Premium Essay

In: Other Topics

Submitted By 4chani

Words 1350

Pages 6

Words 1350

Pages 6

Almost daily we are in (mainly) news media whose owner has a structure similar to some of the following:

One study claims that the more A, the more B

A study says that those who are to have less B.

A study says that since A is, then B is the other way.

In principle, all these headlines indicate that basically what it says A is causing B to happen, or what is the same, that B is a consequence of A. Normally, when one reads the news, just realizing that so there is a correlation between A and B (come on, a relationship between these two events ), but in principle, without any indication that either one of them, even in this case, we cause the other B. (Oakes, 2012)

The study of the correlation between two variables is one of the issues in question in Statistics. To summarize a bit, the question would be something like the following:

- From certain data from each of these variables one estimates if there is any relationship between them. The one most frequently studied is called linear regression (by which we seek if there is no linear relationship between the variables), but there are many more possible types: quadratic, exponential, logarithmic...

- With these data a function (which, for example, is a straight linear regression) that determines us exactly what the relationship between these variables is calculated.

- The actual correlation between them is studied (ie, how strong is the relationship that we calculated based on the initial data) by a correlation coefficient.

This misinterpretation of the correlation is also found, and too often in supposedly serious scientific studies. There are few studies to find some relationship between two variables in the subjects thrown in the pool thus affirming that one causes the other, when in fact in these studies there is no evidence that this is true (simply no correlation)....

Premium Essay

...------------------------------------------------- Causation and Correlation ------------------------------------------------- Courtney Clark July 19, 2015 psy/285 Taryn Stevenson July 19, 2015 psy/285 Taryn Stevenson 1. 2. 3. Home > 4. Health & Medicine > 5. Disease 6. > 7. Causation and Correlation 1. < Back to Health & Medicine Causation and Correlation Correlation does not imply causation * By missweetie * May 11, 2012 * 511 Words * 146 Views There are many similarities between causation and correlation but there are also just as many differences. Causation is when one or more factors contribute to the effect. As said in the PowerPoint review, for example, if you switch a light switch on it causes the light turns on. The one factor of flipping the light switch on causes the effect of the light to turn on. Correlation is when two or more factors contribute to one effect. There is two different types of correlation. One type of correlation is high correlation which is when the factors all match up in a row to cause the effect. Low correlation is when the results of one factor are scattered but a pattern can be recognized. The similarities between causation and correlation are that they both require factors that can point to a result. But remember that correlation is not causation. One factor does not mean it will make the effect happen. The difference between causation and......

Words: 618 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

...Causation and Correlation Jennifer PSY/285 Darren Iwamoto July 17, 2013 Causation and Correlation Correlation does not imply causation. According to “statistical Language Correlation and Causation” (Correlation is a statistical measure (expressed as a number) that describes the size and direction of a relationship between two or more variables. A correlation between variables, however, does not automatically mean that the change in one variable is the cause of the change in the values of the other variable.) And (Causation indicates that one event is the result of the occurrence of the other event; i.e. there is a causal relationship between the two events. This is also referred to as cause and effect.) Causation and correlation can be difficult to discern from one another because they are so closely related to one another. Wealthy People are thin. Causation or correlation? The statement “Wealthy people are thin” is a correlation. Not all wealthy people are thin however there may be more thin wealthy people versus non wealthy people due to the fact that wealthy people can afford personal trainers, better food, and healthier lifestyles. People with long hair do better on audio memory tests. Causation or correlation? The statement “People with long hair do better on audio memory tests” is in fact a correlation, it is not a very strong correlation but it is indeed one. Ice cream melts when heated. Causation or correlation? The statement “Ice cream......

Words: 366 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

...Correlation does not imply causation From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Correlation does not imply causation" is a phrase used in science and statistics to emphasize that correlation between two variables does not automatically imply that one causes the other (though correlation is necessary for linear causation, and can indicate possible causes or areas for further investigation... in other words, correlation can be a hint).[1][2] The opposite belief, correlation proves causation, is a logical fallacy by which two events that occur together are claimed to have a cause-and-effect relationship. The fallacy is also known as cum hoc ergo propter hoc (Latin for "with this, therefore because of this") and false cause. By contrast, the fallacy post hoc ergo propter hoc requires that one event occur before the other and so may be considered a type of cum hoc fallacy. In a widely-studied example, numerous epidemiological studies showed that women who were taking combined hormone replacement therapy (HRT) also had a lower-than-average incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), leading doctors to propose that HRT was protective against CHD. But randomized controlled trials showed that HRT caused a small but statistically significant increase in risk of CHD. Re-analysis of the data from the epidemiological studies showed that women undertaking HRT were more likely to be from higher socio-economic groups (ABC1), with better than average diet and exercise regimes. The use of......

Words: 676 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

...might suggest that the treatment or finding does not make enough of a difference to justify its use or to be practical. Yes, it is possible for a study to have statistical significance but not a practical significance. If the source of the data can benefit from the results of the study, it is possible that an element of bias is introduced so that the results are favorable to the source. A voluntary response sample is a sample in which the subjects themselves decide whether to be included in the study. A voluntary response sample is generally not suitable for a statistical study because the sample may have a bias resulting from participation by those with a special interest in the topic being studied. Even if we conduct a study and find that there is a correlation, or association, between two variables, we cannot conclude that one of the variables is the cause of the other. There does appear to be a potential to create a bias. There does not appear to be a potential to create a bias. There does not appear to be a potential to create a bias. There does appear a potential to create a bias. The sample is a voluntary response sample and is therefore flawed. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. The sample is a voluntary response sample and is therefore flawed. 11. The sampling method appears to be sound. 12. The sampling method appears to be sound. 13. Because there is a 30% chance of getting such results with a diet that has no effect, it does not appear to have statistical......

Words: 3143 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

...closely resembles spaghetti and meatballs that “changes results of carbon dating with his Noodly Appendage”. Henderson prophesies that intelligent design uses ambiguous references to a creator; therefore any conceivable entity could fulfill that role. After receiving no reply from the board of education he posted his letter virally gaining significant public interest. As Henderson’s letter grew in popularity, the satirical nature of his argument caught global attention and received many supporters. According to Pastafarian beliefs, pirates are the original Pastafarians, and are divine beings. The inclusion of pirates was first found in Henderson’s letter to the Education Board, where he uses this as an effort to illustrate that correlation does not imply causation. Henderson correlates global warming, earthquakes, hurricanes and all other natural disasters to the dying numbers of pirates. Instead, Pastafarians believe that they were "peace-loving explorers and...

Words: 726 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

...credit. You will have only one attempt at correcting this so if you have questions, be sure to contact me. 1. Report the sample you selected and the question that was explored in the study. The sample selected here was ‘hours of study’ (x-variable) The question explored was: what kind of dependence does hours of study have on student’s exam score. 2. Report the r2 linear correlation coefficient and the linear regression equation produced in the Excel spreadsheet. From the excel plot, linear correlation coefficient, r2 or R2 = 0.785 and the linear regression equation is: y = 1.5608x + 55.767 3. What would be the value of Pearson’s r (simply the square root of r2)? Pearson correlation coefficient, r = sqrt(r2) = sqrt(0.785) = 0.886 4. Would Pearson’s r be positive or negative? What does this imply about the relationship between the factors in this study? As evident from the orientation of the scatter diagram (see ex.), r is positive here. r is a measure of the linear correlation (dependence) between two variables x and y, giving a value between +1 and −1 inclusive, where 1 is total positive correlation, 0 is no correlation, and −1 is total negative correlation. 5. What is the implication of any...

Words: 468 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

...Question 1: According to the text organizational behavior is a field of study devoted to understanding, explaining, and ultimately improving the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizations. Organizational behavior is related to human resources, which focuses on the applications of organizational behavior, because if used effectively human resource management is responsible for molding the perceptions of employees to help an organization reach their mission. It is the responsibility of human resources to manage the concerns and issues of the well-being of its employees, ultimately leaving employees with a positive attitude and being more productive so that they are eager to adequately perform and fulfill their duties. Not only is organizational behavior related to human resource management, but it is also related to organizational strategy, which according to the book is devoted to exploring the product choices and industry characteristics that affect an organization’s profitabailtiy. Organizational behavior is related to organizational strategy because the job performance of employees affects the overall success of an organization. Also, it is related because organizational behavior should focus on organizing and managing the employees knowledge and skills so that they can implement the organization’s strategy in their daily task so that the organization can compete. ------------------------------------------------- Question 2: Ex #1) The......

Words: 8437 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay

...To: The Regional Food Marketer Date: November 4, 2012 Ye Olde FoodKing Company From: Re: Big Suzy’s Snack Cakes Regression Analysis Introduction The Regional Food Manager for Ye Olde FoodKing Company has retained Mark Craig of Blue Steel Consulting to perform a regression analysis to forecast demand of your product. The four characteristics readily available included price, competitors’ price, average income, and market population. The results of each regression analysis are presented at the end of this memo. The remainder of this memo describes the regression analysis used and limitations to the data available. Running a regression provides a statistical procedure to estimate the liner dependency of one or more independent variables on dependent variables. Confidence that the true (population) relation between X and Y lies between “Lower” and “Upper” Methodology * Form a theoretical model of the relationship under consideration. * This model suggests what explanatory variables to include in the analysis. * Collect data on independent and dependent variables. * Estimate regression line. * Examine results. This includes test of statistical significance and analysis of residuals. Regression Analysis Regression analysis is a statistical technique that examines the relation of a dependent variable to specified independent variables. The easiest form of regression analysis involves finding and understanding the straight-line ......

Words: 1333 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

...Chapter 1 1. Ideas for beyond the final exam a. How much does it really cost? i. Opportunity Costs 1. Value of the next best alternative that must be given up because of that decision. 2. Economists say that the true cost of such decisions are not the number of dollars spend on the computer, new equipment, or military, but rather the VALUE OF WHAT MUST BE GIVEN UP TO ACQUIRE THEM. 3. EXAMPLE- cost of college is more expensive add the money you could be making with a job at home, don’t add housing since you pay that either way (tuition + possible income if you weren’t working) b. Attempts to Repeal the Laws of Supply and Demand- The Market Strikes Back ii. Short Supply-Prices Rise iii. Large Quantity-Prices Fall 4. Ceiling on Price or Price Floors a. Such attempts to repeal the laws of supply and demand usually backfire and cause more problems c. Comparative Advantage iv. Even if one of them is more efficient at everything, both countries can gain by producing the things they do best COMPARATIVELY v. Even if you are better at something than someone else, the time you could be spending on what you specialize in is losing money. Do what you do best and hire someone to do the rest. d. Trade is a Win-Win Situation vi. Fundamental Idea- Both parties must expect to gain something! vii. Some things like ticket......

Words: 992 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

... What is the response variable (dependent variable, y)? Weigth is the response variables Part B. Use your responses in Part A to write the puppy data as 10 ordered pairs (x, y). (2.5 points) (40,7.2),(7,1.3),(33,9),(24,5.8),(14,2.5),(48,9.7),(9,2.3),(18,1.6),(13,1.8),(21,2.9) Part C. Use your ordered pairs from Part B to display the puppy data on the scatterplot below. (5 points)Student receives 0.5 point correctly plotting each ordered pair,for a maximum of 5 points. Part D. Use the scatterplot from Part C to answer these questions. (2 points) What kind of correlation exists between the length and weight of the puppies? Explain. There is a positive correlation exists between the variables, because as the explanatory variable (Length) increases, the response variable (Weigth) increases. Does this correlation imply causation? Explain. It seems to imply causation, since it is logical that the...

Words: 1394 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

...Managerial Economics Sat. 11:00 – 14:00 Demand Estimation and Forecasting Facilitators : Mr. John Michael G. Favila Mr. Jose Miguel G. Catan Learning Objectives * Identify a wide range of Demand Estimation and Forecast Methods. * Understand the nature of Demand Function * Understand that the Demand Estimation and Forecasting is all about minimizing risk. Demand Estimation and Demand Forecasting; distinguished. * Demand Estimation attempts to quantify the link between the level of for a product and the variables which determines it whereas the Demand Forecasting simply attempts to predict the level of sales at some particular future date. 7 stages of Demand Estimation 1. Statement of a Theory or Hypothesis : This usually comes from a mixture of economic Theory and previous empherical studies. 2. Model Specification : This means determining what variables should be included in the demand model and what mathematical form or forms such a relationship should take. 3. Data Collection : Gathering necessary information. a. Cross-sectional data : Provide information on a group opf entities at a given time. b. Time-serie data: Provide information on the entity over time. i. Quantitative: Data that are expressed in nominal in either ordinal or cardinal. ii. Qualitative: Expressed in categories. 4. Estimation of Parameters : This means computing the value of the coefficient...

Words: 1676 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

...(color of eyes) Time Series Data- Values over time Cross Sectional Data -specific point in time Interval Data – no meaningful 0, cant divide or multiply but the difference b/w 2 values is meaningful. Ratio Data – opposite of interval, can compare to 0 (height). Selection Bias – sampling scheme problem, systematic tendency to exclude one kind of individual (call at 2 pm everyday). Non Response- subjects don’t answer Response Bias- Subjects lie, interviewer effect Under coverage Bias- portion of population is not sampled. Sampling Error- sample to Sample differences are reflected Sample- part of the population of interest. We examine & do have data Sample Size- fraction of pop u have sampled doesn’t matter; sample size does. Parameter- a number describing a characteristic of population (average student debt) something of interest in the population (unknown). Statistic- a number describing a characteristic of a sample (known) comes from samples Sampling Frame- list of population (phone book, register voter list) Effective population, SRS picks equally from whole frame Statistical Sampling- Simple Random- each individual in pop has equal chance...

Words: 912 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

...Article Analysis An article published by Science Daily outlines a new study which claims that “electronic game use is associated with childhood obesity” (Science Daily, 2004, Par. 1). I disagree with this article because the study seems to break the very basic rule of statistics: correlation does not imply causation. The following will outline why I feel this article makes an unrealistic claim which has not been properly backed up by enough scientific study and experiment. While I agree that the overuse of electronics can lead to a more sedentary lifestyle for children, I do not think the study provided enough information to claim that electronic game use leads to obesity. Instead, it is taking two very common events and then implying that there is causation between the two. The study itself seemed to be performed and presented in a correct and scientific manner, but its results cannot imply a perfect example of causation. For example, the study makes the following claims: “In a study published in the June issue of the Journal of Obesity Research, researchers from The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and the University Hospital Zurich present a strong association between playing electronic video games and childhood obesity” (Par. 1). I cannot agree that this claim is valid or should be taken seriously by the reader simply because the study chose two very common events among children and then assumes that they are associated with one another. This would be similar...

Words: 387 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

...research design. Exploratory studies tend toward loose structures with the objective of discovering future research tasks. The purpose of exploration is usually to develop hypotheses or questions for further research. The formal study begins where the exploration leaves off it begins with a hypothesis or research question and involves precise procedures and data source specifications (Cooper, Schindler). Experimental and ex-post facto research design. In an experiment researchers attempt to control or manipulate the variables in the study. Experimental design is appropriate when one wishes to discover if certain variables produce effects in other variables. Experimentation provides the most powerful support possible for a hypothesis of causation. With an ex-post facto design investigators have no control over the variables in the sense of being able to manipulate them. They can report only what has happened or what is happening it is important for researchers using this design not influence the variables to do so introduces bias. There research is limited to holding factors constant by judicious selection of subjects according to strict sampling procedures and by statistical manipulation of findings (Cooper, Schindler). Descriptive and casual studies. Casual study is a study that is design to determine whether one or more variables explain the causes or effects of one or more outcome variables. Descriptive study attempts to describe or define a subject often...

Words: 1064 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

...Final Exam PSY 325: Statistics for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Download 100% accurate A++ and most economical answer from here http://www.homeworkmarket.com/content/need-urgent-5173933-2 http://www.homeworkmarket.com/content/need-urgent-5173933-2 Essay 1 A group of researchers conducted an experiment to determine which vaccine is more effective for preventing getting the flu. They tested two different types of vaccines: a shot and a nasal spray. To test the effectiveness, 1000 participants were randomly selected with 500 people getting the shot and 500 the nasal spray. Of the 500 people were treated with the shot, 80 developed the flu and 420 did not. Of the people who were treated with the nasal spray, 120 people developed the flu and 380 did not. The level of significance was set at .05. The proportion of people who were treated with the shot who developed the flu = .16, and the proportion of the people who were treated with the nasal spray was .24. The calculated p value = .0008. For this essay, describe the statistical approaches (e.g., identify the hypotheses and research methods) used in this excerpt from a research study. Interpret the statistical results and examine the limitations of the statistical methods. Finally, evaluate the research study as a whole and apply what you have learned about hypothesis testing and inferential statistics by discussing how you might conduct a follow-up study. Your essay must address the following points: • Describe......

Words: 807 - Pages: 4