Premium Essay


In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By kandi07
Words 5825
Pages 24
The Design Space of Metamorphic Malware
Andrew Walenstein†, Rachit Mathur‡, Mohamed R. Chouchane†, and Arun Lakhotia†

University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA, U.S.A. McAfee Avert Labs, Beaverton, OR, U.S.A.

Abstract: A design space is presented for metamorphic malware. Metamorphic malware is the class of malicious self-replicating programs that are able to transform their own code when replicating. The raison d'etre for metamorphism is to evade recognition by malware scanners; the transformations are meant to defeat analysis and decrease the number of constant patterns that may be used for recognition. Unlike prior treatments, the design space is organized according to the malware author's goals, options, and implications of design choice. The advantage of this design space structure is that it highlights forces acting on the malware author, which should help predict future developments in metamorphic engines and thus enable a proactive defence response from the community. In addition, the analysis provides effective nomenclature for classifying and comparing malware and scanners. Keywords: Metamorphic Malware, Virus Scanner.

1. Introduction
Metamorphism is the ability of malware to transform its code. This ability was first introduced in viruses and was later used by worms, Trojans, and other malware. There now exist several metamorphic engines—programs that implement only the logic for transforming code—that can simply be linked to any program to make it metamorphic. Metamorphic malware can be classified into four broad groups defined by two parameters. First, metamorphic malware may be either closed-world or open-world. Closed-world metamorphic malware is malware that is self-contained; in contrast, open-world malware may extend its capability by...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay


...Chapter 1 Exam – The Nature of Economics Multiple Choice. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Economics is best defined as A) the study of how people make choices to satisfy their wants. B) the study of individual self—interests. C) the study of how government can most efficiently raise funds by taxation. D) the process by which goods are sold in free markets. 2) Microeconomics is defined as that part of economic analysis which A) studies the behavior of the economy as a whole. B) includes the problems of inflation and unemployment. C) studies the individual decision making by households and firms. D) concerns international finance and exchange rates. 3) In his book “An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations,” economist Adam Smith argued that individuals A) tend to act in an altruistic manner. B) always consider the impact of their actions on the welfare of others. C) are motivated by self—interest. D) are generally not concerned with economic questions. 4) When studying individuals’ economic behavior, economists assume that A) individuals understand the rationale for all their actions. B) individuals act as if they were rational. C) only educated people act as if they were rational. D) self—interest is of limited relevance in predicting an individual’s actions. 5) Holding all variables but one constant and assessing the impact of the one variable which has......

Words: 2402 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Create Linkedin

...How to create a account Mini Design How to create a account Mini Design Submitted By: Sana Nasim & Beenish Bhatti Submitted By: Sana Nasim & Beenish Bhatti INTRODUCTION Group Information Beenish Bhatti and Sana Nasim are both students. Keeping in view the importance of LinkedIn they have selected to teach ‘How to create LinkedIn account’ to Beenish’s brother. LinkedIn is a key networking tool for professionals in virtually any field. It assists in connecting with potential employers, experts or consultants in the field and in finding job opportunities. About The Learner Hassan Bhatti is Beenish’s brother, he is currently in his final term at the University of Toronto (U of T). Hassan is going to graduate in September from U of T. In order to develop his network and look for job opportunities he needs to create a LinkedIn account which will assist him in job search and networking. NEEDS ASSESSMENT Concern The major concern for Hassan is that he is about to graduate from the university and needs to acquire a job. He does not have a professional network to assist him in finding any job opportunity. Importance By creating a business professional profile on LinkedIn Hassan will be able to build his network and connect with alumnus, other professionals, recruiters, professors and classmates. This will thus assist him in acquiring the job and finding opportunities. LinkedIn assists in connecting with professionals...

Words: 559 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Create a Script


Words: 977 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Create a Law

...harmful the side effects of second hand smoke were, I just knew I could not stand to be around the smoke. I am grateful that my state of Illinois has banned smoking in public places, but last fall I was very surprised to find out that it is not a requirement for a retailer to obtain a tobacco license in order to sell tobacco products. This means that if a retailer were to sell tobacco products to minors they will be fined but will not have to stop selling the products. So, the money that they would make from the minors buying the tobacco would outweigh the cost of the fine. Also, without a license, retailers are able to have counterfeit cigarettes on their shelved more easily because regulations are not as harsh. My law would be to create a program that would require any retailer selling any tobacco products to obtain a license before they are able to do so. The Department of Revenue for each state would take care of the licensure program and the cost of the license would strictly go to covering the cost of this program. If a retailer is caught selling their products illegally, they can be fined or their license can be suspended or revoked. The program would also provide inspectors to actually go into the retail stores and make sure that they are obeying the rules of the program. Currently in Illinois...

Words: 1730 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

To Create an Account

...To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To create an account To......

Words: 668 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Create a Powerpoint

...Create a PowerPoint presentation to be given to your class and your instructor. The topic for this presentation will be the key items that are necessary to know about the AIU portal to be successful in class. The Virtual Campus has many exciting and important features to enhance a student's learning experience. This includes the following: * Announcements * Live Chat * Discussion Boards * Individual Projects * AIU e-mail Your PowerPoint presentation will present each of these topics and demonstrate how each is used by students. Not only should you describe them; you should also explain when and why you might use each one of these items in the virtual classroom environment. Indicate to your schoolmates the advantages of each of these and how often they might check or use each of these features. Include each of the following features in your presentation: * Clip Art * A media clip (animated graphic, movie, or sound clip) * A transition effect (choose Slide Effect from the Transition tab) * A fade-in effect (a sentence or object can fade into the presentation) You can choose where you use them, but make sure to use each one at least one time. Create your PowerPoint presentation by following the steps below: * Step 1: Create a new PowerPoint. The following is the required format and the order of what should be presented. Use no more than 2 slides for any 1 topic. * Step 2: Slide 1 is the cover slide and should only include your......

Words: 417 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Create a Methodology

...Creating a Methodology Course: Project Management January 16, 2015 In John Compton’s Company, the issues that were in play which caused the lack of a Project Management methodology for years are due to the possibility that none of his executives had any knowledge or experience in project management. I also believe that fear was in play, maybe more than a few executives were afraid to let the other know that they did not have any knowledge or experience in project management and instead of coming up with a methodology, they would rather sweep it under the rug and hope that the request goes away, or maybe other executives would take the mantle and come up with a methodology on their own. Another reason which is obvious is the thought of losing power and authority to the project management office. Another reason is that most people are afraid of change, they have been operating a specific way for so long that this change is scary when you don’t know what is coming down the pike. In a survey conducted by CIO and the Project Management Institute (PMI), “the top two reasons for establishing a PMO, according to the survey: improving project success rates and implementing standard practices”. Reading the question for this assignment, it is apparent that a project management office has been establish or is in the process of being established by the senior executives and John Compton; now the task before us is to decide where the project management office (PMO) should report to....

Words: 777 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Create an Innovation

...Create an Innovation (Benchmark Assignment) Esmeralda Fahrner Grand Canyon University: Intrapreneurship and Innovation-435-0500 October 4, 2015 This assignment is an evaluation of internal processes in my organization that includes a solution as a contributing factor of the appreciation of innovation within a culture of an organization. This paper will address the problem of innovation of entering a new market and key strategies of the solution. This company is a small organization that repairs people’s credit to secure a successful financial future. In order to achieve growth, the owners are currently trying to target a different market than what the normal course of business is in hopes of gaining perspective clientele from this market. They are adding a bankruptcy attorney to initiate contacts after bankruptcy is dismissed. To be successful in this environment, a manager needs to identify those activities at which the management and the venture excel, not just activities in which they perform equally well with the competition (Ehmke). Organization’s failures during innovation stem from innovative ideas that are incorporated into an existing market and expanded upon. Adding the bankruptcy attorney to the current processes is not a bad idea which adds value to the existing services offered, and in fact will add an additional enterprise to the existing product. Continued evaluation of the product being offered will aid in managing issue that will......

Words: 1340 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Create a Board

...Psychology, Unit 3 - Chapter 2: Consciousness Consciousness: being aware of external and internal stimuli at any given moment, which also gives a: * Sense of personal identity and individual way of perceiving the world. It can include your senses and * Perceptions of the world around you as well as memories, beliefs and attitudes Consciousness is also described to be: * Personal - it is subjective and your own perception of your internal world and the external world * Selective - you are able to limit and restrict your attention and channel your focus onto whatever * Continuous - there is never a break in your consciousness or a time where it is empty * Changing - your thoughts are constantly changing as they are easily influenced by external stimuli RENE DESCARTES - MIND & BODY ARE SEPARATE BUT INTERCONNECTED The mind-body problem debates whether the mind and body can interact, and how, or if there is even a ‘mind’ or ‘body’. Rene Descartes dualism theory states the two substances are distinct, as one is physical and one is non-physical. He believes they are able to interact through the pineal gland, which is the center of the brain (it was later discovered that’s actually where hormones are) and that the two substances can affect each other. He defined consciousness as ‘encompassing everything we are aware of, including our own existence’. It exists in the mind or ‘soul’, but also in our body because the soul does not occupy space. His......

Words: 1872 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Create a Content Autometically

...create a table autometically Create a table of contents automatically The easiest way to create a table of contents is to use the built-in heading styles. You can also create a table of contents that is based on the custom styles that you have applied. Or you can assign the table of contents levels to individual text entries. Mark entries by using built-in heading styles 1. Select the text that you want to appear in the table of contents. 2. On the Home tab, in the Styles group, click the style that you want. [pic] For example, if you selected text that you want to style as a main heading, click the style called Heading 1 in the Quick Style gallery.  NOTES  • If you don't see the style that you want, click the arrow to expand the Quick Style gallery. • If the style that you want does not appear in the Quick Style gallery, press CTRL+SHIFT+S to open the Apply Styles task pane. Under Style Name, click the style that you want. Create a table of contents from the gallery After you mark the entries for your table of contents, you are ready to build it. 1. Click where you want to insert the table of contents, usually at the beginning of a document. 2. On the References tab, in the Table of Contents group, click Table of Contents, and then click the table of contents style that you want. [pic]  NOTE   If you want to specify more options — for example, how many heading levels to show — click Insert Table of Contents to open the Table of......

Words: 752 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

How to Create Goals

...reaching that goal. Someone striving to fulfill their long-term ambition will do so with immense willpower and constant effort. Some strategies used to help one prioritize short-term goals include: values, personal situation, and time commitments (Keys to College Studying: Becoming an Active Thinker). When establishing the goals that should take top priority, one’s values are a key factor. Including one’s current personal situation and previously established time commitments will also help to prioritize which goals should take precedence. In order to maintain the focus necessary to achieve goals, one should take several steps. The first step is to devise and plan out various strategies that will help achieve the goal. The second step is to create a sensible timeline that clearly defines deadlines for each component of the goal. Third, keeping track of the progress and comparing that with the timeline will help determine if the goal is realistic and on schedule. The fourth step includes holding...

Words: 372 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Create User Policy

...IS4550 SECURITY POLICIES AND PROCEDURES 14 CREATE USER POLICY UNIT 5 ASSIGNMENT 1 IS4550 SECURITY POLICIES AND PROCEDURES 14 CREATE USER POLICY UNIT 5 ASSIGNMENT 1 To: Hospital Administrators From: IT Security Specialist Subject: User Policy We understand the type of security policies that you currently have in place. However we are here to present to you what security, users, and possible threats to your mainframe issues can impose. In today’s society we deal with many types of hackers and they are not like the 1980’s. Today we deal with threats unlike ever before, some examples would be: The stakes are high as the Institute of Medicine (IOM) highlights in its recent publication related to privacy: “Breaches of an individual’s privacy and confidentiality may affect a person’s dignity and cause irreparable harm” and “[unauthorized disclosures] can result in stigma, embarrassment, and discrimination.” IOM: Beyond the HIPAA Privacy Rule—Enhancing Privacy, Improving Health Through Research, February 4, 2009” 1. So Many Mobile Devices, So Much Risk Mobile devices are ubiquitous in today's society, and the number and types of devices used by physicians, nurses, clinicians, specialists, administrators and staff – as well as patients and visitors – is growing at healthcare organizations across the country. Providing anywhere/anytime network access is essential, particularly when instant communication is required to ensure quality patient care. But......

Words: 2047 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Marketing Create Needs

...Does Marketing Create need or Satisfy Need or manipulate need? “The real journey of discovery consists not in seeing new landscapes, but in having new eyes.” - Marcel Proust The traditional concept of marketing was only about sales or meeting the “current needs” of a consumer Example: Mac Books or laptops are such a common commodity among students and even school kids irrespective of the fact that it is not really needed. Can’t they manage with a desktop at home? But now day’s companies do more! They educate people and give them reason to buy their products and this is what people might call it “creation of needs” people purchase something when they need it, if they think they do not need the product they may not purchase it. How many people today in Pakistan need I-pod? How many people really need Mobile + Internet + Camera + TV all in one set? Can we call it marketers created their needs? Looking at advertisements today the word 'free' is the most common denominator found in the ads, free is used in combinations such as free home trial, free inspection, and buy one get one free, free installation, free parking, free demonstration and free consultation. The word free is usually a powerful catalyst that springs the consumer into buying that particular product or idea even though he or she might not need it. I think it also attract people into buying things they don't need. Also terms such as 'no payments till 2010' or 'money back guarantee' 'no down payment' 'offer good...

Words: 1378 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

How to Create a Brochure

...HOW TO CREATE A BROCHURE To print (and preserve) these brochure instructions, click Print on the File menu. Press ENTER to print the brochure. Using this template, you can create a professional brochure. Here’s how: Insert your words in place of these words, using or re-arranging the preset paragraph styles. Print pages 1 and 2 back-to-back onto sturdy, letter size paper. Fold the paper like a letter to create a three-fold brochure (positioning the panel with the large picture on the front). What Else Should I Know? To change the style of any paragraph, select the text by positioning your cursor anywhere in the paragraph. Then, select a style from the Style list on the Formatting toolbar. To change the picture, click it to select it. Click Picture on the Insert menu, and then click From File. Select a new picture, and then click Insert. Company Name Street Address Address 2 City, ST ZIP Code Phone (704) 555-0125 Fax (704) 555-0145 Web site address Future Solutions Now Customized Turnkey Training Courseware Adventure Works Date of publication Bridge The gap A Temporary Contact Program A Bridge between Alcoholism Treatment and AA Sponsored by: Indiana Area 23 Treatment Facilities Committee Of Alcoholics Anonymous WHO CAN I CALL? Area 23 Bridging the Gap Hotline 317-490-8036 Temporary COntact Definition: A temporary contact is a member of Alcoholics Anonymous who works with alcoholics both in and coming out of......

Words: 416 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Create Your Account

...财务综合案例分析报告 迪斯尼公司发行债券案例 公司背景: 迪士尼全称是The Walt Disney Company,取名自其创 始人华特· 迪士尼,是总部设在美国的大型跨国公司,主 要业务包括娱乐节目制作,主题公园,玩具,图书,电 子游戏和传媒网络。点金石电影公司,Miramax电影, 好莱坞电影公司,博伟音像制品,ESPN体育,ABC电视 网都是其齐下的公司。迪士尼,作为一个娱乐品牌,在 2005年Interbrand/BusinessWeek 的世界100强品牌排名 为第7位。它的主题公园和旅游胜地这一部分产生的收入 占其总收入的40%左右,电影业约占40%,消费品占 20%。迪士尼乐园成为很多人向往的地方,迪士尼制作 的许多电影也深得广大观众喜爱,其最具代表性的唐老 鸭米老鼠维尼熊等动漫形象流行至今。 案例概况: 1993年7月,迪斯尼公司决定增发100年期长期负债。迪斯尼 公司资本状况稳健,长期负债被穆迪公司评级为A1级,被标 准普尔公司评为AA级。过去几年中,利率在下降,接近过去 20年来最低水平。这使长期负债的发行具有较强的吸引力。 众多投资者开始相信,美国已控制住了通货膨胀,长期利率 不可能回到80年代初期的高水平。他们认为由于长期国债收 益率(30年期债券为6.40%)与预计的通货膨胀率(3%)之间 的差距,按历史标准看已相对很高,所以长期利率可能进一 步下跌,因此,100年的期限在几年前几乎是不可想象的,但 根据迪斯尼公司在摩根· 斯坦利公司的投资银行家顾问的看法 ,现在是可能的。 若迪斯尼公司行100年期债券,它希望保留一 些灵活性,以便能在到期以前就赎回。摩根· 斯坦 利公司建议迪斯尼公司发行本金数额为3亿美元的 100年期债券,自发行日起30年后开始,债券可提 前偿还。利息成本为年利率7.55%。首次的提前偿 债价格将是面值的103.02%。从发行日起的50年后 开始,提前偿还价格将逐步下降直至面值。 1993年6月30日的资本总额如表所示: 资本 单位:百万美元 账面价值 1993年6月30日 短期负债 长期负债 股东权益 资本总额 资本总额(包括短期负债) 503.7 1455.5 5169. 16624.6 7128.3 在至1993年6月30日为止的12个月内,利息保障如表所示: 利息保障 单位:百万美元 至1993年6月30日为止的12个月内 息税前盈余 利息费用 利息保障比率 1640.5 122.4 13.4 迪斯尼公司可按下表收益率发行不可提前赎回的长期债券(每半年支付一 次利息) 期限(年) 提供的收益率(%) 3 5 7 10 20 30 100 5.15 5.85 6.25 6.60 7.25 7.35 7.35 思考: 1、迪斯尼公司为什么选择债券筹资而不是股票筹资? • 答: 债券融资是指企业通过举债筹措资金,资金供给者作为债 权人享有到期收回本息的融资方式。 •......

Words: 315 - Pages: 2