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JAIL AND PRISON

Every year the number of prisoners increase and their sentences are longer. The expenses continue to be high maintaining prisons, work farms and other secure facilities. Budgets now are tighter than ever and expectations continue to get higher. Private prisons opened after the civil war encountered legal problems for leasing convicts to replace slave labor, and civil right issues for cutting corners on food and living conditions but by the 1980’s, every state had private contracts.
During Colonial America public humiliation, work houses and corporal punishment such as stock, whipping were used to punish criminals. Quakers believed that honest labor was more humane way to deal with unsocialized behavior. In 1786 convicts were provided familiar ball, chain and bright, unstylish clothes. That way if they ever tried to escape it would make it harder. As time passed by colonies began to replace public humiliation with incarceration. During this time convicts were accused women, men, petty thieves with violent offenders and all in the same prison.
The Penitentiary Era in the 1790’s they separated the convicts and they all had to be silent. They sought penance in total solitude, created or aggravated mental instabilities and handicrafts introduced to help maintain sanity. The Mass Prison Era in 1825 they were congregated but silenced. Prisoners had communal meals and worked during the day. They were not allowed to speak or make eye contact with anyone. Vocation training was provided and corporal punishment and hard labor was allowed. Reformatory was in 1876 were they indeterminate sentence. Education and vocational training was provided. By this time is the prisoner had a history of good behavior they were eligible for early release, as well as community parole. Rest cure was also used such as solitary confinement and it was
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