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Crime Victim Studies

In: Other Topics

Submitted By shawneverett13
Words 1176
Pages 5
Shawn Everett
AIU Online

This paper will discuss victimology, civil rights movement, children’s rights, crisis centers, and safe houses as well as list organizations and other resources.

Victimology is considered the study of victimization which includes connections between both victim and the offender as well as the interactions between the victim and our criminal justice system which can include the police, courts, and correction officials. It’s also important to know that victimology is not limited to the connection between the victim, offender, and the criminal justice system, but it can also involve connections between social movements and many forms of human rights violations (Stevens, 2003). Victimology was born in the 1940’s after two criminologist from Europe named Von Hentig and Mendelson, also known as the fathers of victimology began studying victims of crimes. Their theory was that the victim’s behavior as well as their attitude was the cause of the crime to be committed. During its birth, the focus of victimology was on how the victims were equally responsible for certain crimes with the offender (Carson, 2009). By the 1960’s the focus of victimology shifted towards the rights of victims due to movements such as the Civil Rights movements and the feminist movements. From the 1970’s to the 1990’s victimology turned towards ways to stop future crimes from happening, help victims of crimes to become organized and empowered, and to better understand the population of victims. Today, crime victims still remain the focus of victimology. However, victimology has drastically expanded to include victims in many areas such as terrorist attacks, hate crimes, discrimination, war, and genocides. Additionally, there is also a focus on how to treat behaviors of the victims due to victimization so that the victims can return to a normal life at a faster pace (Carson, 2009). There are differences between victimology and criminology, sociology, psychology. The difference between victimololgy and criminology is that criminology focuses on crime from a social point of view and although it is concerned as to the causes/preventions of crimes but it is also concerned with the social impact as well as the reactions to the crime and the offenders. Victimology looks for reasons why certain people are more susceptible to crime (Lee, 2013). Sociology and victimology are very similar and they have overlapping categories. Additionally, victimology is considered a subcategory of sociology. The difference is that sociology intends to focus on the relationships between people and groups while victimology focuses on one direct group which is the victim (Niles, 2013). Psychology focuses on human thought as well as human behavior while once again victimology focuses on victims (Cherry, 2013). The actual first battered women’s shelter was opened by Erin Pizzey in Chiswick, England in 1970. The first safe house in the United States for battered women called the “Women’s House” was opened in 1973 in ST. Paul, Minnesota by a feminist group who was there to do legal aid work. The first rape crisis center was opened in the United States (Bay Area) in 1971 by a group of women who called themselves “Women Against Rape” (, 2002). These safe houses and crisis centers helped to set the stage for many resources, many ways for women to get away from their offender, and education on battered women or women in crisis (, 2002). The civil rights movement has had a major effect on anti-discrimination. Due to the movement, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was created. Its sole purpose was to obtain a more equal and just society. The civil rights movement initially was geared towards blacks and the racial discrimination they endured. However, over time the movement has broken down barriers and balanced the scales in job segregation, school segregation,equal opportunity for women, sexual harassment, discrimination against gays, and same sex marriages. These are just a few areas the civil rights movement has affected (McLean, 2008). The civil rights movement has also had an effect on hate crime legislation and laws. Due to the movement, hate crimes were paid closer attention to help determine whether an offender was motivated because he/she had a particular bias against someone’s race, religion, national origin, or color. Laws were also expanded to prevent a person from intentionally causing bodily harm or injury with the use of a firearm, fire, or explosives because an offender was bias against a person’s race, religion, color, or national origin (Krouse, 2010). The overall role of children’s rights groups is to protect children. Children’s rights groups let it be known that even though children are not adults, they do have rights and these rights must be recognized in order for children to be protected from abuse, neglect, want, and hunger so that the children can be developed to their fullest potential. Additionally, children’s rights groups provide training and education to juvenile courts and family courts that relate to issues on abuse, neglect, permanency planning, and reunification with family so the courts can improve their process and become more efficient so that children/juveniles can get a fair and thorough court process within the criminal justice system (Connelly, 2012).
Some organizations that can be contacted for sexual assault and domestic violence include network against domestic and sexual violence, safe horizon, coalition against domestic and sexual violence, and the national center on domestic and sexual violence (Newcomer, 2012). Some organizations that can be contacted for child abuse include child help USA, child welfare league of America, circle of parents, family support America, prevent child abuse America, and healthy families America (, 2012). Some organizations for homicides include network of victim assistance, crime victim services, homicide survivors, and justice for homicide victims (, 2013). Crime compensation programs do not provide compensation for damage to property and medical expenses outside of glasses, prosthetics, and dental (, n.d).


Stevens, Mark (2003). Victimology Theory. Retrieved from
Carson, Cat (2009). History of Victimology. Retrieved from
Lee, Lexa (2013). How Does Victimology Differ From Criminology. Retrieved from
Niles, Christine (2013). How Victimology is Different From Sociology? Retrieved from
Cherry, Kendra (2013). Psychology Theories. Retrieved from
Violence Against Women (2002). Retrieved from
McLean, Nancy (2008). The Civil Rights Movement. Retrieved from
Krouse, Williams (2010). Hate Crime Legislation. Retrieved from
Connelly, Helen (2012). Children’s Rights. Retrieved from
Newcomer, Laura (2012). Groups Stopping Domestic Violence. Retrieved from
Community Partners (2012). Retrieved from
Victim Assistance (2013). Retrieved from
Crime Victim Compensation (n.d). Retrieved from

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