Country Road

In: English and Literature

Submitted By NAFIZA
Words 10632
Pages 43
Simply defined, linguistics is the scientific study of language. Though various types of language studies (including grammar and rhetoric) can be traced back over 2,500 years, the era of modern linguistics is barely two centuries old.
Kicked off by the late-18th-century discovery that many European and Asian languages descended from a common tongue (Proto-Indo-European), modern linguistics was reshaped, first, by Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913) and more recently by Noam Chomsky (born 1928).

The systematic study of the nature, structure, and variation of language.
Major subfields of linguistics include phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and discourse analysis.
The founder of modern structural linguistics was Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913), whose most influential work, Course in General Linguistics, was edited by his students and published in 1916.
Source: An Introduction to Language by Victoria Fromkin and Robert Rodman, 6th Ed.)
Part One: Introduction to Linguistics
Every human knows at least one language, spoken or signed. Linguistics is the science of language, including the sounds, words, and grammar rules. Words in languages are finite, but sentences are not. It is this creative aspect of human language that sets it apart from animal languages, which are essentially responses to stimuli.
The rules of a language, also called grammar, are learned as one acquires a language. These rules include phonology, the sound system, morphology, the structure of words, syntax, the combination of words into sentences, semantics, the ways in which sounds and meanings are related, and the lexicon, or mental dictionary of words. When you know a language, you know words in that language, i.e. sound units that are related to specific meanings. However, the sounds and meanings of words are arbitrary. For the most part, there is no relationship…...

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