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Cpu + Alu

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By sully777
Words 653
Pages 3
CPU’s and ALU’s Table of content Page 1
Introduction Page 2
CPU Page 3
CPU Pictures Page 4
ALU Page 5
ALU Picture Page 6

Many people consider the CPU (Central Processing Unit) to be the brains of the computer. This is not true because, for the most part, the CPU cannot keep data stored inside it like a human brain. It is used to process much of the information needed by the computer, just like our brain thinks and processes information and gives orders to our other body parts.

Stands for (Arithmetic Logic Unit). An ALU is an integrated circuit within a CPU that performs arithmetic and logic operations. Arithmetic instructions include addition, subtraction, and shifting operations, while logic instructions include AND, OR, XOR, and NOT operations. CPU (Central Processing Unit)
CPU (Central Processing Unit) - otherwise known as a processor - is an electronic circuit that can execute computer programs. Both the miniaturization and standardization of CPUs have increased their presence far beyond the limited application of dedicated computing machines. Modern microprocessors appear in everything from automobiles to mobile phones.
The clock rate is one of the main characteristics of the CPU when performance is concerned. Clock rate is the fundamental rate in cycles per second (measured in hertz, kilohertz, megahertz or gigahertz) for the frequency of the clock in any synchronous circuit. A single clock cycle (typically shorter than a nanosecond in modern non-embedded microprocessors) toggles between a logical zero and a logical one state.
With any particular CPU, replacing the crystal with another crystal that oscillates with twice the frequency will generally make the CPU run with twice the performance. It will also make the CPU produce roughly twice the amount of waste heat.
Engineers are working hard to push the boundaries of the current architectures and are constantly searching for new ways to design CPUs that tick a little quicker or use slightly less energy per clock. This produces new cooler CPUs that can run at higher clock rates.
Scientists also continue to search for new designs that allow CPUs to run at the same or at a lower clock rate as older CPUs, but which get more instructions completed per clock cycle.
The clock rate of a processor is only useful for providing comparisons between computer chips in the same processor family and generation.
Clock rates can be very misleading since the amount of work different computer chips can do in one cycle varies. Clock rates should not be used when comparing different computers or different processor families. Rather, some kind of software benchmarks should be used.
The performance of the CPU that's at the core of the chipset is vital for the daily user experience and the general computing performance of the smartphone. People tend to use the clock rate of the main CPU to compare the performance of competing end products. But as we already pointed out, the clock rate of a processor is only useful for providing performance comparisons between computer chips in the same processor family and generation. CPU ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)
Modern computers contain very complex ALU for performing the complex calculations and logical operations inside the computer. The data or the operands are the input of the ALU and it generates the output as the result of the computation. In some of the computers the ALU is divided into two unit’s Arithmetic unit and the Logic unit.
Some processors have multiple AU some for the fixed point operations and some of the floating point operations. In the computers, the ALU has the direct access to the processor’s controller, RAM and the input/output devices. The output of the ALU is placed inside a storage register. The design of the ALU is very critical as it is related with the processor’s performance. Its design can speed up the instructions handling.
An ALU in 1957

ALU Thirty Years Later

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