Premium Essay

Crim

In: Other Topics

Submitted By bhudec
Words 649
Pages 3
Introduction
Criminological Theory: Explaining Crime Within the field of criminology, a number of theories exist that attempt to explain why some people commit crime. This essay will look at how the subcultural theories and control theories try to explain why some people commit the specific crimes of shoplifting and theft offences other than burglary. Statistics for these offences are categorised by the Home Office under the heading 'other theft offences', which includes "a range of offences, including shoplifting and abstraction of electricity" and does not include burglary, theft of a motor vehicle or theft from a motor vehicle (Home Office, 2011, p. 7). In the 12 months leading up to December 2010 there were 1,057,720 instances of 'other theft offences' recorded in the UK, a 1% increase on the previous year's statistics (Home Office, 2011, p. 7). In the same time frame 28,818 'other theft offences' were recorded in the local authority of Portsmouth, a decrease of 4.5% on the previous year (Home Office, 2011). Shoplifting in particular has increased sharply since the start of the recession (Crimestoppers, 2010) and the value of goods being stolen has risen by 20% (Crimestoppers, 2009). One set of theories that attempts to explain criminality are the subcultural theories. ...

Middle
230). Matza and Sykes also said that rather than people being either delinquent or non-delinquent, they drifted between the two groups (Newburn, 2007, p. 231). They said that for the majority of the time people are law abiding citizens, but when certain situations arise, techniques of neutralisation are used to lessen the controls being exerted and allow the person to justify committing a criminal act (Newburn, 2007, pp. 230-231). Both of these sets of theories may help our understanding of shoplifting and other theft offences. Using Albert Cohen's subcultural theory (Muncie, 2005,...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Crim

...May 19, 2014 US Marshal Service Department of Justice: US Marshal Service When we were assigned to write a research paper on any law enforcement agency, I decided to do some research on my life long goal. That goal being, becoming a US Marshal. Growing up in a family surrounded by law enforcement, I always knew I was going to end up doing something with law enforcement. When I began college, I started examining my career options and what path I wanted to pursue. I never wanted to be the stereotypical patrol officer that most of my family had been. I wanted to do something more exciting and out of the ordinary. When I stumbled upon what it meant to be a US Marshal, I fell in love with it. Here I am now as I begin the long process of becoming a US Marshal. Currently in the US Marshal Service there is a total of only 3,829 agents. The US Department of Justice is what runs the US Marshal Service. What makes the Marshal Service interesting is that each agent must be appointed directly by the President of the United States. The US Marshal Service is the oldest agency in the United States and was created in 1789. The USMS main priority is the investigation and detention of fugitives. Although the USMS works directly with State and Local authorities, the Marshals oversee all detention of fugitives. The jurisdiction of the USMS is extremely different from most law enforcement agencies. The jurisdiction of a Marshal spreads worldwide. If a fugitive flees to another country,......

Words: 587 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Crim

...Canadian prisons have always been lacking the needs of offenders and programs to help them. Till now they have the same problem; however, they have been improving and meeting the needs of the offender’s population in a slow manner. Many incidents have occurred during prison time as well as after inmates have been released from prisons. Due to that Canadian corrections have slowly taken more time into their programs and treatments to help the inmates rehabilitate themselves and be able to get back into society in a better state than what they had arrived in. Overtime there have been many facilities available in order to help inmates with certain behavior issues and severe issues. In this paper I will be covering the different types of inmates and how each of them is treated with different programs. Incarceration rate has slowly been going down and there have been more treatment programs to help the offenders rather than just punishing them. Once again, in this paper, I will thoroughly explain how this is done with different types of offenders including; Women in gangs, impaired offenders, offenders who have been diagnosed with HCV (hepatitis C or AIDS), and sexual offenders. Not everyone will be getting treatments or put into programs in prison. Majority of the people are the ones who have a higher risk of danger when being put back into society; however, to prevent this, programs have been available in Canadian prisons. As you read on in this paper you will find out the......

Words: 2968 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Avanced Crim

...Advanced Crim. October 26, 2014 Ch. 2 Homework 1. When a person is around a deviant person, they tend to start imitating the deviant. Imitation refers to the engagement in behavior after the observation of similar behavior in others. Whether or not the behavior modeled by others will be imitated is affected by the characteristics of the models, the behavior observed, and the observed consequences of the behavior. If a person sees that the deviant person is getting away with the deviant behavior, they are going to imitate the deviant person to see if they can get by with it as well. 2. Definitions are one's own attitudes or meanings that one attaches to given behavior. Definitions are orientations, rationalizations, definition of the situation, and other evaluative and moral attitudes that define the commission of an act as right or wrong, good or bad, desirable or undesirable, justified or unjustified. In social learning theory, these definitions are both general and specific. General beliefs include religious, moral, and other conventional values and norms that are favorable to conforming behavior and unfavorable to committing any deviant or criminal acts. Specific definitions orient the person to particular acts or series of acts. 3. The probability that an act will be committed or repeated is increased by rewarding outcomes or reactions to it, which may obtain approval, money, food, or pleasant feelings. That is referred to positive reinforcement. The likelihood......

Words: 426 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Crim Dog

...INTRODUCTION TO CRIMINOLOGY Criminology 100 Sociology 233 Fall 2012 Professor: Freda Adler, Ph.D. Research Assistants: University of Pennsylvania Walter Campbell Department of Criminology Ryan Gale 483 McNeil Building Marissa Mandala 3718 Locust Walk Telephone: 215-746-3620 Office Hours: Professor Adler: Wednesday, 10am-1pm For all other times, please make an appointment Teaching Assistants will have weekly office hours TBA Overview: This course examines the multi-disciplinary social science of law-making, law-breaking, and law-enforcing. It reviews theories and data that predict when, where and against whom crimes happen. In addition, it addresses questions surrounding crime prevention and punishment of offenders. The role and importance of police, courts, and prisons are critically examined. The relationship between criminology and policy-making will be highlighted. Text: Adler, F., Mueller, G.O.W., Laufer, W.S, CRIMINOLOGY, 8th edition, New York: McGraw Hill, 2013 E-mail version: TBA Additional class materials......

Words: 970 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Crim Justice

...On September 9, 2009 I visited Manassas courthouse and sat in on criminal courts as well as civil courts. During my visit I had to go through metal detectors and upon passing the metal detectors I read a sign that said Criminal courts 3rd floor. I proceeded to the 3rd floor and exited the elevators and too my right I saw a board filled with court cases. The vast amount of crimes committed was deplorable. Below I will list information pertaining to the courts procedures as well as other pertinent information. Criminal Court---9 Sep 09 @ 0930 Docket --Opening: I noticed that majority of the public defenders has 3 or more clients. Dozens of people are gathered around a wall trying to find out what courtroom they are supposed to be in. Majority of the crimes listed were credit fraud and grand larceny. As I went in I saw the arresting officers were present. Lawyers were present also. It was as if you could distinguish the public defenders from the hired attorneys. The public defenders were conversing amongst themselves where as the hired attorney’s sat by themselves reviewing their notes and awaiting for court to start. As I sat in the back of the courtroom I saw the prosecutor rolling in about 5-6 boxes filled with court cases in. --Procedures of courtroom: The judge enters the courtroom when the bailiff calls the courtroom to rise while the honorable Ian Farris presides. --Time allocated: 2minutes the reason why it was only 2 minutes was due to it being a......

Words: 795 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Crim Justice

...S.A.R.A. Larry Guzman Everest College Policing America Mr. Flores 06/30/14 The S.A.R.A. model is an acronym for a four step method to solving problems. The acronym stands for Scanning, Analysis, Response, and Assessment. Each step has a process to it that helps to solve the problems of the public and the police. Scanning is the first step. When scanning you first start by identifying the problem. Then you would identify the consequences of the problem. Still during the scanning process you then would make a list prioritizing the problems. Broad goal development is the next part of the scanning process. Then you have to confirm that the problem does exist. Next is a time frame of how often that the problem occurs and how long it has taken place. Then finally you would select a problem for closer examination. The second step of the model is analysis. During this step you identify and understand the events and conditions that proceed and accompany the problem. Then the data that is relevant to the problem. Then research the problem type and what is known about it. The next part of the process is to take an inventory of how the problem is addressed. Also, to find the strengths and limitations of the current response. Then narrowing the scope to be as specific as possible is the next part of the process. Next is identifying resources that would be of assistance to help develop a deeper understanding of the problem. Then finally you develop a working hypothesis as...

Words: 793 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Crim Outline

...I. Justification of Punishment a. Theories of Punishment and Purpose of Criminal Law Sentencing i. Deterrence 1. Utilitarian concept, forward-looking, premise: humans will act in their own interest 2. Individual Deterrence: general public is protected 3. General Deterrence: helps to protect public at large, justified on grounds of 1) prevention of crime by threat of arrest, conviction, punishment 2) prevention of crime by strengthening of moral norms 3) prevention of crime by stimulating law-abiding contact based on the impulse to conform. 4. Criticisms: 1) ineffective in cases where criminal is motivated by emotional concerns 2) one person might be used as a means to an end in order to deter others and benefit society as a whole ii. Retribution 5. Premise: humans act under free will and must be punished when they choose to violate society’s norms, backward-looking 6. Based on proportionality of punishment: the evil done to the victim is paid back to the perpetrator iii. Rehabilitation/Reform 7. Criticisms: 1)allocating resources to those who least deserve them 2) remaking humans with what society deems is the best 3) assuming that humans can simply be reconditioned iv. Incapacitation 8. Renders def unable to cause further harm to society 9. Criticisms: 1) too costly 2) ineffective in reducing recidivism 3)......

Words: 14497 - Pages: 58

Free Essay

Crim Law

...Criminal Law Notes Chapter 3-4: Corpus Delicti: 1) Act/Omission & 2) Criminal Agency Temporary Insanity does not apply in California. You must prove that you cannot understand right/wrong at the time of the act, and that you did not understand the nature/quality of the act. Must also prove insanity, otherwise you are considered sane. People who cannot commit a crime (PC 26): 1) Children under 14 2) Idiots – Mental Incapacity 3) Ignorance or mistake of fact 4) Unconsciousness of Behavior 5) Accident or Misfortune 6) Threats, Duress, Coercion 7) Self Defense 8) Insanity 9) Entrapment 10) Necessity Confession does not affect corpus delicti. However, a voluntary confession can be used to gather other information on the crime. Confession cannot be used alone to establish guilt. Idiot evaluated by low IQ score of 10-24. The 5 factors of criminal negligence are: 1) Defendant must have a legal duty, or contractual relationship, toward a person, group or society in general. 2) Defendant must know, or reasonably should know that he has a legal duty and that there is a present existing danger. 3) There must be an apparent ability upon the part of the defendant to perform the legally imposed duty. 4) It must be shown that the defendant failed to perform the duty that is legally imposed 5) It must appear that the defendants negligent act or omission was the cause of the injury sustained. Entrapment: Police......

Words: 617 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Laws1021 Crims

...LAWS1021 – CRIME – Week 3 Class 1 1. introduction 2. Ubiquity of discretion 3. Regulating discretion 4. Prosecutorial discretion 5. The Chaser case 6. Two tiers of justice 7. Magistrates and Local Courts 8. Supreme and District Courts 9. High Court appeals 10. Crown appeals ------------------------------------------------- From Last Class * Jurisdiction * Notion of how it is risen and how it is imposed * In 1788, assumed, put upon Australia from the act of colinisation * Sovereignty * From british states, then Australia as a commonwealth * Citizenship * General entitlement to rights protection etc. * Sovereign domain * Different for indigenous people, given no acknowledge of land ownership and traditional rights and customs as well as traditional rules * Agency * Autonomy as a group/individual * The capacity whether individually or collectively to exercise authority to determine * Previously denied * Criminalisation of traditional * Welfare * protection ------------------------------------------------- OOXX case * grew up during a time during hard economic circumstances with weak communal support due to governmental policies. * Lost a sense of identity when doing institution until he's about 19. He was separated from his family by the Australian welfare system. forced removal *......

Words: 1126 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Crim Law

...The Singh Memo William Bower CRJS 205 26 Aug 2015 Abstract Crimes are classified in two main groups. Felonies, and Misdemeanors. Although both are a crime, and both have some serious implications, the consequences for felonies usually linger far beyond arrest and sentencing, and are often referred to as an “Invisible Sentence”. Introduction Crimes are broken down into felonies (serious offenses) and misdemeanors (lesser minor offenses), and while both may carry incarceration and fines, they also carry additional consequences that go beyond what most people know happens. While we strive to be a “more perfect nation” as the Constitution so eloquently describes America, we also have placed incredible burdens on our populace who has strayed from the path. Felonies and Misdemeanors When asked “what is the difference between a felony and a misdemeanor?” The probably most answered reply is “A felony is a crime in which the maximum sentence is punishable by more than a year in prison, a misdemeanor is a crime which the maximum punishment is up to a year in a jail.” While perfectly true, and factual, the consequences of both felonies and misdemeanors, are a little more encompassing. According to Black’s Law Dictionary a felony, at its simplest, is defined as “Generally an offense punishable by death or imprisonment in penitentiary” (Black, 1968). In most jurisdictions that definition is expanded to something that may read “a crime that carries a......

Words: 1856 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Crim Law Essay

...Criminal Law/Procedure Essay 5 Dan’s Crime Solicitation Dan may have committed the crime of solicitation. The crime of solicitation is an inchoate offense. Solicitation consists of inciting, counseling, advising, another to commit a crime with the intent that the person being solicited will commit the crime. Here, according to the fact pattern, Dan informed Eric that he planned to take all of her computers. This would qualify as solicitation however, since Dan has committed other crimes arising from his solicitation, he cannot be convicted of solicitation due to merger. Accomplice Liability Dan may be held liable for accomplice liability. Accomplice liability involves a principal and accessory before the fact and an accessory after the fact. A principal is the person who commits the illegal act or who induces an innocent person to do so. An accomplice before the fact is a person who aids or encourages the principal to commit the conduct but is not present and an accessory after the fact is someone who aids the principal in escaping knowing that he has committed a felony. Here, Dan would be considered a principal since he received aid before and after the commission of the felony. Conspiracy Dan can also be guilty of conspiracy. Conspiracy is a specific intent crime. Conspiracy requires an agreement between two or more persons, an intent to enter into the agreement, and the intent by at least two persons to achieve the objective of their agreement and an overt......

Words: 890 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Roles and Function of Crim Justice Sysytem

...Police Roles and Functions The role of the police all over the world has been traditionally seen within the basic context of: the prevention and detection of crime, Protection of life and property and the Preservation of peace and good order. Today, although these roles have not changed, the police in all societies must broaden their outlook in order to appreciate their role as one which embraces not merely the enforcement of law, but which also takes into account the social, economic, and political constraints of the environment in which they operate. The Police Department must serve many roles and purposes so they also must take care of any issues that arise, dealing with the law or public safety. For this reason they have different specialized concentrations of officers designed to carry out certain functions. This also varies according to jurisdiction where there are state, local and even federal jurisdictions. This also affects what are their basic roles while doing patrol work or carrying out the specialized detail for whatever function they need enforced. In the United States the mission of law enforcement is to maintain the public safety, by reducing the occurrence of crimes on society. To accomplish this responsibility, many roles must be played by police officers. By enforcing the laws, police help preserve peace, by providing service, they help prevent crime and by apprehending offenders, they enforce the laws. They perform all these functions by......

Words: 890 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Politica War

...IMPORTANCE Articles I § II of the Texas Constitution provides that all prisoners are “bailable”[1] pending trial, unless charged with a capital offense.[2] The primary purpose of an appearance bond is to secure the presence of the defendant in court for the trial of the offense charged. Ex parte Rodriguez, 595 S.W.2d 549, 550 (Tex. Crim. App. [Panel Op.] 1980]. The United States Supreme Court in Stack Vs. Boyle, 342 U.S. 1, 96 L. Ed. 3, 72 S. Ct 1 (1951) stated: “The right to release before trial is conditioned upon accused’s giving adequate assurance that he will stand trial and submit to sentence if found guilty. Like the ancient practice of securing oaths of responsible persons to stand as sureties for the accused, the modern practice of requiring a bail bond or the deposit of money subject to forfeiture serves as additional assurance of the presence of an accused.” Standing alone, the importance of bail in preserving the right to a presumption of innocence cannot be overstated. In fact, the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals has stated in Ex parte Anderer, 61 S.W. 3d 398 (Tex. Crim. App. 2001): “From the passage of the Judiciary Act of 1789 to the...

Words: 4210 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Privacy and Electronic Media

...raw points) 39% 2 PTs (200 points each=400 possible raw points) 26% 35% MBE: 200 MBE questions=190 possible raw points (10 not graded) C. I. Develop a strategy to pass the California Bar Exam A. The substantive law - why all subjects on the CBX aren’t created equal Torts Contracts Real Prop R e m e d I e s Evidence Civil Pro Prof Resp Wills Trusts Comm Prop Con Law Crim L. & Pro Biz Associations 1. 2. 3. Essay & MBE subjects: Torts, Contracts, Real Property, Constitutional Law, Criminal Law & Procedure, Evidence Remedies Essay only subjects: Civil Procedure, Wills & Trusts, Community Property, Business Associations, Professional Responsibility B. Understanding each part of the CBX 1. 2. 3. ESSAY MBE PERFORMANCE TEST C. III. Managing the time crunch Practice, Practice, Practice CONVERTING RAW SCORES INTO SCALED SCORES Sample of a Passing Scorecard for July 2007 CBX MBE WRITTEN ESSAYS 1. 55 2. 60 3. 70 4. 65 5. 65 6. 60 Con Law Contracts Crim/Crim Pro Evidence Real Prop Torts 24 21 20 20 18 25 (Real Property) (Torts) (Evidence) (Crim Law/Con Law) (Contracts/Remedies) (Community Property) PT A. 130 (PR – Objective Memo) PT B. 120 (Family Law/Wills – Letter to Opposing Counsel) TOTAL RAW MBE: 128 Scaled MBE 1440 TOTAL RAW WRITTEN: 625 Scaled Written: 1440 TOTAL SCALED: 1440 WINNING COMBINATIONS TOTAL RAW WRITTTEN 550∗ 600 625...

Words: 378 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Criminal Procedures Case Digest

...20. People v. Relova Facts: 5 Feb 1, 1975 - Police searched the ice plant owned by Opulencia; they discovered electric wiring, devices and contraptions had been installed without necessary authority from city govt 6 Nov 24, 1975 - Asst. City Fixcal filed info against Opulencia for violation of a city ordinance which prohibits unauthorized wiring installations. 7 Opulencia pleaded not guilty and filed motion to dismiss on the ground that the crime had alrdy prescribed (offense charged was a light felony w/c prescribes 2 mos from discovery thereof.) 8 Lower court dismissed the case 9 Acting City Fiscal filed another info for theft of electric power 10 Opulencia filed Motion to Quash upon the ground of double jeopardy 11 Judge Relova granted motion and dismissed the case. 12 Motion for Recon denied, hence this appeal Issue: WON there was double jeopardy Ratio Decidendi: A person who was charged for violating a city ordinance for having installed a metering device to lower his electric bills which was dismissed for prescription of the offense may not be charged again for theft of electric power under the RPC Reasons: 13 The second sentence of Art. IV Sec. 22 embodies an exception to the gen. Proposition: the consti protection, against double jeopardy is available although the prior offense charged under an ordinance be different from the offense charged subsequently under a national statute such as the RPC, provided that both offenses spring from the same......

Words: 23071 - Pages: 93