Premium Essay

Critical Period Hypothesis

In: English and Literature

Submitted By neveen
Words 500
Pages 2
Literary Criticism is, as Matthew Arnold (1822-1888), the Victorian poet and critic points out, a "disinterested endeavor to learn and propagate" the best that is known and thought in the world. And he strove hard to fulfill this aim in his critical writings. Attaching paramount importance to poetry in his essay "The Study of Poetry", he regards the poet as seer. Without poetry, science is incomplete, and much of religion and philosophy would in future be replaced by poetry. Such, in his estimate, are the high destinies of poetry.

Arnold asserts that literature, and especially poetry, is "Criticism of Life". In poetry, this criticism of life must conform to the laws of poetic truth and poetic beauty. Truth and seriousness of matter, felicity and perfection of diction and manner, as are exhibited in the best poets, are what constitutes a criticism of life.

Poetry, says Arnold, interprets life in two ways: "Poetry is interpretative by having natural magic in it, and moral profundity". And to achieve this the poet must aim at high and excellent seriousness in all that he writes.This demand has two essential qualities. The first is the choice of excellent actions. The poet must choose those which most powerfully appeal to the great primary human feelings which subsist permanently in the race. The second essential is what Arnold calls the Grand Style - the perfection of form, choice of words, drawing its force directly from the pregnancy of matter which it conveys.

This, then, is Arnold's conception of the nature and mission of true poetry. And by his general principles - the" Touchstone Method" - introduced scientific objectivity to critical evaluation by providing comparison and analysis as the two primary tools for judging individual poets. Thus, Chaucer, Dryden, Pope, and Shelley fall short of the best, because they lack "high seriousness". Even Shakespeare...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Critical Period Hypothesis

...Critical Period Hypothesis Early childhood development occurs in stages and may be influenced by the individuals’ environment. After reading “Critical-Period Hypothesis” by James V. McConnell (Understanding Behavior, Copyright 1974), it raised some questions in my mind regarding early childhood development such as how a young child’s speech develops, how they learn to walk and how they learn to use the bathroom. All three developments normally occur by a certain age. However in my experience I know that these developments can be delayed or not occur normally due to environmental obstacles. I have even seen cases in my personal experience that delays occurred due to emotional problems. In the Critical-Period Hypothesis, there is some debate as to whether humans can “catch up” if there is a delay in development. However, as the article states that by being born without strong innate behavior patterns (such as imprinting), we seem better able to adjust and survive, or “catch up”. It also mentions that children appear to have a tendency to imitate behaviors. I was an employee of New York State as a Developmental Aide for 20+ years. I worked with developmentally disabled children, and had extensive training on the cause and effects of mental retardation. I was amazed to learn that many of the patients had become “environmentally retarded”. I had always thought that someone with those types of disabilities must have been born that way. I was saddened to......

Words: 484 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Pidgins, Creoles and the Critical Period Hypothesis

...UNIVERSIDAD DE BELGRANO FACULTAD DE LENGUAS Y ESTUDIOS EXTRANJEROS TRADUCTORADO PÚBLICO, LITERARIO Y CIENT. TEC. DE INGLÉS PROF. ALEJANDRO PARINI “PIDGINS, CREOLES AND THE CRITICAL PERIOD HYPOTHESIS” SAMANTHA VÁSQUEZ 7517 INTRODUCTION In this paper I am going to talk about pidgins and creoles from the point of view of language acquisition. Creolistics (short form for pidgin and creole linguistics) have provided some revealing and controversial insights into language evolution, acquisition and use; though disagreements exist over what languages or varieties can be labelled as 'creole' or as 'pidgin', and debate continues over the nature of creolization, the 'life cycle' of pidgins and creoles and the origin of grammatical structures in creoles which are absent in any preceding pidgin. PIDGIN LANGUAGES A pidgin language is a language which is based on another language or to be precise on several other languages. A pidgin language develops among people and becomes a means of communication among people who speak different native languages, but in contrast to normal natural languages a pidgin language shows a very poor grammar and a sharply curtailed vocabulary. The major ingredients of a pidgin language come from the native languages of the pidgin speakers. The language with the strongest influence on the pidgin is called the superstrate language and all other contributing languages are called the......

Words: 1536 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Socialization in a Feral Child

...brought up by non-human animals, the feral child exhibits behaviors (within physical limits) almost entirely like those of the particular care-animal, such as its fear of or indifference to humans. Feral children lack the basic social skills which are normally learned in the process of socialization. For example, they may be unable to learn to use a toilet, have trouble learning to walk upright and display a complete lack of interest in the human activity around them. They often seem mentally impaired and have almost insurmountable trouble learning a human language. The impaired ability to learn language after having been isolated for so many years is often attributed to the existence of a critical period for language learning, and taken as evidence in favor of the Critical Period Hypothesis. It is very difficult to socialize a child who became isolated at a very young age into a relatively normal member of society and such individuals often need close care throughout their...

Words: 287 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Demonstration of a Neural Circuit Critical for Imprinting Behavior in Chicks

...The Journal of Neuroscience, March 24, 2010 • 30(12):4467– 4480 • 4467 Development/Plasticity/Repair Demonstration of a Neural Circuit Critical for Imprinting Behavior in Chicks Tomoharu Nakamori,1,3 Katsushige Sato,2,4 Yasuro Atoji,5 Tomoyuki Kanamatsu,6 Kohichi Tanaka,1 and Hiroko Ohki-Hamazaki1,3,7 1 Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience, School of Biomedical Science and Medical Research Institute and 2Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519, Japan, 3Division of Biology, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Kitasato University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228-8555, Japan, 4Department of Health and Nutrition Sciences, Faculty of Human Health, Komazawa Women’s University, Inagi-shi, Tokyo 206-8511, Japan, 5Laboratory of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Applied Biological Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193, Japan, 6Department of Environmental Engineering for Symbiosis, Faculty of Engineering, Soka University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577, Japan, and 7Recognition and Formation, Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan Imprinting behavior in birds is elicited by visual and/or auditory cues. It has been demonstrated previously that visual cues are recognized and processed in the visual Wulst (VW), and imprinting memory is stored in the intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM)......

Words: 11987 - Pages: 48

Free Essay


...they are human; they speak because other people around them encourage them to do the same. B. Children generally begin to talk in the sensorimotor stage of life, but do not understand what they are saying and cannot put the words together in sentences because they are only imitating those around them. III. Explain whether feral children can be redeveloped. A. Feral Children have been worked with for periods of year with no success. 1. Victor of Aveyron, was found in the 1800s and was worked with for 7 years and became no more human than a well trained animal. 2. Girls from India found at the age of 3 and 5 were put in an orphanage and worked with for years. Neither one ever learned more than approximately 30 words and neither one would stop barring their teeth and howling at night. B. Does a feral child actually end up being mentally impaired? 1. The Critical Period Hypothesis indicates it is not actually retardation, that though the mind is fully intact, it simply is not capable of a full functioning as it did not get the critical socialization necessary for full development. 2. Scientists connect isolation to changes in the brain....

Words: 253 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Philosophy-Sensitive Periods

...This Essay explains child's sensitive periods to support child's normal development, All six sensitive periods are analysed here, child's stages of growth is also discussed briefly. The adverse effect in children if not supported sensitive period are also mentioned here, Adult support to facilitate child's normal development are discussed in detail. According to Montessori, there are three stages of growth, Phase one – birth to six years (Absorbent Mind), Phase two - six to twelve years(Childhood) , Phase three - twelve to eighteen years (Adolescence). Each plane describes a unique developmental stage and highlights the particular characteristics of the child at that stage and explains the conditions which Montessori thought were most conducive to the child's development at each stage. Phase one - birth to six years (Absorbent Mind) is subdivided into two sub-stages, the spiritual (Montessori, 1966 and 2007a) and social embryonic (Montessori, 2007a) stage. from birth to three years child learns unconsciously from his/her environment of which immediate family, primary and secondary are an essential component. The unconscious absorbent mind enables children to acquire information and develop essential skills such as walking and talking. In the early stages of this sub-phase the infant is seen to be a spiritual embryo. ’"we are not dealing with something that develops, but with a fact of formation; something non- existent has to be produced, starting from......

Words: 2300 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Infant Mental Health Critical Review

...Infant Mental Health Critical Review Abstract In this critical review, the newspaper article being reviewed is Infant mental health: Giving children the best head start, is described and summarized. The topic being discussed is infant mental health and how they should be receiving satisfactory care from their caregivers at an early age. Infant mental health can be defined as a field that studies the parent caregiver relationships and inner lives of infants. In agreement with this article, five scholarly academic sources arguments and findings are observed. This paper shows a critical review of infant mental health; the brain’s plasticity through a critical period and the importance of supportive infant-caregiver relationships that produce positive experiences for infants and further their developmental capabilities ultimately, helping them grow better. It also highlights the reality that the society as a whole is involved in providing better environmental influences for infants in order to supply them with a better future. Recommendations for future research and unanswered questions in infant mental health are made in response to the need of support of caregivers and the society. The news article, Infant mental health: Giving children the best head start, emphasizes the importance of the first 1000 days of an infant’s life (2015). Adulthood is shaped and impacted by our early experiences (D’alton, 2015). Professor Kevin Nugent is an expert of early child......

Words: 2379 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Montessoris Sensitive Periods and Their Effect on Child Development

... | |Define the term sensitive periods and give full details of the six main periods, together with examples to show your understanding. (6 x 5) - ie 30 marks in| |total | | | |Explain why it is important to support and facilitate these periods during the child’s first stage of development (birth – 6). (5) | | | |Outline any adverse consequences of not recognising and supporting the child’s sensitivities. (5). | | | |Give details of how the adult might support these sensitive periods to facilitate the child’s optimum development. (25) | |...

Words: 2292 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Nt1310 Unit 1 Assignment

...Fixed action patterns are innate behaviors that are performed without learning, follow regular unvarying patterns, unable to be modified by learning, and normally carried to completion once initiated even if the stimulus stops. For example, a Graylay goose will roll (FAP) its egg, or spherical object, (sign) into its nest. Even if the egg is removed, the goose will continue to roll a fake egg into its nest and will not stop until the task is complete. Imprinting is learning limited to specific period of time (critical-period) and is irreversible. It includes both learned and innate components.The sensitive period is very important because it requires only brief exposure during the developmental phase when certain behaviors can be learned....

Words: 1644 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Planes of Development and Sensitive Periods

...time and what the specific needs of a child are in relation to these periods. The essay will discuss Montessori’s stages of growth and my understanding of the role key individuals and the environment play in a child’s optimum development. Montessori identified three main periods of growth or planes of development, quite distinct from one-another and interestingly corresponding with the phases of physical growth - with the first and last characterised by great change and the second being much calmer (Montessori, 2007a). These successive developmental stages or “series of rebirths” (Montessori, 2007a, p18) are infancy (from birth to six years), childhood (six to twelve years) and adolescence (twelve to eighteen years). The first plane of development has two sub phases; the spiritual embryo (from birth until three years) and the social embryo (three years to six years). During this first stage, the child’s mentality is unique from the following planes of development; the mind is open and highly absorbent of all and any information and environmental occurrence and nuance. According to Montessori, during the spiritual embryonic phases, the child’s mind cannot be influenced upon or subjected to direct adult influence. (Montessori, 2007a) During this time the child begins to learn how to talk, think and remember, move and walk. Montessori noted that while the body is fully formed, during this formative period the mind undergoes a kind of mental construction which sees the......

Words: 2193 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay


...efine the term sensitive periods and link them appropriately to the child’s first stage of development. Explain how you would support these sensitive periods during this first crucial stage. In this essay I will define the term sensitive periods linking it with stage of development, I will also outline the importance of these periods , the consequences of not recognising it, and finally how we can support children in this crucial time. "A sensitive periods refers to a special sensibility which a creature in its infantile state, while it is still in a process of evolution". ( Montessori, 1966, p38) Maria Montessori believed that during first few years of life its very easy for a child to learn without an effort that later on will be more difficult such as language. She observed that there is an inner passion and urge to absorbed everything from their environment. Sensitive periods are characterized by behaviours such as an activity being irresistible for a child once he/ she starts it. Once the sensitive period is over, the sensibility disappears because the brain has progressed to a time when specific information is absorbed. In each period children are especially sensitive to a specific characteristic in his/her environment. They have this "inner power horme" (Montessori, 1966) which enables them to choose and explore necessary objects and relationships from their environment, for their intellectual growth. All of those periods are very specific and unique for a child......

Words: 328 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Childhood Education

...Child Development Case Study Analysis Kimberly D. Carter PSYC2700 CHILD DEVELOPMENT May 15, 2015 Abstract Early Childhood Education In this paper I am taking the time to go over some very important materials in the world of Early Childhood Education and some of the reason why each and every child should have access to great educational standard. The paper will include topics that involve policy and policy initiative relating to the education of childhood, three benefits of early childhood education.  Describing high quality characteristics of a program geared toward early childhood development. Characteristics of high quality early childhood programs A high quality program starts with a list of high priorities beginning with the list below: • The ration for teach and child is low. • Staff should be well trained with degrees pertaining to child development or early childhood education. • The center or facility has the appropriate curriculum for each age group within the center • Emotional and Social growth are top priority. • Encourages parents to be involved both at home and in the facility. • Great and positive interactions amongst the teacher and child. • Child-focused environment where the child is given choices • the variety of books, toys and learning supplies is endless for the child to make choices of their own. • All forms of playing, including indoor and outdoor, and all these areas are safe for children of all ages....

Words: 1192 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...simple phrases, she never became proficient at syntax. It appears that the crucial factor behind her lack of language development was the relatively late age that she learnt language. (Curtiss 1977). * Does research into feral children support the idea that language is learnt (nurture) or innate (nature)? Research into feral children supports the idea that language is learnt because for instance Genie was isolated from language for 13 years; after linguists and psychologists studying her the found out that even though she was able to pick up some useful words, she wasn’t ever properly able to have conversations because it was said she went past the age which is known as a critical period. The theory states that child could only learn certain things at certain times, language was one of these critical periods and according to the theory Genie who’s a teenager has now lost this chance forever. But at one incredible moment Genie started to prove this theory wrong, as she was blossoming and learning new words for the things she was seeing. However genie couldn’t move on from the affects of her past so easily, because she was still haunted from her traumatic upbringing and with result of this she linguistically stopped making...

Words: 340 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Statistics of Global Warming

...…………………………………………………………………. 5 • Hypothesis 1 …………………………………………………….. 6 • Hypothesis 2 …………………………………………………….. 7 Regression analysis …………………………………………………….... 8 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………. 9 Reference ……………………………………………………………….. 10 Summary & Purpose People said that the global temperature is changing higher and higher. That is global warming which can happen the earth heat up. In addition, people said that the global warming happen because of the increase in the atmosphere of greenhouse gas concentrations like water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and ozone. Greenhouse gases are those gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect. The largest contributing source of greenhouse gas is the burning of fossil fuels leading to the emission of carbon dioxide. Therefore, this hypothesis test will show whether or not the global is warming compared by the previous year. In addition, the study will assess whether the global climate is changing at a higher rate compared the previous year. This data is based on NASA’s data of average of global climate, and all of temperatures are in Co degree. Hypothesis 1 H0: The mean global temperature for the period 1961 to 2010(µ1) is less than or equal the mean global temperature for the period 1911 to 1960 (µ2). Ha: The mean global temperature for the period 1961 to 2010(µ1) is greater than the mean global temperature for the period 1911 to 1960 (µ2). Hypothesis 2 H0: The mean global temperature for the period 1981 to 2010(µ1)......

Words: 591 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Neuroplasticity Research Paper

...However, recent developments in neuroscience have given way to a possible cause: Neuroplasticity, the structural and functional changes in the brain driven by training, experience, or even injury13. It implies that the brain does not cease developing, and continues to change throughout the entire lifetime. In context to the critical period, neuroplasticity is maximal in the first few years in a human's lifetime, with the average human having around 7500 synapses at birth, rapidly increasing in the next two years to around double the amount of an adult's synapses, then decreasing gradually due to apoptosis13. Neuroplasticity also is present after the first few years, albeit at a reduced condition. Thus, neuroplasticity had a great impact on the importance of learning during the first 3 years of child development. In addition to cognition, children also exhibit a greater capacity to recover from brain injury compared to adults13, which even Lenneberg's data on the damage to the areas of the brain involved in communication,...

Words: 918 - Pages: 4