Free Essay

Cultural Diplomacy Through Music

In: English and Literature

Submitted By rs87374n
Words 1784
Pages 8
Cultural Diplomacy through Music ‘‘Who writes the Nation’s songs shapes the Nation’s souls,’’ said Abraham Lincoln. This quote is relevant to today’s crisis: the influence of music on our youth. Music has been known to influence those who listen since the end of the Industrial Revolution, when people had more leisure time and the demand for entertainment and amusement began to increase. This is significant because media has a powerful influence on society and affects how we dress, act, and think. In The Republic by Plato, Socrates argues against Thrasymachus’ idea that "Obedience to the interest of the stronger" will lead to a successful tyranny. Socrates believes that "justice is the excellence of the soul,” and that benevolence is the key to a successful state. Yet humans embody not only Apollo, the god of the sun, of dreams, and of reason but also, Dionysus, the god of wine, ecstasy and intoxication, both sons of Zeus. In Plutarch’s Moralia, it is suggested that the state allows society to live for their pleasure so that the state gains the power to control them. We are fighting a constant battle between the rational principle of the soul and the irrational or appetite. The state is determined to keep feeding the Dionysus in each of us in order to continue to control us. The music industry is a tool that is used to influence the youth to indulge in their desires through songs about violence, sex, misogyny and drug use.
In the Socratic dialogue in The Republic, Adeimantus, son of Ariston of Athens, proposes the idea that “any musical innovation is full of danger to the whole State, and ought to be prohibited. Plato informs us that “when modes of music change, of the state always changes with them.” Adeimantus is known for his concern for the education system and the affect it has on our youth. “Education in music for the soul and gymnastics for the body,” Socrates says, indirectly that it is the way to mold the mind of the people. Education is essentially driven through music. In the story about Homer, the poetic educator of Greece, uses his parlance to shape the culture during his time. Plato believes “There is an old quarrel between philosophy and poetry.” Plato realizes the influence poetry has on the members of The Republic and that often times it can be harmful. It makes certain behaviors acceptable and makes it difficult for people to think for themselves. However, Socrates’s mission is to teach members of The Republic that they must investigate the mimetic poetry and discover for themselves if what they are listening to is correct. Socrates acknowledges that if the gods commit unjustified acts, that the youth will think it is acceptable and participate in these dishonorable acts, which we see being done in current day society.
In Plutarch’s Moralia, we are introduced to the philosophical dichotomy between Apollo and Dionysus. These duos of opposing forces are much like twins. The Apollonian force is defined by its reliance on reason, order, control, individuality, and sober thought, and seeks to bring philosophic order to the universe. The Dionysian philosophy is that which embraces mysticism, emotion, and chaos. We see these gods working together in current day societ. If then anyone ask, “What has this do with Apollo?” we shall say that it concerns not only him but also Dionysus whose share in Delphi is no less than that of Apollo. Now we hear the theologians affirming and reciting, sometimes in verse and sometimes in prose, that the god is deathless and eternal in his nature, but, owing forsooth to some predestined design and reason, he undergoes transformations of his person, and at one time enkindles his nature into fire, call him Apollo because of his solitary state, and Phoebus because of his purity and stainlessness. And as for him turning into winds and water, earth and stars, and into the generations of plants and animals, and his adoption of such guises, they speak in a deceptive way of what he undergoes in his transformation as a tearing apart, as it were, and dismemberment. They give him the names of Dionysus, Zagreus, Nyctelius, and Isodaetes; they construct destructions and disappearances, followed by returns to life and regenerations- riddles and fabulous tales quite in keeping with the aforesaid transformations. To this god they also sing the dithyrambic strains laden with emotion and transformation that includes a certain wandering and dispersion. (388-389) The people this generation idolizes and emulates the most are current pop stars in the music industry. This industry has a huge influence on the current generation and as Socrates believes, “educating them in music and gymnastics” determines the man or woman they will become. While Socrates believes in teaching justice through education and gymnastics, our society in its corrupt manner is using music to indoctrinate our youth and promote unjust behavior. Many of the artists in the music industry who promote this behavior are icons such as Kanye West, who goes by the name Yeezus, as well as Jay Z, who goes by the name Hova. Both artists are referred to as idols and their names sound much like the divine, Jesus and Jehovah. This correlation is significant because as Socrates states in The Republic, the actions of the gods are found to be acceptable by the city. What our generation fails to realize is that when they call someone their “idol” they are referring to someone they worship. The young people listening to these idols are essentially worshipping powerful figures who subconsciously influence their motives and actions. The study, “Exposure to Violent Media: The effects of songs with violent lyrics on aggressive thoughts and feelings” demonstrated the effects of violent songs:

College students who heard a violent song felt more hostile than those who heard a similar but nonviolent song. Experiments demonstrated a similar increase in aggressive thoughts. These effects replicated across songs and song types (e.g., rock, humorous, nonhumorous). Experiments also demonstrated that trait hostility was positively related to state hostility but did not moderate the song lyric effects.

This peer-reviewed article, written by Craig A. Anderson and Nicholas Carnagey, supports the theory that violent songs influence behavior and thought. Some examples of violent lyrics would be a line in Kanye West’s song, “Monster:” as if the song title wasn’t enough, Jay Z raps, “I kill a block I murder avenues, rape and pillage a village, women and children, everybody wanna know what my achilles heel.” This line alone contains murder, rape, and violence. Not only do these lyrics explicitly mention rape and violent behavior, but also the beat of the rap is aggressive in itself. To mention another popular song, “Love the Way you Lie” by Eminem displays misogyny and violent behavior. “If she ever tries to f****** leave again, Im'a tie her to the bed and set this house on fire.” This song, rapped in aggressive haste, won many awards and received five Grammy nominations. It is Eminem's best-selling single and ranked number one on twenty-six record charts, including the United States' Billboard Hot 100 for seven weeks. It is frightening to know how many people listen to these lyrics and completely disregard their true meaning as if the catchy rhythm leaves them perplexed.
This manipulation of the youth leaves the state with authority and control. As our youth are being distracted through the music industry, our state is making significant decisions that will affect their futures. Socrates tells Adeimantus “In the human soul there is a better and also a worse principle; and when the better has the worse over control, then a man is said to be a master of himself; but when owing to evil education or association, the better principle is overwhelmed by the greater mass of the worse.” It is safe to say that the state is doing a good job of keeping the better principle overwhelmed with the power of influence in the music industry. Socrates states “Unless they give up eating and drinking and wenching and idling, neither drug nor cautery nor spell nor amulet nor any other remedy will avail.” What Socrates is teaching is that if we continue to behave recklessly and give in to our desires, we are going to give the authorities the power to manipulate and control us. This is happening in current day society and the regime treats our society like puppets on a string. Take 9/11 for example, “Its primary conclusion was that the failures of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency and Federal Bureau of Investigation permitted the terrorist attacks to occur and that had these agencies acted more wisely and more aggressively, the attacks could potentially have been prevented. After the publication of its final report, the commission closed on August 21, 2004.” With only 14 million spent on investigations, families still have questions about the murder of their loved ones. Our president at the time, George W. Bush and vice president Dick Cheney did not testify under oath. Most people are unaware of thermite material found in samples collected on the day of 9/11. These are just some of the facts that go unnoticed by the majority of people in the U.S. Instead of being concerned with pop culture and gossip, our society should be doing research on relevant events like 9/11 and protest for a more thorough investigation. We must stop believing everything the people on television say. Essentially, Socrates is stating that those who agree and follow what they are being taught with the education system will be a “good statesman.” Socrates refers to these people as “noble puppies” that are trained to personify and love their country because it is good and its ideals are noble. But in the case of our generation, its ideals are far opposite from noble, which is why the education system is so corrupt. If we allow the desires within us to control our actions and allow the state to manipulate us, we can see our society becoming imperial. Socrates corroborates the idea that education is a key factor to social order. With the music industry having such an impact on our generation, it is no surprise our state chooses to influence us through music.

Work Cited Plutarch, and Frank Cole Babbitt. Plutarch's Moralia. London: W. Heinemann, 1927. Print. Anderson, Craig A., Nicholas L. Carnagey, and Janie Eubanks. "Exposure to Violent Media: The Effects of Songs with Violent Lyrics on Aggressive Thoughts and Feelings." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84.5 (2003): 960-71. Print. Plato, and Benjamin Jowett. The Republic. New York: Modern Library, 360 B.C.E. Print.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Discerning International Relations and the Arts

...“The work of each of these artists represents a particular depth of understanding and sensitivity about the history of our nation.” Dakar: Places in Our Live [1] “Thanks to art, instead of seeing one world, our own, we see it multiplied and, as many original, artists as there are, so many worlds are at our disposal.” Andre Marlaux[2] Introduction Art is a tenuous relationship as history would attest but it is one that could not be belittled or undermined. It produced various schools of thought among the ancient Greeks and continues to provide profound forum of debate among contemporary scholars. As President Ferdinand Marcos have stated, “For the artist has always been a dynamic factor in social and cultural development and art is always an essential vehicle of truth and of relationship”.[3] In the realm of human experience, the artist has to confront the truth in its various critical situations consequently depending on, his interpretation of urgent realities; he becomes either the advocate of change or an adversary of it. But he can never be uncommitted nor be irresponsible. In the present time where plans and options for governments shift in the global expediency, the artist must always guard against obstacles to national growth and progress. "Art and Globalization makes an important contribution to the diverse critical practices and aesthetic performances that define the global era.[4]” These remarks were written for the book entitled Arts......

Words: 4552 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

Cultural Diplomay

...Center Herzliya Lauder School of Government, Diplomacy and Strategy Argov Fellows Program in Leadership and Diplomacy Cultural Diplomacy: An Important but Neglected Tool in Promoting Israel’s Public Image Ronit Appel, Assaf Irony, Steven Schmerz, Ayela Ziv May 2008 Table of Contents 1. Introduction and Research Methodology Introduction……………………………………………………………………..3 Research Questions………………………………………………………..……4 Methodology………………………………………………………………..…..5 2. A Definition of Cultural Diplomacy and its Benefits Cultural Diplomacy: A Definition……………………………………….…….7 Benefits of Cultural Diplomacy – In General and Specifically for Israel……………………………………..8 Can the Benefits of Cultural Diplomacy be Measured?.................................................................................17 Examples of the Positive Effects of Cultural Diplomacy Programs…………………………………………18 French-German Relations: A Case Study of Successful Cultural Diplomacy………………………………21 3. Appreciation for Cultural Diplomacy in the United States and Europe The United States of America…………………………………………..……..25 Europe……………………………………………………………………..…..28 4. Cultural Development in Israel Israeli Culture……………………………………………………………….…31 Organizations in Israel Promoting Culture……………………………....……34 Governmental Support of the Promotion of Culture………………………….35 5. The Israeli Government’s Attitude Toward Cultural Diplomacy Does the Israeli Government Value......

Words: 20159 - Pages: 81

Free Essay

Turkey’s Position at European Union and Turkish Impression in Germany

...powerful than hard power. Cultural diplomacy is one of the strongest soft power items of last century. With right strategy of cultural diplomacy, a new image of a country can be created at other countries. This can affect so many statistics of a country in a positive way, such as tourism and trade. There are still many countries which are not aware of the strength of soft power and cultural diplomacy. In the other hand there are countries which are aware of this strength and it is easy to see how they are successful to create an impressive image. United Kingdom, Germany and United States can be three examples to see success and power of cultural diplomacy. Turkey has been trying to attempt to European Union since so many years. All of attempts were not successful. What can be the reason for that? , Culture? , Impression of Turkey? , Politics? , Population? , Economics? , Religion? Or another question can be asked is, what is Turkey’s image at European Countries? What is Culture? The origin of the word “culture” in Latin “cultura” is a modern concept based on a term first used in classical antiquity by the Roman orator, Cicero: “cultura animi.” The term “culture” appeared first in its current sense in Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries, to connote a process of cultivation or improvement, as in agriculture or horticulture. In the 19th century, the term developed to refer first to the betterment or refinement of the individual, especially through education, and then......

Words: 2574 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Why English Is Important

...memorise proper grammar, and try to avoid the mistakes common to most students of English, you may wonder why you are learning the language in the first place. So, why is English important? After Mandarin, English is spoken by more people than any other language, and is the native language of more than 350 million people. More people speak English than those who speak the Arabic and French languages combined. Moreover, English is the international language of diplomacy, business, science, technology, banking, computing, medicine, aviation, UN & NATO armed forces, engineering, tourism, Hollywood films and arguably the best pop and rock music in the world. English has plenty of words to choose from. In fact, an English speaker is offered the biggest vocabulary of any language with a choice of 500,000 to 1,000,000 words (including technical and scientific terms). But don’t panic, most English speakers do very well with a vocabulary of around 20,000 words. English can be fun too. For instance, the music of such stars as Elvis Presley, The Beatles, Led Zeppelin, Michael Jackson and Madonna has encouraged fans to speak the language of their idols, whilst others have enrolled in English classes to improve their understanding of the dialogue in films and TV shows. Or perhaps they have embraced English to enjoy the writing of Stephen King, George Orwell or J.K. Rowling. They may even have an interest in speaking English just to converse with travellers from other......

Words: 2319 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Emerging Market

...Introduction In the world, emerging market is growing and huge what refer to a country that has more potential characteristics of a developed market and the national income per capita is relatively lower than developed markets. Brazil, Russia, India, China(BRIC) are the largest emerging market countries and the other emerging countries are including South Korea, Turkey, Chile, Thailand, Poland, etc. These emerging market countries are generally numerous population and they have a large domestic market that means the demand for goods and services are very big. Emerging markets has a free market system which is democratic system and the features is they open the door to welcome more foreign investment as well as the good promotion to improve the trade relationship between countries. Also, emerging markets drive growth in the global economy so they are very important. Although emerging market accounted for a certain size and influence in the global economy, emerging market still have challenges and risks. In this assignment, I selected Brazil to discuss the characteristics, challenges, the environment of economy and the impact of market factors. Global overview Brazil is the most influential country in South America which is rising economic power and it is one of the world’s biggest democracies. Brazil has natural resources especially iron ore that is highly prized by major manufacturing nations such as China. Brazil is the largest country in both South America and...

Words: 1581 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Cross Cultural Management

...Cross-Cultural Communication Theory and Practice Barry Tomalin; Brian J. Hurn ISBN: 9780230391147 DOI: 10.1057/9780230391147 Palgrave Macmillan Please respect intellectual property rights This material is copyright and its use is restricted by our standard site license terms and conditions (see palgraveconnect.com/pc/connect/info/terms_conditions.html). If you plan to copy, distribute or share in any format, including, for the avoidance of doubt, posting on websites, you need the express prior permission of Palgrave Macmillan. To request permission please contact rights@palgrave.com. Cross-Cultural Communication 10.1057/9780230391147 - Cross-Cultural Communication, Brian J. Hurn and Barry Tomalin Copyright material from www.palgraveconnect.com - licensed to Griffith University - PalgraveConnect - 2014-04-12 This page intentionally left blank 10.1057/9780230391147 - Cross-Cultural Communication, Brian J. Hurn and Barry Tomalin Copyright material from www.palgraveconnect.com - licensed to Griffith University - PalgraveConnect - 2014-04-12 Cross-Cultural Communication Theory and Practice Brian J. Hurn and Barry Tomalin Copyright material from www.palgraveconnect.com - licensed to Griffith University - PalgraveConnect - 2014-04-12 10.1057/9780230391147 - Cross-Cultural Communication, Brian J. Hurn and Barry Tomalin © Brian J. Hurn and Barry Tomalin 2013 Foreword © Jack Spence 2013 All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of......

Words: 129836 - Pages: 520

Free Essay

Language Extinction

...communications. Many places that were once exotic realms barely set upon, became multi million dollar wellness centres for exhausted western tourists, complete with western television, McDonalds outlets and internet cafes. Professor Austin’s quote rightly alludes to the fact that the developments of modern technology over the past century have been a major factor in permanently concentrating the world closer together, a place where cultures bleed into one another. And it is having a dramatic effect on the number of languages. If means are not devised to stop it, half of the worlds 7000 odd languages that are spoken today will disappear within the next couple of generations. (SBS, 2013). This will also correspond to the loss of half of the world’s cultural wealth and ancestral knowledge. I will discuss the reasons why language diversity is important, and the challenges that are presented to it by contemporary society. Language is the most important tool we as humans have at our disposal. It is the means by which we learn, and the means by which we teach. It provides us with the only vehicle to express our feelings, articulate our ideas and collaborate. Human language itself is remarkably unique in the context of the natural world. We are the only creature that both speaks and writes and the only creature with the power of recursive thought, which in layman’s terms allows the ability for us to recall past episodes and imagine ourselves in future ones, as well...

Words: 1288 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Successful Story

...after that year with all the typical stories of hitchhiking to other areas of the country and traveling across boarders aboard boats and planes to see the world, but also with a burning question. Why had she been one of only three students with wheelchairs at the entire university? “The other two wheelchair riders were Australian students,” she says today. “I asked myself the question—where are the other people with disabilities, and why aren’t more people with disabilities able to have this type of study experience?” Her time in Australia, she says, was life-changing. “In between semesters, a friend and I got to hitchhike through New Zealand for six weeks,” she says. “We took overland buses to Malaysia and Thailand and Bali. I thought it was quite an amazing experience.” That was for more than one reason, she says. “When I was traveling around, especially through Malaysia, I got to meet various people with...

Words: 5216 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Mr.Kedar

...Ministry of External Relations is responsible for managing the foreign relations of Brazil. Brazil is a significant political and economic power in Latin America and a key player on the world stage.[1] Brazil's foreign policy reflects its role as a regional power and a potential world power and is designed to help protect the country's national interests, national security, ideological goals, and economic prosperity. Between World War II and 1990, both democratic and military governments sought to expand Brazil's influence in the world by pursuing a state-led industrial policy and an independent foreign policy. Brazilian foreign policy has recently aimed to strengthen ties with other South American countries, engage in multilateral diplomacy through the United Nations and the Organization of American States, and act at times as a countervailing force to U.S. political and economic influence in Latin America. Contents * 1 Overview * 2 Foreign policy * 2.1 Lula da Silva administration * 2.2 Rousseff administration * 3 Regional policy * 4 Diplomatic relations * 5 United Nations politics * 6 Outstanding international issues * 7 Foreign aid * 8 Participation in international organizations * 9 Bilateral relations * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links Overview Brazil's international relations are based on article 4 of the Federal Constitution, which establishes non-intervention, self-determination,......

Words: 11631 - Pages: 47

Free Essay

The Life of Xuanzang

...Xuanzang was a Chinese Buddhist monk who performed a historic pilgrimage to India in search of “sutras”, “dharma” and the “sacred traces of the Buddha”. He undertook this journey at a most tumultuous time; when the Tang dynasty was at war with the Turks. Due to the restrictions on border crossing, his expedition to India in 629 A.D was very difficult. Xuanzang, however, did not experience a break in his resolve and successfully completed his journey. Several decades after Xuanzang returned from India, his disciples Huili and Yanzong wrote his biography. Based on oral accounts from their “Dharma Master” and their own observations of his life and vocation in China, they constructed his experiences on paper. Since the primary source of the historical account is not Xuanzang but the deliberations of his disciples based on their own observations and memory of oral accounts, it is not readily reliable. The third person account of the feelings of Xuanzang thus cannot said to be original. Nevertheless, the conclusions which Huili and Yanzong have arrived at with regard to Xuanzang’s views cannot be completely overlooked. They may not be the ‘truth’ but they ring of the ‘truth’ or the truth which they have derived from the various sources they have used. Thus, the analysis of the documents will be done in light of derivative truth. The documents under consideration here narrate the encounter of the “Dharma Master” with the King of Gaochang and Yabgu Khan; a powerful Turk who held......

Words: 1783 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Imd122

...TRADE JURNAL Leisure Arts in Bookstore Push Milliot, Jim. Publishers Weekly255.41 (Oct 13, 2008): n/a. 1. ------------------------------------------------- Full text 2. ------------------------------------------------- Abstract/Details Turn on hit highlighting for speaking browsers by selecting the Enter button Hide highlighting Abstract TranslateAbstract Craft book publisher Leisure Arts has signed on with Midpoint Trade Books as part of its effort to expand its presence among booksellers. Throughout its history, Leisure Arts has focused its sales operation on crafts stores. Details Subject Book industry; Bookstores; Distributors; Agreements; Distribution channels Company / organization Name: Leisure Arts NAICS: 511120; Name: Midpoint Trade Books Inc NAICS: 422920, 511130 Title Leisure Arts in Bookstore Push Author Milliot, Jim Publication title Publishers Weekly Volume 255 Issue 41 Pages n/a Number of pages 1 Publication year 2008 Publication date Oct 13, 2008 Year 2008 Section Foreword; New Channel Publisher PWxyz, LLC Place of publication New York Country of publication United States Publication subject Publishing And Book Trade, Library And Information Sciences ISSN 00000019 CODEN PWEEAD Source type Trade Journals Language of publication English Document type News ProQuest document ID 197101688 Document......

Words: 28118 - Pages: 113

Premium Essay

How Stable Were the Stresemann Years

...How stable were the ‘Stresemann Years’ of the Weimar Republic, 1924-29? Timeline: 1924: May: Nationalist vote increases in Reichstag elections August: Reichstag accepts the Dawes Plan 1925: February: Death of President Ebert April: Hindenburg elected President October: Locarno Treaties signed 1926: September: Germany admitted the League of Nations 1927: August: Commercial Treaty signed – between France and Germany 1928: May: Number of socialist votes in Reichstag election increase 1929: September: Allies begin military evacuation of the Rhineland October: Stresemann dies December: Referendum upholds decision to adopt Young Plan. Relative Political Stability * This period of the Weimar = absence of attempts to threaten republic * However – no political stability = parliamentary system failed to develop * Main reason for no development: Coalition government = not enough support to tackle issues that faced democracy (blame with political parties) * Some parties still acted as interest groups representing own sectional group rather than national parties government (due to their inexperience in forming govt) * Due to PR – parties need to be cooperative [eg. DVP’s association with business interest made them refuse coalition with SPD in 1926] – therefore frequent political paralysis * Inability to cooperate = inability to tackle social/economic problems * Therefore not really politically stable Chancellor’s of the......

Words: 3252 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Tesco

...翻译资格考试常考高频词汇 One Country, Two Systems 一国两制 One China, One Taiwan 一中一台 Two Chinas 两个中国 Three Direct Links (Mail, Air and Shipping Services and Trade) (两岸)直接三通 23 Million Taiwan Compatriots 两千三百万台湾同胞 Two Conferences (NPC and CPPCC) 两会(人大,政协) Three Represents 三个代表 the Important Thought of Three Represents 三个代表重要思想 Woman Pace-Setter 三八红旗手 the Three Major Historical Tasks三大历史任务 the Seven-Year Program to Help 80 Million People Out of Poverty "八七"扶贫攻坚计划 the Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2006-2010) "十一五"计划 the 15th central committee of the communist party of China (CPC) 第十五届中央委员会 17th Party Congress 十七大 the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee 十一届三中全会 South-South Cooperation 南南合作 North-South Dialog 南北对话 Taiwan Independence 台独 "Bring In" and "Going Out" "引进来"和"走出去"政策 patriotic democratic personages爱国民主人士 patriotic united front 爱国统一战线 patriotism 爱国主义精神 live and work in peace and contentment 安居乐业 an enterprising spirit 昂扬向上的精神状态 our compatriots in the Macao SAR (Special Administrative Region) 澳门特别行政区同胞 hegemonism 霸权主义 a hundred flowers blossom 百花齐放 a hundred schools of thought contend 百家争鸣 the stability in border areas 边疆稳定 remote areas 边远地区 a magnificent upsurge 波澜壮阔 extensive and profound 博大精深 never degenerating 不变质 constantly better people's lives 不断提高人民生活水平 unfair and irrational 不公正不合理 shackles of the outdated notions 不合时宜的观念的束缚 an inexhaustible motive force 不竭动力 invincible 不可战胜 an irresistible trend of history 不可阻挡的历史潮流 not lose...

Words: 5180 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Intercultural Communication

...FACULTY OF MUSIC, SOCIAL SCIENCES, AND DESIGN January-April 2011 Subject name: Mass Communication Research Subject code: SM 312 Lecturers: Kenneth Teo Student ID: 1000922384 Topic : Benefits of learning intercultural communication to university student. Chapter 1 Introduction Background of the Study Anthropologist Edward T. Hall is the founder of intercultural communication during the 1951-1955 when he was at the Foreign Service Institute of the U.S. Department of States. The scholarly field of intercultural communication was then mainly advanced by university-based scholars of communication in the United States and Japan, and in other countries. The development of intercultural communication in the U.S. and Japan is analyzed here. Intercultural communication is one of the most important communications and also a structure of global communication as the world today is characterized by an ever growing number of contacts resulting in communication between people with different linguistic and cultural backgrounds. This communication takes place because of contacts within the areas of business, military cooperation, science, education, mass media, entertainment, tourism but also because of immigration brought about by labour scarcity or political conflicts. Hence, there is communication which needs to be as constructive as possible, without......

Words: 2995 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Sociology

...democracy. Globalization has been the more contentious, because it has effects both good and bad, and democracy has opened space for people to protest the bad effects. So, controversies rage over the environmental, economic and social consequences of globalization. But there is another domain of globalization, that of culture and identity, which is just as controversial and even more divisive because it engages ordinary people, not just economists, government officials and political activists. Globalization has increased contacts between people and their values, ideas and ways of life in unprecedented ways. People are travelling more frequently and more widely. Television now reaches families in the deepest rural areas of China. From Brazilian music in Tokyo to African films in Bangkok, to Shakespeare in Croatia, to books on the history of the Arab world in Moscow, to the CNN world news in Amman, people revel in the diversity of the age of globalization. American coffeehouse chain Starbucks has begun selling its espresso and food items to ever-increasing number of countries and this way spreading American food habits. It is the first time in human history that virtually every individual at every level of society consciously or unconsciously feels the impact of globalization. He finds it in the media, tastes it in his food and senses it in the goods that he buys. At the same time, it generates resentment and fear that his traditional culture and identity are in danger. Before......

Words: 8660 - Pages: 35