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Cultural Shift in America

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Discuss the cultural shift in America during the Jacksonian era, including the rise of the middle class/"common man." What was Andrew Jackson's philosophy of government and how did this impact the office of the presidency. How would you describe the meaning of "Jacksonian Democracy," and Andrew Jackson's relationship to it? In addition to the class readings, please watch the posted video clip (The Presidents) on the course homepage and discuss it in your response.
Question 2
Andrew Jackson left a permanent imprint upon American politics and the presidency. Within eight years, he melded the unstructured coalition of personal followers who had elected him into the country's most durable and successful political party, an electoral machine whose organization and discipline would serve as a model for all others. At the same time, his controversial conduct in office galvanized opponents to organize the Whig party. The Democratic Party was Jackson's child; the national two-party system was his legacy.
Jackson's drive for party organization was spurred by his own difficulties with Congress. Unlike other famously strong Presidents, Jackson defined himself not by enacting a legislative program but by thwarting one. In eight years, Congress passed only one major law, the Indian Removal Act of 1830, at his behest. During this time Jackson vetoed twelve bills, more than his six predecessors combined. One of these was the first "pocket veto" in American history.
Jackson strengthened himself against Congress by forging direct links with the voters. His official messages, though delivered to Congress, spoke in plain and powerful language to the people at large. Reversing a tradition of executive deference to legislative supremacy, Jackson boldly cast himself as the people's tribune, their sole defender against special interests and their followers in Congress. In other ways, too, Jackson expanded the scope of presidential authority. Holding his official subordinates at arm's length, Jackson devised and implemented his policies through a private group of advisers and publicists, His bold initiatives and domineering style caused Jackson to take the name of Whigs to signify their opposition to executive tyranny.
Like Jefferson, Jackson, believed republican government should be simple, frugal, and accessible. He cherished the extinction of the national debt during his administration as a personal triumph. Believing that social cleavages and inequities were looked after rather than enriched by governmental intervention, he embraced the policy most conducive to economic equality and political liberty.
Jackson was both a fiery patriot and a strident partisan. Regarding the national union as indivisible and perpetual, he denounced nullification and secession while reproving policies like the tariff which raised sectional disagreement. His aggressive Indian removal policy and his promotion of cheaper western land prices reflected his nationalism's grounding in the southwestern frontier.
Jackson's powerful personality played an instrumental role in his presidency. He indulged in violent hatreds, and the extent to which his political positions reflected mere personal disposition is still debated. Jackson demonized many of those who crossed him some praise his strength and boldness; others seen him as vengeful and self-obsessed. To his admirers he stands as a shining symbol of American accomplishment, the ultimate free spirited democrat.
Question1
The Rise of Cultural Nationalism there was changes in educational needs, The Republican vision included enlightened public, they wanted a nationwide system, and free public schools to create educated people entitled to vote. By 1815 no state had a comprehensive public school system, schooling primary by private institutions open only to those who could pay. Most were upper class that was trained students to become leaders. There were few schools for the poor .The ideas of a “republican mother” to train a new generation not are ignorant. By the late 18th century women began to have limited education needs in order to make them better wives and mothers. Professional training came about in the attempt to educate “noble savages” into white culture and reformed tribes. African Americans were given very little schooling. Literacy rate was very small. Higher education, not public, private contribution plus tuition was necessary, students mostly from prosperous, propertied families
There was little professional education for medicine and science. Most doctors learned from those that were already established practitioners. And struggled when the introduction of science was introduce and had troubles combating superstition. Doctors often used dangerous and useless treatments. Medical profession used its new scientific method to try and justify the growing control of new medical care for people, and childbirths were done by doctor and not midwives.
After, Europe’s independence people wanted cultural changes in literary and artistic to rival with those of Europe.
Question3
Jacksonian democracy promoted the strength of the presidency and executive branch at the expense of Congress, while also seeking to broaden the public's participation in government. They demanded elected (not appointed) judges and rewrote many state constitutions to reflect the new values. In national terms the Jacksonians favored geographical expansion, justifying it in terms of Manifest Destiny. There was usually a consensus among both Jacksonians and Whigs that battles over slavery should be avoided. The Jacksonian Era lasted roughly from Jackson's 1828 election until the slavery issue became dominant after 1850 and the American Civil War dramatically reshaped American politics as the Third Party System emerge…...

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