Free Essay

Country Classification

In: Social Issues

Submitted By beni1991
Words 2356
Pages 10
Country classification
Data sources, country classifications and aggregation methodology
The statistical annex contains a set of data that the World Economic Situation and Prospects (WESP) employs to delineate trends in various dimensions of the world economy.

Data sources
The annex was prepared by the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA). It is based on information obtained from the Statistics Division and the Population Division of UN/DESA, as well as from the five United Nations regional commissions, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and national and private sources. Estimates for the most recent years were made by DPAD in consultation with the regional commissions, UNCTAD, UNWTO and participants in Project LINK, an international collaborative research group for econometric modelling coordinated jointly by DPAD and the University of Toronto. Forecasts for 2014 and 2015 are primarily based on the World Economic Forecasting Model of DPAD, with support from Project LINK. Data presented in WESP may differ from those published by other organizations for a series of reasons, including differences in timing, sample composition and aggregation methods. Historical data may differ from those in previous editions of WESP because of updating and changes in the availability of data for individual countries.

Country classifications
For analytical purposes, WESP classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition and developing economies. The composition of these groupings, specified in tables A, B and C, is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. Within each broad category, some subgroups are defined based either on geographical location or on ad hoc criteria, such as the subgroup of “major developed economies”, which is based on the membership of the Group of Seven. Geographical regions for developing economies are as follows: Africa, East Asia, South Asia, Western Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean.1
1

Names and composition of geographical areas follow those specified in the statistical paper entitled “Standard country or area codes for statistical use” (ST/ESA/STAT/SER.M/49/Rev. 4).

144

World Economic Situation and Prospects 2014

In parts of the analysis, a distinction is made between fuel exporters and fuel importers from among the economies in transition and the developing countries. An economy is classified as a fuel exporter if the share of fuel exports in its total merchandise exports is greater than 20 per cent and the level of fuel exports is at least 20 per cent higher than that of the country’s fuel imports. This criterion is drawn from the share of fuel exports in the total value of world merchandise trade. Fuels include coal, oil and natural gas (table D). For other parts of the analysis, countries have been classified by their level of development as measured by per capita gross national income (GNI). Accordingly, countries have been grouped as high-income, upper middle income, lower middle income and low-income (table E). To maintain compatibility with similar classifications used elsewhere, the threshold levels of GNI per capita are those established by the World Bank. Countries with less than $1,035 GNI per capita are classified as low-income countries, those with between $1,036 and $4,085 as lower middle income countries, those with between $4,086 and $12,615 as upper middle income countries, and those with incomes of more than $12,615 as high-income countries. GNI per capita in dollar terms is estimated using the World Bank Atlas method, 2 and the classification in table E is based on data for 2012. The list of the least developed countries (LDCs) is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index.3 As at 29 November 2013, there were 49 LDCs (table F). WESP also makes reference to the group of heavily indebted poor countries (HIPCs), which are considered by the World Bank and IMF as part of their debt-relief initiative (the Enhanced HIPC Initiative).4 In September 2013, there were 39 HIPCs (see table G).

Aggregation methodology
Aggregate data are either sums or weighted averages of individual country data. Unless otherwise indicated, multi-year averages of growth rates are expressed as compound annual percentage rates of change. The convention followed is to omit the base year in a multi-year growth rate. For example, the 10-year average growth rate for the decade of the 2000s would be identified as the average annual growth rate for the period from 2001 to 2010. WESP utilizes exchange-rate conversions of national data in order to aggregate output of individual countries into regional and global totals. The growth of output in each group of countries is calculated from the sum of gross domestic product (GDP) of individual countries measured at 2005 prices and exchange rates. Data for GDP in

2 3

See http://data.worldbank.org/about/country-classifications. Handbook on the Least Developed Country Category: Inclusion, Graduation and Special Support Measures (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.07.II.A.9). Available from http://www.un.org/esa/analysis/ devplan/cdppublications/2008cdphandbook.pdf. IMF, Debt Relief Under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative Available from http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/facts/pdf/hipc.pdf

4

Country classification

145

2005 in national currencies were converted into dollars (with selected adjustments) and extended forwards and backwards in time using changes in real GDP for each country. This method supplies a reasonable set of aggregate growth rates for a period of about 15 years, centred on 2005. The exchange-rate based method differs from the one mainly applied by the IMF and the World Bank for their estimates of world and regional economic growth, which is based on purchasing power parity (PPP) weights. Over the past two decades, the growth of world gross product (WGP) on the basis of the exchange-rate based approach has been below that based on PPP weights. This is because developing countries, in the aggregate, have seen significantly higher economic growth than the rest of the world in the 1990s and 2000s and the share in WGP of these countries is larger under PPP measurements than under market exchange rates.
Table A Developed economies
Europe European Union New EU member States Other Europe Other countries Major developed economies (G7)

EU-15 Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Ireland Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Portugal Spain Sweden United Kingdom

Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Estonia Hungary Latvia Lithuania Malta Poland Romania Slovakia Slovenia

Iceland Norway Switzerland

Australia Canada Japan New Zealand United States

Canada Japan France Germany Italy United Kingdom United States

Table B Economies in transition
South-Eastern Europe Commonwealth of Independent States and Georgiaa

Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Montenegro Serbia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Georgiaa Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan

Republic of Moldova Russian Federation Tajikistan Turkmenistan Ukraine Uzbekistan

a Georgia officially left the Commonwealth of Independent States on 18 August 2009. However, its performance is discussed in the context of this group of countries for reasons of geographic proximity and similarities in economic structure.

146

World Economic Situation and Prospects 2014

Table C Developing economies by regiona
Africa Asia Latin America and the Caribbean

North Africa Algeria Egypt Libyab Mauritania Morocco Sudan Tunisia Central Africa Cameroon Central African Republic Chad Congo Equatorial Guinea Gabon Sao Tome and Prinicipe East Africa Burundi Comoros Democratic Republic of the Congo Djibouti Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Madagascar Rwanda Somalia a Economies systematically monitored by the Global Economic Monitoring Unit of DPAD. b The name of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya was officially changed to Libya on 16 September 2011. c Special Administrative Region of China.

Southern Africa Angola Botswana Lesotho Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia South Africa Zambia Zimbabwe West Africa Benin Burkina Faso Cabo Verde Côte d’Ivoire Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo

East Asia Brunei Darussalam China Hong Kong SARc Indonesia Malaysia Myanmar Papua New Guinea Philippines Republic of Korea Singapore Taiwan Province of China Thailand Viet Nam South Asia Bangladesh India Iran (Islamic Republic of) Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka Western Asia Bahrain Iraq Israel Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Syrian Arab Repuplic Turkey United Arab Emirates Yemen

Caribbean Barbados Cuba Dominican Republic Guyana Haiti Jamaica Trinidad and Tobago Mexico and Central America Costa Rica El Salvador Guatemala Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Panama South America Argentina Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Paraguay Peru Uruguay Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

Uganda United Republic of Tanzania

Country classification

147

Table D Fuel-exporting countries
Developing countries Economies in transition Latin America and the Caribbean Africa East Asia South Asia Western Asia

Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Russian Federation Turkmenistan Uzbekistan

Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Colombia Ecuador Trinidad and Tobago Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

Algeria Angola Cameroon Chad Congo Côte d’Ivoire Egypt Equatorial Guinea Gabon Libya Nigeria Sudan

Brunei Darussalam Indonesia Viet Nam

Iran (Islamic Bahrain Republic of) Iraq Kuwait Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Yemen

148

World Economic Situation and Prospects 2014

Table E Economies by per capita GNI in 2012a
High-income Upper middle income Lower middle income Low-income

Australia Austria Bahrain Barbados Belgium Brunei Darussalam Canada Chileb Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Equatorial Guinea Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hong Kong SARd Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Kuwait Latviab

Lithuaniab Luxembourg Malta Netherlands New Zealand Norway Oman Poland Portugal Qatar Republic of Korea Russian Federation Saudi Arabia Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan Province of China Trinidad and Tobago United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay b b

Albaniab Algeria Angola Argentina Azerbaijan Belarus Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Bulgaria China Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador Gabon Hungary c Jordan Kazakhstan Lebanon Libya Malaysia Mauritius Mexico Montenegro Namibia Panama Peru Romania Serbia South Africa Thailand The former Yugoslav Republc of Macedonia Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Venezuela, RB

Armenia Bolivia Cameroon Cape Verde Congo Côte d’Ivoire Djibouti Egypt El Salvador Georgia Ghana Guatemala Guyana Honduras India Indonesia Lesotho Mauritaniab Moldova Morocco Nicaragua Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Paraguay Philippines São Tomé and Principe Senegal Sri Lanka Sudan Syrian Arab Republic Ukraine Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen, Rep. Zambia

Bangladesh Benin Burkina Faso Burundi Central African Republic Chad Comoros Democratic Republic of the Congo Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia, The Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti Kenya Kyrgyz Republic Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mozambique Myanmar Nepal Niger Rwanda Sierra Leone Somalia Tajikistan Tanzania Togo Uganda Zimbabwe

Iran, Islamic Republic Iraqb Jamaica

a b c d

Economies systematically monitored for the World Economic Situation and Prospects report and included in the United Nations’ global economic forecast. Indicates the country has been shifted upward by one category from previous year’s classification. Indicates the country has been shifted downward by one category from previous year’s classification. Special Administrative Region of China.

Country classification

149

Table F Least developed countries (as of November 2013)
Africa East Asia South Asia Western Asia Latin America & the Caribbean

Angola Benin Burkina Faso Burundi Central African Republic Chad Comoros Democratic Republic of the Congo Djibouti Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia Guinea Guinea-Bissau Lesotho Liberia

Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mozambique Niger Rwanda Sao Tome and Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Somalia South Sudana Sudan Togo Uganda United Republic of Tanzania Zambia

Cambodiaa Kiribatia Lao People’s Democratic Republica Myanmar Samoaa, b Solomon Islandsa Timor Lestea Tuvalua Vanuatua

Afghanistana Bangladesh Bhutana Nepal

Yemen

Haiti

a Not included in the WESP discussion because of insufficient data. b Samoa will graduate from the list of the least developed countries in January 2014.

Table G Heavily indebted poor countries (as of September 2013)
Post-completion point HIPCsa Interim HIPCsb Pre-decision point HIPCsc

Afghanistan Benin Bolivia Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Côte D’Ivoire Democratic Republic of the Congo Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti

Honduras Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mozambique Nicaragua Niger Rwanda Sao Tome and Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Togo Uganda United Republic of Tanzania Zambia

Chad Comoros

Eritrea Somalia Sudan

a Countries that have qualified for irrevocable debt relief under the HIPC Initiative. b Countries that have qualified for assistance under the HIPC Initiative (that is to say, have reached decision point), but have not yet reached completion point. c Countries that are potentially eligible and may wish to avail themselves of the HIPC Initiative or the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI).

150

World Economic Situation and Prospects 2014

Table H Small island developing States
United Nations members Non-UN Members/Associate Members of the Regional Commissions

Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belize Cabo Verde Comoros Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Grenada Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Jamaica Kiribati Maldives

Marshall Islands Mauritius Nauru Palau Papua New Guinea Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint. Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa São Tomé and Príncipe Seychelles Singapore Solomon Islands Suriname Timor-Leste Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tuvalu Vanuatu

American Samoa Anguilla Aruba Bermuda British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Commonwealth of Northern Marianas Cook Islands Curacao French Polynesia Guadeloupe Guam Martinique Montserrat New Caledonia Niue Puerto Rico Turks and Caicos Islands U.S. Virgin Islands

Table I Landlocked developing countries
Landlocked developing countries

Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bhutan Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Central African Republic Chad Ethiopia Kazakhstan Kyrgystan Lao People’s Democratic Republic

Lesotho Malawi American Samoa Anguilla Aruba Bermuda British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Commonwealth of Northern Marianas Cook Islands Curacao French Polynesia Mali Republic of Moldova

Mongolia Nepal Niger Paraguay Rwanda South Sudan Swaziland Tajikistan The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkmenistan Uganda Uzbekistan Zambia Zimbabwe

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Third World

...stop using the term “third world countries” August 7, 2014 · by LofAlexandria · in Political/Social Opinion It is not uncommon for people to use the phrases “First World Country” and “Third World Country” to describe various parts of the world today. Interestingly, I almost never hear anyone describe a country as a “Second World Country”, ever wonder why that is? Mostly this has to do with the history of the phrases and their true meanings. Amusingly when I set out to write this article I was under the impression that the original terms has nothing to do with economics or development and instead was based solely on socio-political lines on the globe. The truth is that shortly after the United Nations was born in 1945 it set about the arduous task of developing a manner in which to compare the wealth of nations. In doing so they created the terms “First World”, “Second World”, “Third World”, and “Fourth World” to describe both the economic and political landscape of the world [1]. Although at least one source I have reviewed states that the term “Fourth world was not coined until much later in the 1970’s [2]. Essentially, first and second world countries were the wealthy industrialized nations of the world. First world countries were the democratic “free” countries of the world. Sometimes I have seen the first world descreibed as America and its allies during the cold war. The second world countries were the socialist-communist countries of the world. Or, also......

Words: 716 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Is the Word "The Third World" Still Relevant in the 21st Century

...1952, it was firstly used to distinguish the newly independent states from the First World and the Second World, which meant the Capitalist world led by the US and the Socialist world led by the USSR. The two superpowers competed to impose their ideology and development path on the Third World countries to strengthen their power. However, the Third World countries tried to keep away from the East-West rivalry, cooperate in a non-aligned way and seek a “third path”. As the Cold War went to its late period, the meaning of “the Third World” shifted its stress from political to economic classification, taking the mainly economically-defined meaning of “poor” countries. Since then, the international political and economic environment has been further changed, and the term “the Third World” is no longer relevant now for the following reasons. Firstly, the disparity among the current so-called “Third World countries” is so big that these countries can no longer be homogenized into a single group. First of all, there is notable difference in their speed and efficiency of development. This leads to large disparity in national power, economic growth and political influence among these countries. For example, the BRICS have notable share of global economy and large influences on international agenda, while the...

Words: 1063 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Rise of Export Processing Zones

...industrialized countries (NICs), in the 1970s and growing throughout the rest of the century allowed the First World to keep up with rising consumption rates while keeping labour costs low. To represent the shift to export production, and to serve firms seeking lower wages and Third World governments seeking capital investment, export processing zones (EPZs) were created. Most EPZs are located in developing countries, and these zones attract employers as a solution to domestic production while also taking advantage of reduced trade barriers set up by the host nation in an attempt to reduce poverty, unemployment, and stimulate their domestic economy. The creation of these EPZs supported the rise of neoliberal globalization and the free market system throughout the latter half of the 20th century, which stated that the private sector would determine state priorities. This paper will examine the rise of EPZs and their connection to neoliberal globalization, as well as their relationship to the debt crisis of the 1980s and the growth of structural adjustment programs. With the Cold War immediately following WWII, countries were divided into a class First, Second, and Third World countries, according to their status in the war. The Third World, also known as the Global South, represented all nations that were not aligned with either the core advanced capitalist countries (First World) or the countries in the Soviet-led bloc (Second World) (Smardon, 2011). These Third World......

Words: 2265 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Global Inequality

...assumes that the entire world was once agrarian. Most of the worlds’ work involved farming, which was the most advanced type of economic activity. Around the middle of the eighteenth century, Europe began the transition to an industrial economy. The countries of Western Europe adopted the economic policy of capitalism and coupled it with factory technology. These (and their offspring: United States, Canada, and Australia, principally) became the wealthy countries of the world and are referred as the first world countries. At the beginning of the twentieth century, Russia adopted the socialist economic model and began to industrialize. However, it was a century and a half behind Western civilization, and socialism did not turn out to be effective in a world that was geared toward capitalism. The countries that followed this model (U.S.S.R,China, Cuba, etc.) became the Second World Countries. Countries that were unaffected by the two great revolutions (Industrial Revolution in the West and Communist Revolution in the East) are today's Third World Countries, the poorest countries in the world. World System Theory postulates that the vast majority of Third World Countries will never become equal to the more economically advanced countries because of world policies put into effect first by GATT (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs), The World Bank, and the International Monetary Foundation. Gradually, the G7 took charge of world monetary and trade issues. The G7 refers to......

Words: 1561 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Infectious Deseases

...traditionally the world has been divided into three distinct socio-economic groups: first world countries (Australia, USA, UK, and others), second world (Russian Federation and former Eastern bloc countries), and third world (poor countries in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and South America). Third world regions reflecting on poorer countries including areas such as Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and South America have a predominance of infectious diseases as opposed to the lifestyle related diseases of those in First world, and second world countries with considerations. It is shown by the Global Health Council (2011) that Infections are prevalent in developing countries such as those mentioned above, where co-infection is the most common. The adverse impact of infectious diseases is most severe among the poorest people, who have the fewest resources to draw from. This is due to reasons including limited or no access to integrated health care, prevention tools and medications. Statistics disclose that approximately 15 million people die each year due to infectious diseases, and once again nearly all live in developing third world countries (Global Health Council, 2011). As a future health care practitioner I think to myself, how can one person make such a difference in the world? How can one person change the world and make it a better place for everyone? Although I live in one of the best countries in the world where treatment is available and people have fewer......

Words: 454 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The Caribbean as Third World Region

...The concept of “third world” often bears the implication or gives the broader picture of a ranking or categorical system of which the world’s countries or regions are placed. Certainly, the impression is given that there is a first and second world, though such terms are hardly mentioned. To some, it is an undesirable term or concept, and many shun from the notion of their country being referred to as third world territory; perhaps that is why the term “developing” or “underdeveloped” country is preferred. Nevertheless, the concept certainly attempts to stratify countries or territories based on some common characteristics and many of the world’s countries are categorized in that bracket, even the Caribbean region. But what constitutes third world? Should the Caribbean region be even considered third world? The Caribbean is a very diverse region divided within two groups based on location, namely; the Lesser Antilles and the Greater Antilles. There are a total of 30 countries, all which share a similar or common heritage but there are also some stark differences as well, in areas such as; geography, resources, culture and population. The diversity in Caribbean culture and heritage comes from the its rich history dating all the way back to the late 15th century, when the islands were occupied and fought over by various European countries and native Amerindians, who it is believed to have first discovered the Indies. However it is the arrival of the Europeans that served......

Words: 1401 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

One Laptop Per Child

...that are given to us. Just by being born into certain countries we have the chance to seize many opportunities that others do not. Education, health care and technology are all assumed as necessities for the youth of first world countries. When did our minds become so distorted that we let it go unnoticed that these aren’t needs but rather privileges that we are granted. One Laptop per Child has donated 2.4 million laptops, constructed to withstand some of the world’s harshest climates. So not only developed countries, but third world countries as well, have the ability to learn not only about what is happening in their country and local environment/government, but all around the world via the web. The world is in an unpredictable state, but putting educational tools in the hands of youth will help give them a better understanding of what is happening, to prepare, study and even forecast future economical recessions, weather outbreaks and many other crisis’s. Giving laptops to kids who have never had more than $5 to their name is not only a heart-warming act, but an opportunity to change their lives and the lives of their future children. As mentioned in the mission video, education is the solution to all other foundations; shelter, food, water. This foundation can literally be looked at as saving the world, one laptop at a time. Truly a life-changing idea. I have many friends at school from third world countries such as Kenya, Uganda, Congo and Sudan. If there is......

Words: 486 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Digital Divide

...Digital divide The digital divide is a term which is used to describe the difference between those who have the access to the information technology this involves mobile phones, internet, computers and television and those who do not have access to these services. The expression can also represent those who have the skills and expertise to use different types of technology. The digital divide can exist between those who are living in rural areas and those who are living in urban areas. Factors that can contribute to the digital divide are economic factor, geographical factor, and fear of technology. One of the factors that contribute to the digital divide is fear of technology as many people do not use technology due to them having less confident about their ability to use computer skills. Due to the lack of confidence in which some people may show this will create digital divide between technology and themselves this means that they will find it harder to access the internet. As well as being able to find jobs. Another aspect that will result in a fear of technology is due to people fearing that others around them will laugh at them which mean that a person will have a low self esteem when trying to use technology. Furthermore factor that it’s the main issue that why people fear technology is due to people being scared of hackers and computer fraud. Overall a fear in technology will result in digital divide due to people not using technology which will mean that they will...

Words: 2268 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

The Impacts of Globalization

...that make people worried about globalization. Some people are worried because they believe that their traditional culture may be in risk because of foreign influence such as the immigrants, who came to their country. Pew attitudes Project’ survey (2007), which covered more than 45,000 people around the global, demonstrated that most people in the countries surveyed are concerned about their culture traditions from immigrations. They think it may affect their national identity by immigrants bringing their culture with them. Also, there are some people who think about globalization from a different aspect. They think that their traditions may disappear from people who left their countries. For example, many young people from Paracho, Mexico are leaving the city toward America in order to find jobs. Their jobs as traditional guitar makers became less profitable, and the opportunity of having a good job in America is big, so people in Paracho are wondering how to keep on their traditional craft alive. (Campbell, 2004) These kinds of migrations usually make traditional cultures in risk of loss, and that’s what makes people concerned about globalization. The economic aspect is another drawback of globalization that makes people worried. Some people think of their countries and how they are going to be affected by globalization. They care about their local...

Words: 584 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Marxism

...Modernisation emphasises the point that western capitals, values and practises are the basis for “modernising” 3rd world countries by helping them become sustainable .However this can only widen the gap between first and 3rd world resulting more 3rd world countries to depend more and more upon the first world for sustenance Modernisation is defined as the transition from the traditional society of the past to modern society as it is found today in the west .Modernisation presents the idea that by introducing modern methods in technology ,agriculture production for trade ,industrialisation dependant on the mobility of the labour force thus 3rd world countries will experience a boost in their economies .Many proponents of the modernisation theory were there such as Walter Rostov, Talcott Parsons Daniel Lerner felt that the rest of the world especialyy3rd world had to adopt the Western ways of life. As research was taken further into the modernisation theory it is seen that development could worsen women lives probably more than anything. In 3rd world countries women have been seen as major contributors to their household as primary subsistence farmers, producing crops for their families. However now, industrial societies due to modernisation, women are not able to own land and thus their rights are taken away by their husbands hence losing the important economic and social roles as subsistence food producers. Their household craft productions also decreases as the lose a......

Words: 1458 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Globalization

...I. Introduction With the development of Internet, transportation and closer relationship between countries, nowadays we heard of “globalization” more frequently in the daily life. Different countries and the people from different places have more connection and communication with each other than before. This is a human social phenomenon. In this big world stage, more relation not only means more opportunities, but also more competition. To research the advantages and disadvantages of globalization can help to catch the chance and avoid the risk and maintain a momentum of healthy development. I will briefly talk about what is globalization and its effects to different areas at the beginning. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages will be presented to show how these factors influence the developed and developing country respectively. II. What is globalization? The globalization is just a concept which generally means an increase of global connections, the human life based on the global scale and an increase of global consciousness. The politics and economic trade rely on each other. The globalization can be recognized as the integration of the world. Actually, Globalization is not a new phenomenon, which not happened in recent years. In ancient time, China exported tea and silk to Europe. That the west Europe started colonial times can be considered as the beginning of the globalization. It began at the end of the nineteenth century, but it slowed down during the......

Words: 1225 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Democratizing in Globalization

...DEMOCRATIZING GLOBALIZATION ZURIN MOHAMAD NOR University of Technology Mara, Institute of Graduate Studies, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia mnzurin3003@gmail.com Abstract Decision making in a country represents an involuntary constraint on the sovereignty of the country in the process of globalization. The democracy system of the country may appear to be negative effects to the sovereign will of the people. The weaknesses of the democratic institutions and dependent economies on external sources will be suffering and vulnerable to the pressures of globalization. The strength of their democratic institutions, capacity to structurally diversify their economies and knowledge advances of their people itself toward development of their country can coping this democratizing issue in globalization. Keywords : Involuntary, globalization, democratizing 1.0 Introduction Globalization has been given many meanings in different contexts. One frequently encountered meaning is that globalization is the homogenization of peoples’ tastes and demand patterns around the world due to increased access to international communication of information about products and services as well as increased access to transportation of products and people across the borders (Carol Hammond and Robert Grosse). Globalization means that events in one part of the world have ripple effects elsewhere, as ideas and knowledge, goods and services and capital and people move more easily across border.......

Words: 3558 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Poverty and Pollution

...Case Jaime Mesia BUS 309 – Business Ethics May, 30th 2013 Abstract Urban living is the keystone of modern human ecology. Cities have multiplied and expanded rapidly worldwide over the past two centuries. Cities are sources of creativity and technology, and they are the engines for economic growth. However, they are also sources of poverty, inequality, and health hazards from the environment. Urban populations have long been incubators and gateways for infectious diseases. The early industrializing period of unplanned growth and laissez-faire economic activity in cities in industrialized countries has been superseded by the rise of collective management of the urban environment. This occurred in response to environmental blight, increasing literacy, the development of democratic government, and the collective accrual of wealth. In many low-income countries, this process is being slowed by the pressures and priorities of economic globalization. Beyond the traditional risks of diarrhea disease and respiratory infections in the urban poor and the adaptation of various vector-borne infections to urbanization, the urban environment poses various physicochemical hazards. These include exposure to lead, air pollution, traffic hazards, and the ‘‘urban heat island’’ amplification of heat waves. As the number of urban consumers and their material expectations rise and as the use of fossil fuels increases, cities contribute to the large-scale pressures on the......

Words: 1535 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Docx

...social development in developing countries before moving to economic development seeing that in order for economic development to reach its maximum potential social development has to occur first. Seers was highly critical of using indexes such as unemployment and inflation when referring to Third World countries, possibly because the statistics we have from these countries are too unreliable for us to be able to make judgments concerning their economies. In other words to Seers true development lay in the elimination of poverty, increase in literacy, improvement in the health system as opposed to the increase of per capita output. Thus one may conclude that the whole concept behind the HDI lies within Seers notion of development. For example if a third world nation wants to develop it can't be expected to use the same policies as a first world nation. If, for instance, a third world nation had set growth as their macroeconomic target the government can't expect that by cutting taxation and reducing government spending its economy will grow the same way it would if it was a first world nation(fiscal policy). The reason behind this is that if the government in third world countries had taxes in the first place the people would be much worse off than they are now and the other complication is that the government can’t increase spending since all its spending relies on aid. Thus it would be much more beneficial for the governments of these countries to focus on combating......

Words: 701 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Geog Essay

...Lee Ho Ting 3035049110 Essay 1: Compare and contrast the main characteristics of the urbanization process in the First and Third Worlds Introduction As a necessary step towards development, both the First world and Third world countries have been undertaking the process urbanization. Urbanization is referred to the process of the increase in the total population living in the urban areas through immigration to the areas and net increase in the urban population (Pacione, 2009). Although the processes of urbanization are similar among countries, there are still differences as the First world is defined as capitalist industrial market economies where the Third world is referred to states that failed to develop economically after independence (Pacione, 2009). The differences in the social and economic situations in the First and Third world as well as the different global environment have led to distinct characteristics in the urbanization process of countries. Understanding these characteristics is essential to the understanding the challenges faced by states in the process. Therefore this essay is going to discuss the similarities and differences between the urbanization processes starting from the eighteenth century up till now from the social and economic aspects in respect of the global environment. Similarities – Economic based urbanization The major similarity between the urbanization of the two different worlds is that economic development played a......

Words: 1845 - Pages: 8