Premium Essay

Criminal Justice Integration

In: Other Topics

Submitted By houseja1
Words 2610
Pages 11
Crime and law enforcement is in a unique period that has been going on for over 30 years. During the 1960s crimes presented to police skyrocketed and more criminals being apprehended. Lawmakers started enacting strict laws that expanded punishments for criminals, the amount of legal cases prosecuted by the court of law soared, the amount of individuals in jails, prisons, and undergoing probation or prison release observation escalated dramatically, and spending by branches of government surrounding criminal justice organizations increased. It was also during this time that the Federal Governments position in the Nations attempts to combat crime was additionally restructured.

Agency policies

There were more than 14,000 law enforcement agencies in the United States in 2008, employing more than 700,000 officers. Intrinsically, policies are different between law enforcement agencies; and are centered on the agencies history and problems they have encountered. Law Enforcement policies, budget and technology evolves as society around it evolves. In 1987, the Association of Chief of Police joined alliance with the U.S. Justice Department to establish a nationwide policy. The Chiefs of Police commission was founded to aid agencies throughout the country enforce the same set of laws. According to Matz, and Kim, (2013), the result of the partnerships between agencies resulted in created an alert system called
“America’s Missing Broadcast Emergency Response (AMBER)” and Homeland Security Act. AMBER alert system was enacted with the assistance of law enforcement agencies, business’s, and citizens, in response to the kidnap and murder of Amber Hagerman from Arlington, Texas to safely recover an abducted child. According to Cohen, (2012), the AMBER alert system uses transportation, and wireless networks to alert the community with any information that would assist in...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Organizational Trends

...Organizational Trends CJA/444 Keith Wilson July 28, 2014 Patrick Kelly Privatization Privatization of criminal justice has a long history in this country, driven in part by distrust of government's power and its perceived incompetence and corruptibility, and in part by efficiency and accomplishments of the private sector. While recognizing the advantages of privatization, the contributors find that the criminal justice system may not be as amenable to privatization as other government functions (Shicor & Gilbert, 2002). Moreover, deficiencies in the contracts through which private firms take over criminal justice functions may be uncorrectable, and resumption of performance by the government in the event of market failure may be difficult. Differences between the goals of public governmental and private commercial organizations, as well as difficulties in monitoring performance, create the risk that the management of privatized criminal justice may be subordinate to public policy. Several guidelines are offered to minimize the risks while obtaining the advantages of criminal justice privatization (Shicor & Gilbert, 2002). Militarization Despite historical efforts to make laws that enforce this distinction, during the past four decades domestic policing in the United States has become increasingly militarized. Domestic law enforcement has taken on the characteristics of the armed forces by engaging in military-style training, acquiring military weapons, and...

Words: 989 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Jail and Prison Paper

...Jail and Prison In the criminal justice system once a crime is committed and the criminal has gone to court and has pled guilty, or has gone to trial and has been convicted of the rime it can result in a few different ways. For instance, if the crime was severe enough it could result in jail or prison time. Both jail and prison are two components of the suffering the consequences of committing a crime, and can also determine whether the time fits the crime or was the criminal punished in a fair matter. Some criminal’s crimes are so severe that they are sentenced to life in prison. Jails are facilities designed to hold criminals waiting for a trial. They are also designed to hold inmates serving twelve months or less for the crimes they committed. Federal Prisons are designed for people convicted of federal crimes. State prisons are for criminals convicted of crimes of the state, or of crimes committed in that state. Minimum Security Prisons are the most open and least restricted prisons. They hold criminals convicted of non-violent crimes such as forgery, cheating on taxes, and perjury. Medium Security Prisons are more open then maximum security but less open than minimum security prisons. The inmates are convicted of crimes such as assault and thefts. Maximum Security Prisons generally hold prisoners serving longer sentences. Inmates are convicted of crimes such as murder, kidnapping and other felonies. (library.thinkquest.org) A total institution is place of work and......

Words: 1265 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Cj 1220 Assignment 1.1

...of the Criminal Justice System and three main functions of each. I will also explain how the creation of the Department of Homeland Security changed the structure of federal law enforcement along with whether or not its creation enhanced or hindered the coordination of federal law enforcement efforts. Assignment 1.1 The American Criminal Justice System is a large and complex system consisting of many different people trying to complete many different tasks. As complex and sometimes confusing the system is, it can be broken down into three main parts. Those parts are: Police, Courts, and Corrections. Each part has very distinct roles. The roles of the police are to serve as the initial contact an offender has with the criminal justice system. The police are charged with maintain civil and social order. They also investigate wrong doings and make an arrest. After arrest, the offender then moves into the second part of the criminal justice system, the courts. The courts are where the offender is allowed to argue in his/her defense. In America, we offer the right to an attorney provided by the state, if the offender cannot afford a private one. The judge, or jury, will hear the case and all arguments by the prosecution and the defense, and then make a ruling. If the offender is found “not guilty,” he/she is released from the criminal justice system. If the offender is found “guilty,” he/she then moves into the third and final part of the criminal justice system...

Words: 577 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Electronic Monitoring and House Arrest

...Introduction to Criminal Justice Electronic Monitoring and House Arrest Katelyn Fritz November 24, 2013 Introduction Electronic Monitoring (EM) and house arrest (HA) is a system that has been met with both trepidation and acceptance since its integration in the 1980’s. Though it goes by many names, including Community Sentencing and Intermediate sanctions, it still maintains a single identity. It is a form of punishment for offenders as an alternative to incarceration. This program applies to offenders chosen at the judge’s discretion and is based upon the offenders compliance, the nature of the infraction, and the burden on the system. Involved is a period of time where the offender is confined to his home under the supervision of a probation officer and some form of electronic monitoring. These monitoring options include the random call method (RC), an ankle monitor using radio frequency (RF) or GPS technology, or a combination thereof (Burell & Gable, 2008). Electronic monitoring is touted as an ideal means of reducing overcrowding in jails and prisons, but how effect is electronic monitoring and house arrest really? More than 30 years after its integration, there are several issues that have developed, or that have yet to be resolved. To demonstrate this lets us look at one example that occurred in the year 2000. Gerald A. Jones, a young, 18 year old man, was convicted of a robbery after sticking a gun into a woman’s face and stealing her watch. As......

Words: 5158 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Criminal Justice Trends Evaluation

...CJA 394 WEEK 1 Criminal Justice Trends Evaluation Criminal Justice Trends Evaluation John Doe CJA 394 October 01, 2001 Jane Doedy Criminal Justice Trends Evaluation The criminal justice system is forever adjusting to protect and serve a changing society. The paper evaluates, identifies and assesses recent future and current trends affecting the criminal justice system. Lastly, it defines the values of the system in a changing society. Recent trends affecting the criminal justice system are related to gender and racial barriers. According to Roslyn Muraskin and Albert R. Roberts (2009 ), assessments of statuses of women and minorities in police work shows that there are obstacles in official and informal structures of police work organizations related to gender and race. Regardless of assessment studies, which show that women are effective patrol officers, organizational principles of law enforcement has repelled the combination of women into patrol officers for more than 20 years. There are three kinds of organizational resistance to slowing down staffing and preservation of female patrol officers. The first organizational resistance is called Technical Resistance. Technical Resistance comprises of failure to adjust police uniforms, gear, and tools sufficiently for women, and constant issues on physical testing, and firearms during their drills, and preperations. The second organizational resistance is named Political and Cultural Resistance. According to Roslyn......

Words: 1573 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Government

...reflection to realize that the term ‘just’ and ‘justice’ is vital to the operation of society and social networks. We are perhaps fortunate that we have lost one of the senses which the term had for the Greeks, the sense in which, justice was equivalent to virtue in general; nevertheless we can use the concept in many different contexts to make a variety of moral and political points, Zajda & Rust, (2006). First and foremost before one can truly define social justice we have to start with what is justice itself. Justice is defined as a concept of moral rightness based on ethics, rationality, law, natural, religion, fairness, or equity, along with the punishment of the breach of said ethics; it’s just the act of being fair. Our understanding of the concepts of social justice can be viewed as important because it works along with the criminal justice system model. A general definition of social justice is hard to arrive at and even harder to implement. In essence, social justice is concerned with equal justice, not just in the courts, but in all aspects of society. This concept demands that people have equal rights and opportunities; everyone, from the poorest person on the margins of society to the wealthiest deserves an even playing field. The concept of social justice was coined by Jesuit Luigi Taparelli in 1840 based on the teachings of St. Thomas Aquinas and given further exposure in 1848 by Antonio Rosmini-Serbati. Social justice covers an array of issues; hence it......

Words: 1764 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Rehabilitation Paper

...citizens. Correctional agencies implemented a variety of treatment programs to improve offenders and to provide them with the tools necessary to be successful members of society (Seiter, 2011). The need for rehabilitation of offenders was emphasized by the Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice, appointed by President Lyndon Johnson in 1966, which noted a need for “substantial upgrading” of the correctional system and its reorientation “toward integration of offenders into community life” (Seiter, 2011). Throughout the years, many processes have been created to form the rehabilitation process of criminal justice. This process has reached out to many offenders and their families by allowing them to return to the community as changed individuals. Rehabilitation has many different process, but most, if not all have been proven successful in returning offenders to the community as changed individuals (Seiter, 2011). Rehabilitation is defined as a return to a previous form. In criminal justice, rehabilitation is referred as a designed attempt to change attitudes and behaviors of inmates, concentrating on the prevention of an inmate's future criminal behaviors (Seiter, 2011). The emphasis of rehabilitation is clearly proactive and focused on preventing future crimes. Correctional officials believe this may be their most important function, protecting society in the long term by reducing...

Words: 1454 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Nonresidential Community Supervision Programs

...Community-based corrections is a program that provides preventive services, services to offenders, services to persons charged with a crime or an act of delinquency, services to persons diverted from the criminal or delinquency process, services to persons sentenced to imprisonment, or services to victims of crime or delinquency, and is operated under a community corrections plan of a county and funded at least in part by the state subsidy. Intermediate sanctions are criminal sentences that fall between standard probation and incarceration. Intermediate sanctions can include house arrest, intensive probation (i.e., probation with more conditions beyond the basic conditions of standard probation), boot camps, electronic monitoring, and drug treatment programs. Intermediate sanctions serve a dual purpose in the criminal justice system. First, granting intermediate sanctions over incarceration helps reduce overcrowding and eases the burden on our nation's prison system. Second, it helps to reduce recitivism by targeting the behaviors of the defendants that led to the crime to begin with. For example, if a drug user is afforded the opportunity to attend drug treatment rather than prison and is successful, it is less likely that s/he will commit future crimes like possessing narcotics, and even selling narcotics or participating in various theft offenses to support his or her drug habit. Intermediate sanctions can be an effective tool if used appropriately.......

Words: 526 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Chart

...How the National Offender Management Service works March 2012 Introduction Who we are Key functions Our structure How NOMS Works introduction who we are key functions our structure “ Our vision is that there will be fewer victims, and our “ communities will be safer NOMS was established in 2008 with a clear brief, to bring together the commissioning and provision of offender services in prison and in the community, ensuring best value for public money. So organisational change isn’t new to us; it’s part of what we are all about. But the reality now is that we are in a new world, with the double challenge of responding to the policy priorities of the Coalition Government and significantly reducing our costs by approximately 23 per cent by 2015. The rate of change and scale of challenge for both Prisons and Probation is unprecedented. To meet our objectives of protecting the public and reducing reoffending – we have reshaped and transformed the way we operate creating a leaner organisation focused on outcomes for the public. We have dismantled our old regional model, and our structure has been fundamentally reshaped to support HQ and Central Services front line delivery at much reduced cost. Perhaps most significantly, our new structure makes a clear distinction between the different functions of the Agency – commissioning services; delivering those services directly such as through HM Prison Service and national operational services such as licence recall and......

Words: 3413 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Criminal Justice

...company defining the basis of citizenship. Although individuals often returning to the community focus more on the choice of where they dwell, their long-term success in society is more likely to be dependent on the social roles they have chosen to play, to the extent that they will engage in the community and they have been prepared for this purpose during their incarceration or institutionalization. Reentry can help reduce recidivism as well as assist those who have been previously incarcerated to begin leading law abiding lives once released into society. However, overtime the importance of prisoner reentry has been drastically lowered with less emphasis on helping those to prepare for their release and with post release community integration. As a result, the shortage of reentry programs and limited responsibility of probation or parole to assist in re-entry; the rate at which people return to prison or jail is high. Keywords: reentry, recidivism, institutionalization Re-Entry and Its Effects: Institutional and Post Release Those who are incarcerated do not only serve time inside their prison cell, they also serve time once...

Words: 2769 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Punishment V. Rehabilitation

...Punishment versus Rehabilitation Paper Punishment versus Rehabilitation Paper Punishment versus Rehabilitation The criminal justice system has four objectives. They are deterrence, punishment, incapacitation, and rehabilitation. Of these four deterrence, punishment, and incapacitation typically work together. Anytime a person commits a crime, punishment and rehabilitation are needed to address the problem swiftly and effectually. (Punishment vs. Rehabilitation: A Proposal for Revising Sentencing Practices, 1991). When the offender moves from prison to a step-down unit as they get closer to his or her release, they tend to have other issues other than drug and alcohol rehabilitation, and this is what causes recidivism. Research has shown that many prisoners in super maximum units experience extremely high levels of anxiety and other negative emotion. When released, often without any "decompression" period in lower security facilities, they have few of the social or occupational skills necessary to succeed in the outside world (Rehabilitate or Punish, 2003). Craig Haney, Ph.D. states, "This is what prison systems do under the emergency circumstance, they move to punitive social control mechanisms. But it's a very short-term solution, and one that may do more long-term damage both to the system and to the individuals than it solves (Rehabilitate or Punish, 2003)." Throughout this paper, I will be a discussing the strengths of punishment, and how it deters the......

Words: 1844 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Punishment V. Rehabilitation

...Punishment versus Rehabilitation Paper Punishment versus Rehabilitation Paper Punishment versus Rehabilitation The criminal justice system has four objectives. They are deterrence, punishment, incapacitation, and rehabilitation. Of these four deterrence, punishment, and incapacitation typically work together. Anytime a person commits a crime, punishment and rehabilitation are needed to address the problem swiftly and effectually. (Punishment vs. Rehabilitation: A Proposal for Revising Sentencing Practices, 1991). When the offender moves from prison to a step-down unit as they get closer to his or her release, they tend to have other issues other than drug and alcohol rehabilitation, and this is what causes recidivism. Research has shown that many prisoners in super maximum units experience extremely high levels of anxiety and other negative emotion. When released, often without any "decompression" period in lower security facilities, they have few of the social or occupational skills necessary to succeed in the outside world (Rehabilitate or Punish, 2003). Craig Haney, Ph.D. states, "This is what prison systems do under the emergency circumstance, they move to punitive social control mechanisms. But it's a very short-term solution, and one that may do more long-term damage both to the system and to the individuals than it solves (Rehabilitate or Punish, 2003)." Throughout this paper, I will be a discussing the strengths of punishment, and how it deters the......

Words: 1844 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Private V Public Prison

...Prevailing theories about human behavior, the causes of crime and ideology about how to address criminal behavior have always influenced how and why society uses prisons. Prisons are intended to meet a variety of social goals, including incapacitation, deterrence, discipline, punishment or retribution, and rehabilitation or reformation. Some have argued that public prisons are better at all of the above while most support private prisons. The term prison privatization commonly refers to the policy of contracting out the management and operation of prisons and jails to private, for-profit companies. Prison privatization is a controversial issue, with ongoing debate over the ethics of delegating the punishment function of the criminal justice system to private actors, weather private prisons cost less to operate than public facilities, and if the quality of security and conditions of confinement differ between public and private prisons. In 2005, approximately 200 private correctional facilities operated in the United States, housing a total of 107,000 inmates. Four companies provide more than 90 percent of private prison capacity. About 6 percent of all state inmates and 14 percent of federal inmates are incarcerated in privatized facilities. The idea of privatizing prisons emerged in the 1980s as a policy remedy to the problem of growing incarceration rates, severe prison overcrowding, and constraints on increasing government funding of new prison space. Public......

Words: 1405 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Advocacy Essay

...is no way around this issue and dismantling the system of mass incarceration is the only resolution; however if these poor neighborhoods were funded with government money, drug abuse can potentially become lower or even be stopped. Alexander is also discussing how a handful of reforms cannot be a solution to the problem. She argues that all the financial grants that are given to police departments for drug arrests and racial profiling should be halted. She believes that by halting the funding and supplies of mass incarceration are only scratching the surface of social reform. She believes there must be a change in the culture of law enforcement. By stopping mass incarceration Alexander believes that, that is the first step in racial integration. The costs of stopping mass incarceration are high for the government and prison systems. By stopping their reimbursements, drug related crimes may...

Words: 2303 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Criminal Defense Effectiveness

...spirit of protecting human rights, criminal defense effectiveness is a practice to solve and important problem in theory have to consider. The current study are "cookie-cutter" to defend the effectiveness of implementation in the hope of improvement of the system of criminal procedural law on defense. Although the effects of related program design is an important factor in achieving effectiveness to defend, in today's defense system is increasingly perfect, defense effectiveness problem especially criminal entity effectiveness is cured, the most fundamental problem actually lies not in the program system is imperfect,...

Words: 903 - Pages: 4