Free Essay

Cpu + Alu

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By sully777
Words 653
Pages 3
CPU’s and ALU’s Table of content Page 1
Introduction Page 2
CPU Page 3
CPU Pictures Page 4
ALU Page 5
ALU Picture Page 6

Introduction
CPU
Many people consider the CPU (Central Processing Unit) to be the brains of the computer. This is not true because, for the most part, the CPU cannot keep data stored inside it like a human brain. It is used to process much of the information needed by the computer, just like our brain thinks and processes information and gives orders to our other body parts.

ALU
Stands for (Arithmetic Logic Unit). An ALU is an integrated circuit within a CPU that performs arithmetic and logic operations. Arithmetic instructions include addition, subtraction, and shifting operations, while logic instructions include AND, OR, XOR, and NOT operations. CPU (Central Processing Unit)
CPU (Central Processing Unit) - otherwise known as a processor - is an electronic circuit that can execute computer programs. Both the miniaturization and standardization of CPUs have increased their presence far beyond the limited application of dedicated computing machines. Modern microprocessors appear in everything from automobiles to mobile phones.
The clock rate is one of the main characteristics of the CPU when performance is concerned. Clock rate is the fundamental rate in cycles per second (measured in hertz, kilohertz, megahertz or gigahertz) for the frequency of the clock in any synchronous circuit. A single clock cycle (typically shorter than a nanosecond in modern non-embedded microprocessors) toggles between a logical zero and a logical one state.
With any particular CPU, replacing the crystal with another crystal that oscillates with twice the frequency will generally make the CPU run with twice the performance. It will also make the CPU produce roughly twice the amount of waste heat.
Engineers are working hard to push the boundaries of the current architectures and are constantly searching for new ways to design CPUs that tick a little quicker or use slightly less energy per clock. This produces new cooler CPUs that can run at higher clock rates.
Scientists also continue to search for new designs that allow CPUs to run at the same or at a lower clock rate as older CPUs, but which get more instructions completed per clock cycle.
The clock rate of a processor is only useful for providing comparisons between computer chips in the same processor family and generation.
Clock rates can be very misleading since the amount of work different computer chips can do in one cycle varies. Clock rates should not be used when comparing different computers or different processor families. Rather, some kind of software benchmarks should be used.
The performance of the CPU that's at the core of the chipset is vital for the daily user experience and the general computing performance of the smartphone. People tend to use the clock rate of the main CPU to compare the performance of competing end products. But as we already pointed out, the clock rate of a processor is only useful for providing performance comparisons between computer chips in the same processor family and generation. CPU ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)
Modern computers contain very complex ALU for performing the complex calculations and logical operations inside the computer. The data or the operands are the input of the ALU and it generates the output as the result of the computation. In some of the computers the ALU is divided into two unit’s Arithmetic unit and the Logic unit.
Some processors have multiple AU some for the fixed point operations and some of the floating point operations. In the computers, the ALU has the direct access to the processor’s controller, RAM and the input/output devices. The output of the ALU is placed inside a storage register. The design of the ALU is very critical as it is related with the processor’s performance. Its design can speed up the instructions handling.
An ALU in 1957

ALU Thirty Years Later

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

System Unit

...(SEC) cartridge -Dual inline package (DIP) -Flip chip-PGA (FC-PGA) package -Pin grid array (PGA) Central Processing Unit (CPU)? -Interprets and carries out basic instructions that operate a computer. -Also called the processor. Components of the CPU? -Control Unit -Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU) -Register Control Unit? -Directs and coordinates operations in computer. Control unit repeats four basic operations: -Fetch-obtain program instruction or data item from memory. (Taking Out From Memory) -Decode-Translate instruction into commands. (Understand It) -Execute-Carry out command. (Writing out It) -Store-Write result to memory. (Write the Result) Machine Cycle? -Four operations of the CPU comprise a machine cycle. -Also called instruction cycle. -Instruction time (I-time)-time taken to fetch and decode -Execution time (e-time)-time taken to execute and store. (I-time) (E-time) Fetch Decode Execute Store (Completed 1 Instruction) CPU’s Speed measured? -According to how many millions of instructions per second (MIPS) it can process. Two designs used for the CPU? CISC (complex instruction set computing) -Support large number of instructions -CPU executes complex instructions more quickly. RISC (reduced instruction set computing) -Supports smaller number of instructions -CPU executes simple instructions more quickly....

Words: 422 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Nt1110 Video Summary

...Starting off, there are two major players in the CPU industry, Intel and their rival AMD. Something you should know about a CPU is that it has a system bus which carries info into, and out of the CPU. When the system bus enters the CPU it is usually referred to as the Frontside bus, the frontside bus is normally equipped with a 64bit wide data path. In the CPU you have a controller including one or more ALU’s and the internal cache. * ALU – Arithmetic Logic Unit *responsible for performing complex calculations* Having multiple ALUs in a single processor is what gave the earlier Pentiums their processing capabilities. Communication between the ALU and the controller uses a 32bit wide data bus. The Bus connecting the CPUs cache to the ALU & the controller is referred to as the Backside bus. CPU Speed * Processor – Usually measured in GHz. * System Bus – Usually measured in MHz *limiting factor of 800MHz* * Multiplier – Ratio between processor and system bus. *system bus speed x multiplier = processor speed. Multiprocessing – The ability to perform multiple functions simultaneously. *True multiprocessing requires multiple processors.* * SRAM – Static RAM *faster but more expensive, holds memory w/o being “refreshed”.* * DRAM – Dynamic RAM *memory must be “refreshed” Cache * L1 Cache – Located on the CPU chip * L2 Cache – Located inside the processor housing, but not on the chip * L3 Cache – Located inside the processor housing also,......

Words: 357 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Cpu Analysis

...• CPU Organization • Speed • Advances in Processing Speed • Cache • ZIF • Heat • Real Life Problems • A+ Expectations This video clip explains everything you need to know about the CPU and troubleshooting heat problems. Also included is a review of what knowledge is expected to pass the A+ Exam. VIDEO 1.05 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS CPU ORGANIZATION • Two major CPUS 1. Intel 2. AMD • System Bus • Frontside Bus • Controller • ALU • Internal Bus • Cache • Backside Bus SPEED • Processor 1. Usually measured in GHz • System Bus 1. Usually measured in MHz • Multiplier 1. Ratio between processor and system bus 2. System bus speed x multiplier = processor speed Advances in Processing Speed • Multiprocessing 1. The ability to perform multiple functions simultaneously. • Multiple Processors • Dual Core Processors CACHE • SRAM 1. Static RAM 2. Faster, but more expensive 3. Holds memory without being “refreshed” • DRAM 1. Dynamic RAM 2. Memory must be “refreshed” • L1 Cache 1. On the processor chip • L2 Cache 2. Inside the processor housing 3. Not on the processor chip • L3 Cache 1. Inside the processor housing 2. Further away from the processor chip SOCKETS • LGA 775 1. Intel Pentium 4 and Celron • Socket 754 1. AMD- Athlon, Sempron, Opteron ZIF • Zero Insertion Force 1. Lever used to gently lock CPU into socket without damaging it. HEAT • Optimal Temperature 1. 90-110 F 2. 32-43 C • Check system temperature in CMOS • Thermal......

Words: 398 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

It332

...We will take a brief in depth tour of the CPU, memory, processing, registers, bus and data moving to the bus. I will touch on these concepts and processes throughout the paper in hopes to clearly detail out how each works and their importance. CPU The first thing we will discuss is the function of the CPU (Central Processing Unit) and its components. There are three primary components that make up the CPU, these are the ALU or the arithmetic/logic unit, the control unit (CU) and memory. The two components that collectively make up the CPU are the ALU and CU. Let’s take a look at the diagram above and I will explain what it all means. The logic and arithmetic unit is where all the data is stored and calculations are performed. The control unit basically interprets and controls all executions and processes instructions that it is given by other input types. In a typical CPU there is a I/O (input-output) interface which handles the input and output of data when it passes through the CPU to other devices that handle input/output data. The CPU architecture is defined by the major features it has, this is also known as ISA or instruction set architecture. It is these basics that include the number and types of registers, methods and how it addresses memory and basic design. With the typical technology advances that occur today, there have been several CPU architectures over the last few decades but only a small handful that last a long time. It is the evolution and the......

Words: 1127 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Ict Note

...4/7/2012 Learning Objectives Chapter FOUR S y s t e m U n i t Reference: Shelly Cashman, Discovering Computers 2011, Living In Digital World, International Thompson Publishing, •Identify and describes components of system unit. •Describes the function of ALU and control unit. •Describes the machine cycle. •Describes types of RAM, Ports, Connectors of computer system. The System Unit The System Unit What is System Unit? Processor chips The hardware unit that houses a computer’s processor, memory chips, ports, and add-in boards Microprocessor- the smallest type of processor, with all of the processing capabilities of the Control Unit and ALU located on a single chip Processor chips Memory chips Ports Add-in boards The System Unit The System Unit Ports Memory chips SIMM (Single in-line memory module) – A multiple-chip memory card inserted as a unit into a Pre-designed slot on a computer’s system board. A connector through which peripheral devices can be plugged into the computer 1 4/7/2012 The System Unit Inside the System Unit Add-in boards A board that can be added to a computer to customize its features and capabilities. The Motherboard Type of Chips Single Edge Contact (SEC) – connects to the motherboard on one of its edges. Dual Inline Package (DIP) – consists of two parallel rows of downward pointing thin metal feet (pins). Type of Chips The Machine Cycle Memory Fetch I-Cycle......

Words: 1980 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Cpu Block

...NT1110 Mon Night CPU Block Diagram cache cache Controller Controller ALU ALU ALU ALU Front side Bus Backside busbaba Backside Bus Controller * Controller manages the basic functions of the CPU, as well controlled communication between the motherboard and other functions of the CPU * Communication between the Controller and the ALU is the Internal bus 32 bit wide data bus * Communication between the cache and the ALU and the Controller is the backside bus * Cache uses SRAM static ram, it’s faster but more expensive and it holds memory without being refresh. * There are three types of Cache L1, L2, and L3. * L1 cache is on the processor chip. * L2 cache is inside the processor housing but not on the processor chip. * L3 cache is inside the processor housing but further away from the processor chip * ALU Logical Unit: After you enter data through the input device it is stored in the primary storage unit. The actual processing of the data and instruction are performed by Arithmetic Logical Unit. The major operations performed by the ALU are addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, logic and comparison. Data is transferred to ALU from storage unit when required. After processing the output is returned back to storage unit for further processing or getting stored * CONTROLLED UNIT Control Unit, which acts like the supervisor seeing that things are done in proper fashion. Control Unit is......

Words: 308 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Unit 5 Assignment 1: Video Summary 3 Cpus Nt1110

...competitors that manufacture CPUs, but they tend to come and go. The way a CPU is organized varies, but here are the basics: The motherboard system bus carries information into and out of the CPU. When the system bus enters the CPU, it’s called a Front side bus. The Front side bus usually uses a 64-bit wide data path. On the side of the CPU you will find a controller. A controller manages the basic functions of the CPU, and controls communication between the motherboard and other components within the CPU. These other components includes one or more ALUs and internal cache. An ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit), is responsible for solving complex calculations. Having multiple ALUs in a single processor is what gave the early Pentiums their multi-processing capabilities. Communication between the controllers and the ALU uses a 32-bit wide internal data bus. The bus system that supports communication between the cache, the ALU, and the controllers is referred to as the backside bus. The most important thing a person needs to know about a processor is the speed at which it processes information; (CPU speed). There are several ways to gauge CPU speeds. This may sound like an advantage, but oftentimes, these multiple ways are misleading. The speeds differ inside and outside the processor. Internally the processor may work at 1, 2, or maybe 3 GHz. The system bus runs at 800 MHz. When buying a new computer, the CPU may be rated at 3.2 GHz, but the real question that a person really......

Words: 784 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Technology

...Unit 5 assignment 1: video summary 3 Video 1.05 is about CPUs, how a CPU is organized, CPU speed, advances in processing speed, Cache, Sockets, ZIF and Heat. Video 1.05 shows the roles of the Controller, ALU, cache, frontside bus and backside bus. Also shows us the difference between multiprocessing, multiprocessors and dual core processors. Topics CPU * CPU Speed * Advances in processing speed * Cache * Sockets * ZIF * Heat Terms used in video 1.05 with their definitions * Major manufactures: Intel and AMD * System bus: A system bus is a single computer bus for the data transfer between the central processing unit and the memory. * Frontside bus: (FSB) the bus via which a processor communicates with its RAM and chipset; one half of the Dual Independent Bus (the other half being the backside bus). * Controller: Control unit definition, the part of a CPU that interprets the instructions in ... transmission line to a control unit on a selector channel at the computer center. * ALU: An arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) is the part of a computer processor (CPU) that carries out arithmetic and logic operations on the operands in computer instruction words. * Internal bus: An internal bus is a type of data bus that only operates internally in a computer or system. It carries data and operations as a standard bus. * Cache: Two types of caching are commonly used in personal computers: memory caching and disk......

Words: 603 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Unit 5 Assignment 1 Video

...Unit 5 Assignment 1: Video Summary NT1110 There are two major manufactures we use in today’s market which are Intel and AMD. There are some minor competitions but don’t stay on the market for long. The system bus for the CPU is also known as the Front-side bus as it inserts the CPU and has a 64 bit data pass. In the CPU theirs a controller that controls communication between the motherboard and other components with the CPU. The ALU is responsible for performing complex calculations. Communications between the controllers and the ALU’s uses a 32 bit wide internal data bus. A processor is usually measured in GHz. A system Bus is usually measured in MHz and has limiting factors of speed. The multiplier is the ratio between processor and the System bus. The system bus speed x multiplier equals the processor speed. CPU manufactures have come up with different ways to make the CPU work faster. Two multi-processing requires multiple processors (In other words your system must be designed to support more than one CPU on a single motherboard). Dual Core Processors have been recently developed, that means incorporating multiple processors with multiple ALU’s inside a CPU. These ALU’s process their information individually. There’s two cache memory’s which are SRAM and DRAM. SRAM is also called Static RAM, it is faster and more expensive then DRAM, it holds memory without being refreshed and DRAM must be refreshed. There are three types of RAM which are L1 cache, L2 cache, and L3......

Words: 644 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

System Unit

...Chapter 4 Objectives Differentiate among various styles Differentiate among various styles of system units of system units Identify chips, adapter cards, and other Identify chips, adapter cards, and other components of aamotherboard components of motherboard Describe the components of aaprocessor and how Describe the components of processor and how they complete aamachine cycle they complete machine cycle Identify characteristics of various personal Identify characteristics of various personal computer processors on the market today computer processors on the market today Define aabit and describe how aaseries of bits Define bit and describe how series of bits represents data represents data Explain how programs transfer in Explain how programs transfer in and out of memory and out of memory Differentiate among the various Differentiate among the various types of memory types of memory Describe the types of expansion slots and Describe the types of expansion slots and adapter cards adapter cards Explain the difference among aaserial port, aa Explain the difference among serial port, parallel port, aaUSB port, and other ports parallel port, USB port, and other ports Describe how buses contribute to aa Describe how buses contribute to computer’s processing speed computer’s processing speed Identify components in mobile computers Identify components in mobile computers and mobile devices and mobile devices Chapter 4 The Components of the System Unit Next The System......

Words: 3218 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Evolution of Microprocessor

...Microprocessor Evolution: 4004 to Pentium-4 Joel Emer Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology Based on the material prepared by Krste Asanovic and Arvind November 2, 2005 First Microprocessor Intel 4004, 1971 Image removed due to copyright restrictions. To view image, visit http://news.com.com/Images+Moores+L aw+turns+40/2009-1041_3-56490195.html November 2, 2005 6.823 L15- 2 Emer • 4-bit accumulator architecture • 8µm pMOS • 2,300 transistors • 3 x 4 mm2 • 750kHz clock • 8-16 cycles/inst. 6.823 L15- 3 Emer Microprocessors in the Seventies Initial target was embedded control • First micro, 4-bit 4004 from Intel, designed for a desktop printing calculator Constrained by what could fit on single chip • Single accumulator architectures 8-bit micros used in hobbyist personal computers • Micral, Altair, TRS-80, Apple-II Little impact on conventional computer market until VISICALC spreadsheet for Apple-II (6502, 1MHz) • First “killer” business application for personal computers November 2, 2005 6.823 L15- 4 Emer DRAM in the Seventies Dramatic progress in MOSFET memory technology 1970, Intel introduces first DRAM (1Kbit 1103) 1979, Fujitsu introduces 64Kbit DRAM => By mid-Seventies, obvious that PCs would soon have > 64KBytes physical memory November 2, 2005 Microprocessor Evolution 6.823 L15- 5 Emer Rapid......

Words: 1044 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Impact of Pipelining on Computer System Performance

...highly optimized set of instructions”, as opposed to the more complex instructions in other architecture systems. When a RISC architecture, which simplifies the instructions, is coupled with other methods, such as pipelining the system has a CPI of one cycle (Masood, 2011). Cache Memory improves system performance by storing recently accessed data not in the main memory, but in a high-speed intermediate memory location. This reduces the time used to fetch these instructions. Modern microprocessors use various levels of cache memory to perform the cache memory functions. According to the Network Dictionary L1 Cache is a primary that is built into the CPU. This memory stores copies of the data that has been most frequently used in the main memory locations. L2 cache is a secondary cache location that is separate from the CPU and L1 cache. This secondary cache stores a subset of the contents of the main memory. Most recently L3...

Words: 810 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Video Summary 3

...CPUs There are two major manufacturers in today’s market – Intel and AMD. How a CPU will vary from CPU to CPU The motherboard system bus carries information into and out of the CPU When the system bus enters the CPU it is commonly called the front side bus and usually uses a 64-bit data path. Inside the CPU you have controllers that manage the basic functions of the CPU and control communication between the between the motherboard and other components within the CPU. These other components include one or more ALUs and the internal cache. An ALU (arithmetic Logic Unit) is responsible for performing complex calculations. Having multiple ALUs inside a single processor is what gave the early Pentiums their multiprocessing capabilities. Communication between the controller and the ALUs uses a 32-bit wide internal data bus. The bus system that supports communication between the cache system, the ALUs and controller is referred to as the backside bus. CPU Speed The most important thing you need to know about a processor is the speed at which it processes information. Unfortunately, there are several ways of measuring speed and they are frequently misleading. First, you should understand that speeds differ inside the processor and outside the processor. Internally, the processor may work up to 3.2GHz, but the system bus may only run at 800 MHz. Consequently, when you buy a new computer the CPU may be rated at 3.2GHz, but the question you really need to ask is what is the......

Words: 627 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Abcxyz

...peripherals; and the memory technology used. 1.2 Computer structure refers to the way in which the components of a computer are interrelated. Computer function refers to the operation of each individual component as part of the structure. 1.3 Data processing; data storage; data movement; and control. 1.4 Central processing unit (CPU): Controls the operation of the computer and performs its data processing functions; often simply referred to as processor. Main memory: Stores data. I/O: Moves data between the computer and its external environment. System interconnection: Some mechanism that provides for communication among CPU, main memory, and I/O. A common example of system interconnection is by means of a system bus, consisting of a number of conducting wires to which all the other components attach. 1.5 Control unit: Controls the operation of the CPU and hence the computer Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU): Performs the computer’s data processing functions Registers: Provides storage internal to the CPU CPU interconnection: Some mechanism that provides for communication among the control unit, ALU, and...

Words: 12183 - Pages: 49

Free Essay

Shared Memory Architecture

...INTRODUCTION: Shared memory is a memory that can be used by multiple programs to avoid redundant copies or to provide communication among them. In other words we can say that, it is a technique, in this exchanging of data in process of program is done more quickly than by reading and writing using the services of OS. It is the fastest form of IPC available. A number of basic issues in the design of shared memory system have to be taken into consideration. Once the memory is mapped into the address space of the processes that are sharing the memory region, no kernel involvement occurs in passing the data between the processes. It refers to a multiprocessing design where several processors access globally shared memory. These include access control, synchronization, protection and security.  Access control determines which process accesses are possible to which recourses.  Synchronization constraints limit the time of access from sharing processes to shared resources.  Protection is a system feature that prevents processes from making arbitrary access to resources belong to other processes.  At the memory module the requests arrive through its two ports.  The simplest shared memory system consists of one memory module that can be accessed from two processors.  Classification of shared memory: Depending on the interconnection of network, a shared memory leads to system can be classified as :- • UMA: -  Shared memory...

Words: 431 - Pages: 2