language learning” said Littlewood. Indeed, an important aspect of learning is to be able to communicate learners’ opinions and ideas because this is the essence of learning and to avoid any problems because of misunderstanding. According to Professor Ianniello’s (2010) speech, she first explained how culture dictates one’s nonverbal behaviors and mannerisms so problems exceed because of misunderstanding.

CHALLENGE IN TRAINING • Is training solution to the problem? • Are the goal of training clear and realistic? • Is training a good investment? • Will the training work?

Needs Assessment Phase • Organization need • Task needs • Person’s needs

Development and Conduct Training • Location • Presentation • Type
With the OJT of the HRM students, further involved the :

Guidelines for coping mechanism on problem encountered by HRM students On-the-Job Training; ▪ Participatory learning is essential. ▪ One-on-one training is necessary. ▪ Five or student employees need training. ▪ Taking students out of the work environment for training is not cost-effective. ▪ Classroom instruction is not appropriate. ▪ Equipment and safety restrictions make other training methods ineffective. ▪ Frequent changes in standard operation procedures allow minimal time for retraining. ▪ Work in progress cannot be interrupted. ▪ The task for which the training is designed is infrequently performed. ▪ Immediate changes are necessary to meet new safety requirements. Managers Should Select HRM students When: ▪ A defined proficiency level or an individual performance test is required for certification or qualification. What HRM OJT Should Cover: ▪ Large or secured equipment. ▪ Delicate or calibrated instruments. ▪ Tools and equipment components of a complex system. ▪ Delicate or dangerous procedures. ▪ Classified information retained in a secured area.


Career Development System: Linking
Organizational Needs with Individual Career Needs

How do I find career opportunities within the organization that: • Use my strengths • Address my developmental needs • Provide challenges • Match my interests • Match my values • Match my personal style Coping mechanisms are the sum total of ways in which people deal with minor to major stress and trauma. Some of these processes are unconscious ones, others are learned behavior, and still others are skills that individuals consciously master in order to reduce stress, or other intense emotions like depression. Not all ways of coping are equally beneficial, and some can actually be very detrimental. The body has an interior set of coping mechanisms for encountering stress. This includes the "fight or flight" reaction to high stress or trauma. A person perceiving stress has an automatic boost in adrenaline, prompting either action or inaction. People have a variable level of physical reaction to different levels of stress, and for some, merely getting interrupted from a task can cause an inappropriate fight or flight reaction. This can translate to “fight” mechanisms, where a person gets very angry with others for interrupting him. Alternately, flight may include physically leaving, or simply being unable to regain focus and get back on task.
Other unconscious coping strategies can include the way that the mind deals with a constant barrage of stress. People in the psychiatric field suggest that mental illnesses tend to be coping mechanisms that evolve from certain stressors. For example, dissociative identity disorder may result in children who have been severely abused. Panic disorder may be the body’s way of coping for inappropriate fight or flight reactions to minor stressors. Some mental illnesses also have a genetic basis, but stress certainly often plays a role in making these conditions more severe. People also learn these mechanisms as they progress through life. Some people tend toward reactions that are helpful, while others choose defense mechanisms that can actually increase stress. The person who uses stress as a reason to exercise is learning and expressing a healthy way of coping. The person who turns to alcohol or drugs, eating disorders, or workaholic behavior is using mechanisms that are both dangerous and unhealthy. Both children and adults can benefit from learning coping mechanisms from mental health professionals, especially when they are suffering from mental illness, or have turned to unhealthy forms of dealing with stress. In this sense, these mechanisms are a set of practiced and learned behaviors that help individuals better respond to stress. People may not always be able to control the amount of adrenaline that pumps through their bodies in stressful situations, but many therapists believe that people can learn to control their reaction to it. Many times, people who experience high fight or flight reactions actually amp up their own stress by their coping mechanisms, creating more adrenaline boost than is needed. Learning to recognize the body’s tendency toward these highly charged states and altering behavior accordingly can reduce the length of time a person stays in the charged state and reduce the body’s continued need to produce adrenaline to cope with danger that does not really exist. Therapeutic ways of handling stress can involve meditation, cognitive behavioral therapy, and the recognition of the body’s inappropriate response. These are only a few of the mechanisms that can be learned through therapy. They can result in fewer incidences of panic, inappropriate anger, or turning to unhelpful behaviors like using alcohol to dull stress. People who have developed mental illness as a coping strategy benefit by learning therapeutic methods and by taking medication that can help reduce the symptoms of mental illness. A schizophrenic who hallucinates may be aided by the coping mechanisms provided by anti-psychotic drugs. Anti-anxiety medications can assist the person with frequent panic attacks. The gold standard in treating inappropriate behavior is to gradually replace it with therapy and medication that can help reduce unwanted coping responses.

Trainees are receiving training in a clinical skill needed for their work, and they value the training because it provided them an opportunity to receive training when they would likely never have been selected to attend a group-based training course. In addition to elaborating the ways in which the approach is being applied, we have identified the key elements that demonstrate its success and can lay to rest commonly asked questions about training that takes place at the job site.

During the pilot test we identified three different models of how OJT is being applied: true OJT, temporary OJT to train staff for other clinics, and site training for hospital rotation needs. These three models occur at different kinds of hotel or restaurant sites and thus are an adaptive mechanism by the OJT trainers and trainees to use this innovative training approach.

• True OJT: The trainer and trainee are both at the same clinic and work together in training. • Temporary OJT to train staff for other clinics: Staff travels from a nearby location to the clinic for the training period. • Site training for hospital rotation needs: In some cases, trainees and trainers are working together in a location where the trainee is not assigned. The trainee has to free up time during the workday to leave the ward or clinic and go to a clinic area either to work with the trainer or work on self-study materials.

The several elements that demonstrate and support the success of implementing structured OJT can be categorized into two topics: the training approach of structured OJT and the effect of the training on the work site. As the elements are discussed under the relevant topic, the following issues and hypotheses, raised initially in the planning stages for the OJT pilot test, are discussed and dispelled:

• Trainees won’t be able to find time to do the training during work hours. • Trainees will be reluctant to do self-study (for example, reading, practice exercises). • Trainees won’t learn the theoretical knowledge first but will go straight to the practical skills work. • Trainees won’t be able to do the work at their own pace. • OJT may have a negative effect on the work routine at the site.

The Training Approach: Structured OJT for HRM students

A key element of the structured OJT program was the empowerment for many staff to be involved in training. Ownership of the training has been decentralized to the work site, and both the trainers and the trainees identify this training program as their own. Although trainee selection was more formalized at some sites (with use of an application process, for example), staff at the sites feel they are more likely to have an opportunity for receiving training with the OJT strategy than for being selected to attend a group-based training course.

The formal recognition of the training at the site by all staff meant a positive training climate and attention by all staff to ensure the success of the training. Key to this was the site orientations held just prior to the launch of the OJT pilot test.

The guided training plan for the structured OJT provided a focus for supervisors to do the training they consider part of their regular duties.

Although the trainer in many instances directs the training, both trainer and trainee feel comfortable with this role and interaction.

There was a personal and professional commitment by the trainees to the training process. Trainees were able to do the work at their own pace and were motivated to progress through the training outline; they were finishing the training in about six weeks, the expected schedule. In spite of some people’s skepticism that trainees would do self-study, by reading, practice exercises, and the like, the trainees were working systematically through the practice exercises, documented by the completion in the Trainee Workbook and supported in some cases by the OJT trainer’s review and notes on the exercises themselves.

There was concern as well those trainees would not learn the theoretical knowledge but would go straight to the practical skills work. However, trainees did not go straight to the practical training, in part because of the value they attached to being able to receive training in the skill. The training was also a mechanism for them to interact with other staff, a situation that doesn’t usually occur in their work.

The institutional commitment to the OJT process was also demonstrated. Despite the expectation to the contrary, trainees were released during work hours to spend time reading and practicing. Most training configures their own work routines so training time was adjusted around the client flow and busy hotel or restaurant times. This scheduling meant being able to take advantage of varying training hours-time available when few clients come (usually in the afternoon) so the trainee and trainer can work on practice exercises and with anatomic models, and then switching to the busy training times when more clients come, once the trainee is ready to work with clients.

Effect of the Training on the Work Site

The OJT taking place at each HRM (Hotel or Restaurant) vicinity has had a positive effect on clinic services and has caused a change in the service profile, disputing the expectation that OJT would have a negative effect on services because the training would take time away from the clients. At almost every site, staff felt that OJT has been a positive influence. The number of clinical procedures (the focus of the training) has increased. In some sites, word-of-mouth about the training making a new service available has meant more clients coming for this service. In addition, the trainees have added information about this new service to their initial interviews and so are able to inform new clients about an additional service. This practice within the work setting means that every client contact is an opportunity for the trainees to apply their new skills as they expand the range of services available at the respective training station.

u Self-assessment is increasingly important for companies that want to empower their employees to take control of their careers u Whether done through workbooks or workshops, self-assessment usually involves doing skills assessment exercises, completing an interests inventory, and clarifying values. ▪ Organizational Assessment u Some of the tools traditionally used by organizations in selection are also valuable for career development. Among these are: ▪ Assessment centers ▪ Psychological testing ▪ Performance appraisal ▪ Promo ability forecasts ▪ Succession planning


This chapter will present a comprehensive discussion of the research design, sample respondents, the instruments and data collections to be used in gathering data using such data in order to answer the problem posed in this study.

Research Design The research is a combination of a quantitative and non-experimental research. The descriptive method of research was used to determine the difficulties encountered by the HRM student on their OJT. It also aims to gauge the awareness of the public especially the parents on the ill-effects of these substances. Survey research is conducted through closed-ended questions given to selected residents students. The researchers were able to collect the necessary information needed for the purpose of the said study. In achieving the purpose of this study, the researchers used the quantitative research type in order to interpret the results of the survey. And from this applied the random sampling method of research.

The Sample Respondent The target population of the research is thirty (30) respondents.

The Instruments Composed of two parts. The first part is the multiple choices. The researcher utilized closed-ended questionnaires which contains simplified questions addressed to target respondents. The respondents were instructed to check the item that corresponds to their answer. Non-probability sampling, a technique of taking sample that does not offer a fair opportunity to each member of the population to be included in the study, was used by the researchers. Particularly purposive sampling, also known as judgmental sampling, which is a deliberate selection of individuals by the researcher based on predefined criteria. The surveys were given to students who are taking their OJT of being an HRM. In attaining the required information, the researcher designed questions checklist which were give to selected students who are taking their HRM OJT. The primary data are substantiated by the data gathered from the research conduct in the libraries, where book became the major sources where the subject is embodied.

Statistical Treatment of Data

The Statistical tools used are the following:

The formula for computing the percentage is:

P= f/N x100

Where: f= is the frequency associated with each category or some values

N=is the total number of observations

P= score is multiplied by 100 to get the percentage

The average weighted score (AWS) was used to determine the final response category of the responses. The following formula was applied:

AWS = Average Weighted Score TWS= Total Weighted Score N= Total number of cases


This chapter contains the presentation of the analysis and interpretation of the data gathered and statistical treatment used in obtaining and evaluating results. The surveyed data were administered in graphical presentation.

Table 1 What are your preferences of choosing HRM as your course?
|Choices |Frequency |Percentage (%) |Rank |
|1. Easy job |8 |26.64% |3 |
|2. In-demand |13 |43.29% |1 |
|3. Can travel or apply for |9 |30.07% |2 |
|abroad | | | |
|Total |30 |100% | |

Analysis: As we can see in Table 1, the questions raised were for the students as for their course preferences of HRM (Hotel and Restaurant Management, and it does rely with the other course in their ambitions in life, as for most of the respondents do answered as for it is in-demand 13 (43.29%) of the respondents answered, and from that they would be able to work either in hotel (five star) as well, and for distinctive restaurants in our country. The other 9 (30.07%) of them do answered that they would be able to travel or apply for abroad, for the respondents to ambition for greater skills and toward task that they are for relying upon themselves. And the other 8 (26.64%) were for having an easy job.

Graphical Presentation

Table 2
Being an HRM student, how does OJT meant for you?
|Choices |Frequency |Percentage (%) |Rank |
|1. To improve leadership |9 |29.97% |2 |
|capabilities at HOTEL or | | | |
|RESTAURANTs training. | | | |
|2. new positions that offer |6 |19.98% |3 |
|new and/or increased | | | |
|responsibilities | | | |
|3. handling personnel problems|15 |50.05% |1 |
|like conflicts and firings | | | |
|Total |30 |100% | |

In Table 1, the HRM students, had been ask on the importance of OJT requirements of their course of being students of that said school, would involved with the attention and the task that was for most of them answered 15 (50.05%), as they would be able to handle personnel problems like conflicts and firings, the 9 (29.97%) were for to improve leadership and capabilities at Hotel and Restaurant’s training, and the least one is 6 919.98) would have new positions that offer new and or increased responsibilities.

Graphical Presentation

Table 3
Does you encountered difficulties during your OJT ?
|Choices |Frequency |Percentage (%) |Rank |
|1. Yes |27 |89.91 |1 |
|2. No |3 |10.09 |2 |

Analysis: In Table 3, the respondents had been ask of the situational basis that is being handled by the HRM students as for they encountered difficulties during their OJT (ON-THE-JOB TRAINING), and from this intend to have the reality and the task as for the 27 (89.91%) were for answered Yes, as from that they encountered difficulties, and for the other 3 (10.09), answered No, and they do had never encountered difficulties regarding their OJT, regarding their HRM courses.

Graphical Presentation


Table 4
What are the difficulties that you had encountered your OJT?
|Choices |Frequency |Percentage (%) |Rank |
|1.Specified |5 |16.65% |3 |
|personal skills | | | |
|2Interpersonal skills |8 |26.64% |2 |
|3. Integrating the IT |10 |33.30% |1 |
|qualifications | | | |
|4. Self-discipline |3 |9.99% |5 |
|5. The time management |4 |13.42% |4 |
|Total |30 |100% | |

Analysis: In Table 4, the respondents had been asked for the difficulties that are being encountered by the HRM students, and from that would be able to understand the that most of them 10 (33.30%) were for having to integrate the IT qualifications, as one of the major difficulties encountered by the students, the other 8 (26.64%) were for interpersonal skills, the 5 (16.65%0 were for the personal skills, as for their relationships with their supervisor in their respective outlet and their OJT trainer, the 4 (13.42%) were for the budgeting of their time, as for their schedule of their training hours and their hours of course completion as they find hard to budget their time, and the least one is 3 (9.99%) which is the self-discipline, beyond themselves and for their co-trainees, and their supervisors as well.

Graphical Presentation

Table 5
What are the effective characteristics of effective experiences during your

|Choices |Frequency |Percentage (%) |Rank |
|1. motivate individuals to |9 |29.97% |1 |
|learn | | | |
|2. provide opportunities to |7 |23.31% |3 |
|gain new ideas and knowledge | | | |
|and to practice skills and | | | |
|apply knowledge, | | | |
|3. encourage new insights |8 |26.64% |2 |
|through reflection on prior | | | |
|actions | | | |
|3. Individuals gain their |6 |20.08 |4 |
|experiences in a supportive | | | |
|environment with supervisors | | | |
|who provide positive role | | | |
|models and constructive | | | |
|support and mentors who | | | |
|provide counsel | | | |
|Total |30 |100% | |

Analysis: As we can see in Table 5, the respondents had been ask on the effectiveness of OJT on the HRM students and from this would involved to have the 9 (29.97%) were for be able to motivate individuals to learn, the 8 (26.64%) were for encourage new insights through reflection on prior actions, the 7 (23.31%0 were for to provide opportunities to gain new ideas and knowledge and to practice skills and apply knowledge. And the least one is 6 (20.08%) is, individuals gain their experiences in a supportive environment with supervisors who provide positive role models and constructive support and mentors who provide counsel.

Graphical Presentation


The problems that are being encountered by the students regarding their OJT can be implemented in many settings. Many factors play a part in making an OJT program effective. Some of those that contributed to the success of the OJT program include the following:

• development of the strategy paper • adaptation of a group-based course • recognition of the importance of consensus-building activities • involvement of the end users of the program • development of a comprehensive training package • training of key personnel before the pilot test • follow-up site visits

The development of an organizational strategy paper forced staff to wrestle with a number of design and philosophical issues before moving into development of materials and training of trainers. This internal consensus-building effort helped staff make key decisions before investing time and resources in other activities. Another factor was the decision to convert an existing, instructor-led course to OJT instead of developing a new course than to introduce a new training approach and new materials at the same time. There are many coping mechanism that can be learn by many students who are undergoing their On the Job Training or being a practicumer through motivations of the people around them and through counseling of their professors and parents.


It would further conclude that was for the problems encountered by the HRM students, was for one of the main lessons learned related to the importance of consensus-building activities. The coping mechanism of these practicumers are very important in order to survive and pass their On The Job Training because it is a requirement of their school plus, they can really learn something during their OJT that they cannot learn inside the school. Because OJT involves a number of job-site staff in the training process, securing the support of key stakeholders at all levels was a significant factor in the success of the program. Another important factor was the involvement of the end users in the design, development, and implementation of OJT. Once again, when inserting training into the workplace, it is important to involve both potential trainers and trainees in the development of the training approach and materials. The development of a comprehensive training package was also a significant factor that contributed to the effectiveness of the OJT program in students. Ensuring that those involved in OJT had complete reference materials, assessment instruments, and instructions on how to conduct training helped learning to occur as designed. Also critical to the program’s success was the time and effort invested in training the trainers and supervisors before the pilot test. This helped to ensure that these key individuals understood their roles and responsibilities and were prepared to follow the guidelines in the training package. Finally, the follow-up site visits reinforced the importance of the new training approach and provided HRM trainers an opportunity to observe, coach, and assist the new trainers.


The use of OJT on the HRM students is a relatively new concept in international training of health professionals. It is obvious from the design and development process in that these same steps could be applied to the implementation of structured OJT in almost any setting. The coping mechanism is very important to an individual specially if they are in a stressfull situation like the HRM practicumers and other courses that requires On The Job Training in their final year so that they can apply and feel what is like to be in the real world where they can apply all the lesson that they have learned in their school for the past 4 or 5 years.

With the increasing use of electronic performance support systems, computer-based training, Internet-based training, and a myriad of other technology-assisted learning approaches, it is obvious that the shift from instructor-led training to self-paced, on-the-job training will continue. The approach used to implement structured OJT successfully can serve as a model for those interested in using structured on-the-job training in their organization.

OJT training, sometimes called direct instruction, is one of the earliest forms of training (Observational learning is probably the earliest - Albert Bandura). It is a one-on-one training located at the job site, where someone who knows how to do a task shows another how to perform it. In antiquity, the kind of work that people did was mainly unskilled or semiskilled work that did not require specialized knowledge. Parents or other community members, who knew how to do a job necessary for survival, passed their knowledge on to the children through direct instruction. On-the-job training is still widely in use today. In fact, it is probably the most popular method of training because it requires only a person who knows how to do the task, and the tools the person uses to do the task. It may not be the most effective or the most efficient method at times, but it is the easiest to arrange and manage. Because the training takes place on the job, it is realistic and no transfer of learning is required. It is often inexpensive because no special equipment is needed other than what is normally used on the job. The other side is that OJT takes the trainer and materials out of production for the duration of the training time. In addition, due to safety or other production factors, it is prohibitive in some environments.


A. Books

Austenfeld, J. L., & Stanton, A. L. (2004). Coping through emotional approach: A new look at emotion, coping, and health-related outcomes. Journal of Personality, 72, 1336-1364Cherrington, David J. (1995). The Management of Human Resources for Hotel and Restaurant Management, OJT’s Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Feldman, D. C.(2006) “A contingency theory of socialization” Administration Science Quarterly 21 pp 433-452.

Go, F., Monachello, M. and Baume, T. . Management for the Hospitality Industry.New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 2006.

Go, F. and Pine, R. Globalization Strategy in the Hotel Industry. New York: Routlege. 2005.
Lee, D. M. S. (2004) “Organizational Entry andTransition from Academic Study: Examining a Critical Step in the Professional Development ofYoung IS workers” n Strategies for managing IS/IT personnel. Eds: Ibbaria, M & Shayo, C. Publisher Idea Group Publishing Hershey, PA, USA Pages: 113 – 141
Mondy, R. Wayne, and Noe, Robert M. (2006). Human Resource Management for HRM students, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Nadler, Leonard, and Wiggs, Garland D. (2006). Managing Human Resource Development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Sloboda, J. A. (2000). Combating examination stress among university students: Action research in an institutional context. British Journal of Guidance and Counseling, 18(2), 124-136. B.
Zaleski, E. H., Levey-Thors, C., & Schiaffino, K. M. (2008). Coping mechanisms, stress, social support, and health problems in college students. Applied Developmental Science, 2(3), 127-137.
B. Internet
Anthony Robbins (2001), “All inclusive”
Frederick, J. A. et al., Digital Review of AsiaPacific 2007-2008
Lopez, A. A., Assessment of English Language Learners, Fall, 2004
Lowenberg, Peter H., World Englishes; Assessing English Proficiency in the Expanding Circle. 2002
Professor Ianniello’s 2010 and Erasmus et al (1996:51) “stated that Effective communication is a skill we should all master”.
Thompson, R. M., Filipino Taglish and English, 2003

Unpublished Materials
Armstrong, Michael (2006). A Handbook of HOTEL AND RESTAURANT MANAGEMENT OJT, Practice, 10th edition, London: Kogan Page. ISBN 0-7494-4631-5. OCLC 62282248.
"Personnel management". The Columbia Encyclopedia (Sixth Edition). (2005). Columbia University Press. Retrieved on 2007-10-17. “personnel management - see industrial management”


Dear Respondents: We need your cooperation our dear HRM STUDENTS, for the accomplishment of our Thesis entitled : Coping Mechanisms on the Problems encountered by HRM students on their ON THE JOB TRAINING”

Direction: Fill up the information needed below

Name: _______________________

Area of Residence: _____________ [ ] Within Laguna [ ] Outside Laguna

Age: _______ Sex: [ ] Male [ ] Female
(Edad) (Kasarian)

Birth Status: _______________
(antas ng kapanganakan)

Educational Attainment of Mother: ___________________
(Antas ng natapos ng ina)

Educational Attainment of Father: __________________
(Antas ng natapos ng ama)

Civil Status: [ ] Single [ ] Married [ ] Widow [ ] Separated
(Katayuang Sibil)

Direction: Choose the answer that best fits to you.

1. What are your preferences of choosing HRM as your course? [ ] easy job
[ ] in-demand
[ ] can travel or apply for abroad
2. Being an HRM student, how does OJT meant for you? [ ] To improve leadership capabilities at HOTEL or RESTAURANTs training. [ ] new positions that offer new and/or increased responsibilities [ ] handling personnel problems like conflicts and firings
3. Does you encountered difficulties during your OJT? [ ] Yes [ ] No
4. What are the difficulties that you had encountered your OJT? [ ] Specified personal skills [ ] Interpersonal skills [ ] Integrating the IT qualifications
[ ] Self-discipline [ ] time management
5. What are the effective characteristics of effective experiences during your
[ ] motivate individuals to learn
[ ] provide opportunities to gain new ideas and knowledge and to practice skills and apply knowledge,
[ ] encourage new insights through reflection on prior actions
[ ] Individuals gain their experiences in a supportive environment with supervisors who provide positive role models and constructive support and mentors who provide counsel


• Making some conclusion about the coping mechanism of 30 respondents who having their practicum in a hotel. • Researcher was able to make some analyzation based on the answers given by the respondents. • The researcher has come up with the summary and recommendation based on the result of the study.

• Gathering of 30 HRM students who are having their practicum in a hotel. • Demographic Profile of the respondents according to their; a. Age b. Gender

• Conducting studies to the chosen locale of this study. • Distribution of questionnaires to the chosen 30 respondents. • Making some observation with related to the study being conducted.

The coping mechanism on the problems encounter by HRM practicumers.

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... COPING RESPONSE STRATEGY DURING STRESS NAME INSTITUTION Stress management is quite vital since it equips us with thoughts or actions designed to resolve or mitigate a problematic situation. Coping with stress is not a fixed attribute, but usually the dynamic capacity to apply effective methods to control, avoid or prevent distress. It is a method that involves appraisal and reaction. Evidently; individuals cope with stress in different ways depending mostly on the circumstances, the type of stressors and the particular individual. (Barkway, 2013). According to Lazarus, Emotion focused and problem focused are two types of coping mechanism that come in hand during stressful situations. Emotional focused concentrates more on reduction of the negative emotional response allied with stress such fear, anxiety, depression, excitement, frustration and embarrassment. This type of coping strategy only applies when the individual is not able to control the stressor. On the other hand, problem focused is more practical and targets the stressor in a practical approach thereby handling the problem. (Lazarus et all, 1984) In my situation mostly I find that I use more of the problem focused coping because the strategy removes the stressor and establishes mechanisms that eliminate source of the problem thereby providing a permanent therapy to the prevailing situation. (Barkway, 2013). I think from a personal perspective coping with stress is not a fixed attribute hence a lot of variance to...

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General Adaptation Syndrome

...which affects health. Psychologists define stress as the response to events that are challenging or threatening. All of us face stress in our lives. In daily life, we come across a series of such threatening or challenging events, and adapting to such events happens due to our instincts and occurs naturally. Yet, in cases of where stress is severe, the adaptation requires more effort, and probably lead to health issues. Some of such health issues are headache, heart ailments, high blood pressure, weakening of immune system and skin rashes. In psychology, such health issues are known as psychopysiological disorders. Therefore, stress is no more a minor issue that should be neglected. So, this report will be giving a brief explanation on coping stress, preceded by a description on adapting stress as well as its effects through the General Adaptation syndrome. General Adaptation Syndrome This is a model devised by a pioneering stress therapist named Hans Selye. This suggests that a person's response to stress consists of three stages: • Alarm and mobilization • Resistance • Exhaustion In the alarm and mobilization stage, occurs when the person first come to know about the stressor. For example, when a student gets to know that he has obtained low grades for midterms, he becomes alarmed. By being afraid that he would fail the subject because of the low marks he obtained, the student starts to mobilize himself by planning to study harder for the finals. On a......

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