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Critical Thinking

In: Business and Management

Submitted By pro136
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ABSTRACT:
This report explores critical discourse analysis as a theory in rhetoric discourse and speech act and pragmatics. The framework of analysis includes the mixture of my own ideas and theory of various experts such and Aristotle, Tuan Van Dijk, H.P Grice and Robert Dilts. As critical discourse analysis is a very flexible term of social linguistic study and it allows one to go with the own ideas, here I have chosen suitable analytical tool of experts to analyze the two different discourse, one is verbal discourse ( Tryst with Destiny) and second is written discourse ( Toyoda’s statement 2013) and at the end comparison of both discourse.
Key words: critical discourse analysis, rhetoric discourse, speech act, pragmatics, social linguistic, tryst with destiny, Toyoda’s statement 2013.
INTRODUCTION
Critical discourse analysis (CDA) comprises three inter-related processes of analysis which are linked up with three inter-related dimensions of discourse.
Three inter-related process of analysis. 1) Text analysis (description) 2) Processing analysis ( interpretation) 3) Social analysis ( explanation)
Three inter-related dimensions of CDA. 1) Discourse structure (systematically and explicitly described structure at all level) 2) Social structure (in the context of society) 3) Cognitive structure ( mental cognitive interface) The three dimensions of CDA is coherently related with each other to make up a substantial discourse where mental cognitive interface plays an indispensable role in relating society to discourse as one can only relate society to discourse through the mind of mental participant or language user. In the broad view these three dimensions yield a comprehensible analysis of discourse. This approach enables you to focus on the signifier that form the text, specific linguistic section, their collection, their sequencing and their lay out. (Fairclough 1989,1995, van dijk 1980)
Pragmatics
Pragmatic is one of the fields of linguistic and discourse study that has most systematically studied the relation between context and language is pragmatics. Pragmantics deal with lauange use and action rather than formal grammer or abstract discourse structure.(Austin,1962;Searle 1969)conversational maxim (grice 1989) pre suppositions and indesious (stal nabil 1999)amongs many app
Here, the subject is analysis of speech ( tryst with destiny) and statement from board of chairman(Mr toyoda’s financial announcement of fiscal year). The first verbal discourse is a speech which was delivered to the constitutional assembly and the genre of argument is persuasive, which called deliberative rhetoric speech and the written discourse is a simply a statement or message to the stakeholder of corporate organization with the same genre of argument.
The mode of persuasion accomplished by three kind of parameter scale, First kind depends on the character or speaker (ethos); Second on putting audience on the certain frame of mind or making connection with the audience (pathos); the third on the apparent proof, provided by the spoken words of the discourse itself (lagos). ( Aristotle)
Successful discourse is a sort of well prepared food dish which contains all the required ingredients in terms of taste, quality, quantity and presentation, in the same way a discourse needs a Grice’s maxim method to fulfill the criteria; the maxim of quantity ( content), the maxim of quality (intent) ; the maxims of relation ( relevant); the maxim of manner ( format). Moreover Dilt’s six logical level gives assurance of success. ( Grice 1975; Dilts )

Critical discourse analysis of speech.
“Tryst With Destiny” (Meet with destiny) was a speech delivered by Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of independent India. The speech was made to the Indian constituent assembly, on the eve of India’s independence, towards midnight on 15 august 1947. It is considered to be one of the greatest speeches of the world.
Jawaharlal Nehru was a leader of India’s nationalist movement and architect of India’s independence, who built a pathway to attain freedom from the British rule. When the desired and most awaited moment came for which every single Indian endured for long time, he was the one who was selected to lead the nation towards prosperity as a Prime Minister of country. Being a leader of the nation he had addressed the nation with his speech to declare independence and propel the citizens on the eve of India’s independence.
Nehru commences his speech with the words of “ Tryst with destiny”, by saying this he means that the India is going to meet with destiny( independence). subsequently he jumps on the long quest of India to attain the freedom and acknowledges the pain and sorrow of revolutionary past ; motivates for the better future ; he refers India with “She” because Indian people claims their land as a mother. Furthermore he talks about the upcoming future challenges before nation towards creating prosperous and peaceful country, though he shows a pathway or urges people to make India a nation of secularism and equality. Being a first prime minister and architect of India’s freedom and considering the part of speech where he talks about the struggle of freedom and upcoming future challenges by supporting his claim through appropriate arguments; “ we end today period of ill,,,,,, fortune and power brings responsibility..” (logic). Hence, he strongly sets the credibility, emotions and logic to accomplish the mode of persuasion. ( Aristotle)
Nehru’s discourse structure is totally precise in terms of quantity and quality, where he avoids to be too informative and keeps the content adequate and he doesn’t put a negative mark by stating any false arguments. However ,wherever he is questioning or acknowledging anything , he supports his claim through giving reasonable arguments. Throughout the speech Nehru is relevant and coherent, only says pertinent things but there is one horological mistake when he says “ at the stoke of the midnight when the world sleeps”. if in India its midnight it would be a 6:30am of morning in New Zealand and there is still a noon of previous day in USA or Canada. Whereas this discourse successfully covers and satisfies the all six logical levels of Roberts Dilts from the foundation point of environment to the apex point of purpose.
Nehru delivers his speech in English, as far as the literacy percentage (12%) of India in 1947 and native language concerned, this discourse fails to comply the concept of pragmatics. This phenomena has put the non English speaker of India rely on the translation script.

Analysis of toyods’s statement.
Company’s annual report is a communication through the chairman’s message to the stakeholders or involved parties. The statement of the chairman is generally a summary of the financial performance for the particular year and attempts to highlight the success or future of the respective efforts. It also comprises the part of gratitude towards the consumer and appreciation of the employees. Eventually chairperson convinces or encourages shareholders to invest the finance by giving a hint of new upcoming venture of company, which works as a profitable and financial growth of organization.
Akio Toyoda joined company in 1984 and became president in 2009. He was the leader of the company when the whole auto industry was surviving from the crisis and proved his potential and kept the reliability and credibility of company alive. At the commencement of the speech Mr. Toyoda states the profit of company to establish a positive start and attempt to hold the thought process of target audience. Subsequently he expresses his gratitude towards the stakeholders and consumers. After discussing about the new vision and venture of the company by giving true and supportive evidence, he ends his statement with appreciating the effort of 330000 member of global Toyota. Eventually being a president of Toyota he gets successful to provide credibility to his discourse.
When Toyoda talks about the challenging time of the company in 2009, sustainable growth, “ always better cars”, true competitiveness, each and every point he is supporting his claims by providing below mentioned evidence respectively. 1) Lehman shock ( financial crisis of Japan in 2008) 2) His own thought on sustainable growth 3) Launching of two new cars crown and Avalon, vision of materializing 4) New initiative of TNGA( Toyota New Global Architecture)
The company reports generally deals with the announcement of new initiatives and profit announcement as stated above Mr Toyoda has successfully fulfilled the “thumb rule “ with the supportive claim. Any sort of discourse should have a systematic approach and manner without any ambiguity and obscurity, on the contrary this discourse Toyoda could not get pass through the barrier as it puts remarks of criticism which are below mentioned. 1) I am not sure yet, is my honest answer ( instead of giving a alternative or pathway he denies straight forward) 2) Has Toyota really learned lesson and reborn again? ( these kind of question of sets negative impact on the mind of target audience as there is no supportive back)

COMPARISON
The vital part of any discourse is credibility because it decides the mode of persuasion, here in both of the discourse, actors are highly credentials and hold the high social status in their respective field which gives very strong back to the discourse in terms of accomplishing the rhetoric goal.
In the speech part, Jawaharlal Nehru is a first prime minister of India and his aim is declarative and assertive, where he declares the freedom and propel the citizen of India to create better nation for each and every citizen from a common worker to politicians. This discourse is all about the entering from past to present and future, old to new, revolution, motivation, emotions, encouragement, freedom and victory. The target audience is not limited to the nation, it goes beyond of beyond, where Nehru addresses the world and wants to let everyone know that our nation is independent and we will create a nation of dream, far from all impurity and negativity.
Akio Toyoda is a president of Toyota, who is ideal to set the credibility of message and ideal person of the organization. On the contrary of speech discourse of Nehru, Toyoda’s target audience is very limited which is with in the one organization. Toyoda’s discourse deals with the announcement of financial profit and new venture, gratitude, and appreciation.
Jawaharlal Nehru had very busy day on 14th August 1947, which was full of rituals and meetings but according to source he had planned some time off to write the speech which was to be delivered at the stroke of midnight, when he sat on the dining table for the dinner at 10pm, he got call from the Lahore which lasted for almost half an hour. The call was about riots in Lahore between Hindu and Muslims, this news had stunned him and made him feel worried and anxious. Now he neither had time nor energy to prepare his speech thus he had written the speech very spontaneously just before the arranged time. However his speech turned as an impeccable piece of work, moreover in terms of critical discourse analysis Nehru’s discourse thoroughly fulfills the all aspects of CDA tools and known as one of Greatest speeches of the world.
Toyoda’s speech has almost all the required ingredients which should be included in a chairperson’s statement and it’s a very good example of corporate discourse yet it doesn’t satisfy the all criteria of critical discourse analysis and give a chance to analyst to put remark.

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